Donald II of Alba (?) King of the Scots1

M, #3451, b. circa 850, d. 900

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Donald was born circa 850 in Scotland.2
  • Burial*: He was buried in 900 in Isle of Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland.1
  • Death*: He died in 900 in Dunfother, Scotland; Killed in action.1
  • Biography*: He succeeded to the title of King Donald II of Scotland in 889.

    Succeeded the joint rule of Giric and Eochaid. Succeeded by Constantine 2nd.

    Domnall mac Causantín (Modern Gaelic: Dòmhnall mac Chòiseim), anglicised as Donald II (died 900) was King of the Picts or King of Scotland (Alba) in the late 9th century. He was the son of Constantine I (Causantín mac Cináeda). Donald is given the epithet Dásachtach, "the Madman", by the Prophecy of Berchán.

    Donald became king on the death or deposition of Giric (Giric mac Dúngail), the date of which is not certainly known but usually placed in 889. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba reports:
    “Doniualdus son of Constantini held the kingdom for 11 years [889–900]. The Northmen wasted Pictland at this time. In his reign a battle occurred between Danes and Scots at Innisibsolian where the Scots had victory. He was killed at Opidum Fother [modern Dunnottar] by the Gentiles.”

    It has been suggested that the attack on Dunnottar, rather than being a small raid by a handful of pirates, may be associated with the ravaging of Scotland attributed to Harald Fairhair in the Heimskringla. The Prophecy of Berchán places Donald's death at Dunnottar, but appears to attribute it to Gaels rather than Norsemen; other sources report he died at Forres. Donald's death is dated to 900 by the Annals of Ulster and the Chronicon Scotorum, where he is called king of Alba, rather than king of the Picts. He was buried on Iona.

    The change from king of the Picts to king of Alba is seen as indicating a step towards the kingdom of the Scots, but historians, while divided as to when this change should be placed, do not generally attribute it to Donald in view of his epithet. The consensus view is that the key changes occurred in the reign of Constantine 2nd (Causantín mac Áeda), but the reign of Giric has also been proposed.

    The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba has Donald succeeded by his cousin Constantine II. Donald's son Malcolm (Máel Coluim mac Domnall) was later king as Malcolm I. The Prophecy of Berchán appears to suggest that another king reigned for a short while between Donald II and Constantine 2nd, saying "half a day will he take sovereignty". Possible confirmation of this exists in the Chronicon Scotorum, where the death of "Ead, king of the Picts" in battle against the Uí Ímair is reported in 904. This, however, is thought to be an error, referring perhaps to Ædwulf, the ruler of Bernicia, whose death is reported in 913 by the other Irish annals.1,3

Family:

  • Last Edited: 3 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102891
  2. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_II_of_Scotland
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102890

Constantine II (?) King of the Scots

M, #3452, b. before 879, d. 952

Constantine II
King of Alba

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Constantine was born before 879 in Scotland.1,2
  • Death*: He died in 952 in Scotland.2
  • Biography*: Constantine II was King of the Scots from 900 to 943.

    Constantine, son of Áed (Medieval Gaelic: Constantín mac Áeda; Modern Gaelic: Còiseam mac Aoidh, known in most modern regnal lists as Constantine II; before 879 – 952) was an early King of Scotland, known then by the Gaelic name Alba. The Kingdom of Alba, a name which first appears in Constantine's lifetime, was in northern Great Britain. The core of the kingdom was formed by the lands around the River Tay. Its southern limit was the River Forth, northwards it extended towards the Moray Firth and perhaps to Caithness, while its western limits are uncertain. Constantine's grandfather Kenneth I of Scotland (Cináed mac Ailpín, died 858) was the first of the family recorded as a king, but as king of the Picts. This change of title, from king of the Picts to king of Alba, is part of a broader transformation of Pictland and the origins of the Kingdom of Alba are traced to Constantine's lifetime.

    His reign, like those of his predecessors, was dominated by the actions of Viking rulers in the British Isles, particularly the Uí Ímair ("the grandsons of Ímar", or Ivar the Boneless). During Constantine's reign the rulers of the southern kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, later the Kingdom of England, extended their authority northwards into the disputed kingdoms of Northumbria. At first allied with the southern rulers against the Vikings, Constantine in time came into conflict with them. King Æthelstan was successful in securing Constantine's submission in 927 and 934, but the two again fought when Constantine, allied with the Strathclyde Britons and the Viking king of Dublin, invaded Æthelstan's kingdom in 937, only to be defeated at the great battle of Brunanburh. In 943 Constantine abdicated the throne and retired to the Céli Dé (Culdee) monastery of St Andrews where he died in 952. He was succeeded by his predecessor's son Malcolm I (Máel Coluim mac Domnaill).

    Constantine's reign of 43 years, exceeded in Scotland only by that of King William the Lion before the Union of the Crowns in 1603, is believed to have played a defining part in the gaelicisation of Pictland, in which his patronage of the Irish Céli Dé monastic reformers was a significant factor. During his reign the words "Scots" and "Scotland" (Old English: Scottas, Scotland) are first used to mean part of what is now Scotland. The earliest evidence for the ecclesiastical and administrative institutions which would last until the Davidian Revolution also appears at this time.1,2

Family:

  • Last Edited: 2 Nov 2014

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_II_of_Scotland
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indulf

Malcolm I of Alba (?) King of the Scots1

M, #3453, b. circa 900, d. circa 954

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Malcolm was born circa 900 in Scotland.2
  • Burial*: He was buried circa 954 in Isle of Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland.1
  • Death*: He died circa 954 in Scotland.1
  • Biography*: Malcolm I was King of the Scots from 943 to 954.

    Succeeded Constantine II Killed in the Mearns (Grampians) by the people of Moray, whom he had forcibly subjucated on his accession in 943. Succeeded by Indulf.

    Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (anglicised Malcolm I) (c. 900–954) was king of Scots (before 943 – 954), becoming king when his cousin Causantín mac Áeda abdicated to become a monk. He was the son of Domnall mac Causantín.

    Since his father was known to have died in the year 900, Malcolm must have been born no later than 901, by the 940s he was no longer a young man, and may have become impatient in awaiting the throne. Willingly or not—the 11th-century Prophecy of Berchán, a verse history in the form of a supposed prophecy, states that it was not a voluntary decision that Constantine 2nd abdicated in 943 and entered a monastery, leaving the kingdom to Malcolm.

    Seven years later the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says:
    [Malcolm I] plundered the English as far as the river Tees, and he seized a multitude of people and many herds of cattle: and the Scots called this the raid of Albidosorum, that is, Nainndisi. But others say that Constantine made this raid, asking of the king, Malcolm, that the kingship should be given to him for a week's time, so that he could visit the English. In fact, it was Malcolm who made the raid, but Constantine incited him, as I have said.

    Woolf suggests that the association of Constantine with the raid is a late addition, one derived from a now-lost saga or poem.

    He died in the shield wall next to his men.

    In 945 Edmund of Wessex, having expelled Amlaíb Cuaran (Olaf Sihtricsson) from Northumbria, devastated Cumbria and blinded two sons of Domnall mac Eógain, king of Strathclyde. It is said that he then "let" or "commended" Strathclyde to Máel Coluim in return for an alliance. What is to be understood by "let" or "commended" is unclear, but it may well mean that Máel Coluim had been the overlord of Strathclyde and that Edmund recognised this while taking lands in southern Cumbria for himself.

    The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says that Máel Coluim took an army into Moray "and slew Cellach". Cellach is not named in the surviving genealogies of the rulers of Moray, and his identity is unknown.

    Máel Coluim appears to have kept his agreement with the late English king, which may have been renewed with the new king, Edmund having been murdered in 946 and succeeded by his brother Edred. Eric Bloodaxe took York in 948, before being driven out by Edred, and when Amlaíb Cuaran again took York in 949–950, Máel Coluim raided Northumbria as far south as the Tees taking "a multitude of people and many herds of cattle" according to the Chronicle. The Annals of Ulster for 952 report a battle between "the men of Alba and the Britons [of Strathclyde] and the English" against the foreigners, i.e. the Northmen or the Norse-Gaels. This battle is not reported by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and it is unclear whether it should be related to the expulsion of Amlaíb Cuaran from York or the return of Eric Bloodaxe.

    The Annals of Ulster report that Máel Coluim was killed in 954. Other sources place this most probably in the Mearns, either at Fetteresso following the Chronicle, or at Dunnottar following the Prophecy of Berchán. He was buried on Iona. Máel Coluim's sons Dub and Cináed were later kings.2,1,3
  • Last Edited: 29 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102890
  2. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_I_of_Scotland
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102889

Indulf (?) King of the Scots

M, #3454, b. circa 925, d. 962

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Indulf was born circa 925 in Scotland.1
  • Death*: He died in 962 in Scotland.2
  • Biography*: Indulf was King of the Scots from 954 to 962.

    Ildulb mac Causantín, anglicised as Indulf, nicknamed An Ionsaighthigh, "the Aggressor" (died 962) was king of Scots from 954. He was the son of Constantine II (Causantín mac Áeda); his mother may have been a daughter of Earl Eadulf I of Bernicia, who was an exile in Scotland.

    John of Fordun and others supposed that Indulf had been king of Strathclyde in the reign of his predecessor, based on their understanding that the kingdom of Strathclyde had become a part of the kingdom of Alba in the 940s. This, however, is no longer accepted.

    The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says: "In his time oppidum Eden", usually identified as Edinburgh, "was evacuated, and abandoned to the Scots until the present day." This has been read as indicating that Lothian or some large part of it, fell to Indulf at this time. However, the conquest of Lothian is likely to have been a process rather than a single event, and the frontier between the lands of the kings of Alba and Bernicia may have lain south and east of Edinburgh many years before Indulf's reign.

    Indulf's death is reported by the Chronicon Scotorum in 962, the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba adding that he was killed fighting Vikings near Cullen, at the Battle of Bauds. The Prophecy of Berchán, however, claims that he died "in the house of the same holy apostle, where his father [died]", that is at the céli dé monastery of St Andrews. He was buried on Iona.

    Indulf was succeeded by Dub (Dub mac Maíl Coluim), son of his predecessor. His sons Cuilén and Amlaíb were later kings. Eochaid, a third son, was killed with Cuilén by the men of Strathclyde in 971.1,2

Family:

  • Last Edited: 10 Jan 2016

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indulf

Dubh (?) King of the Scots1

M, #3455, b. circa 930

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name Variation: Dubh (?) King of the Scots was also known as Duff (?) King of the Scots.
  • Birth*: Dubh was born circa 930 in Scotland.2
  • Biography*: Duff was King of the Scots from 962 to 967.

    Dub mac Maíl Coluim (Modern Gaelic: Dubh mac Mhaoil Chaluim), sometimes anglicised as Duff MacMalcolm, called Dén, "the Vehement" and Niger, "the Black" (died 967) was king of Alba. He was son of Malcolm I (Máel Coluim mac Domnaill) and succeeded to the throne when Indulf (Ildulb mac Causantín) was killed in 962.

    While later chroniclers such as John of Fordun supplied a great deal of information on Dub's life and reign, including tales of witchcraft and treason, almost all of which are rejected by modern historians. There are very few sources for the reign of Dub, of which the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba and a single entry in the Annals of Ulster are the closest to contemporary.

    The Chronicle records that during Dub's reign bishop Fothach, most likely bishop of St Andrews or of Dunkeld, died. The remaining report is of a battle between Dub and Cuilén, son of king Ildulb. Dub won the battle, fought "upon the ridge of Crup", in which Duchad, abbot of Dunkeld, sometimes supposed to be an ancestor of Crínán of Dunkeld, and Dubdon, the mormaer of Atholl, died.

    The various accounts differ on what happened afterwards. The Chronicle claims that Dub was driven out of the kingdom. The Latin material interpolated in Andrew of Wyntoun's Orygynale Cronykl states that he was murdered at Forres, and links this to an eclipse of the sun which can be dated to 20 July 966. The Annals of Ulster report only: "Dub mac Maíl Coluim, king of Alba, was killed by the Scots themselves"; the usual way of reporting a death in internal strife, and place the death in 967. It has been suggested that Sueno's Stone, near Forres, may be a monument to Dub, erected by his brother Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim). It is presumed that Dub was killed or driven out by Cuilén, who became king after Dub's death, or by his supporters.

    It is related that his body was hidden under the bridge of Kinloss, and the sun did not shine till it was found and buried. An eclipse on 10 July 967 may have originated or confirmed this story.

    Dub left at least one son, Kenneth III (Cináed mac Dub). Although his descendants did not compete successfully for the kingship of Alba after Cináed was killed in 1005, they did hold the mormaerdom of Fife. The MacDuib (or MacDuff) held the mormaerdom, and later earldom, until 1371.2,1
  • Last Edited: 7 Mar 2015

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dub,_King_of_Scotland.
  2. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Colin (?) King of the Scots

M, #3456, b. circa 950, d. circa 971

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name-Gaelic: Colin (?) King of the Scots was also known in Gaelic as Cuilen Mac Iidulf King of the Scots.2
  • Birth*: Colin was born circa 950 in Scotland.1
  • Burial*: He was buried circa 971 in Iona, Scotland.2
  • Death*: He died circa 971 in Scotland.2
  • Biography*: Colin was King of the Scots from 967 to 971.

    Cuilén mac Ildulb (Modern Gaelic: Cailean), sometimes anglicised as Culen or Colin, and nicknamed An Fionn, "the White" (died 971) was king of Scotland (Alba) from 967 to 971. He was one of three known sons of King Indulf (Ildulb mac Causantín), the others being Amlaíb and Eochaid.

    It is supposed that Cuilén was implicated in the death of his predecessor Dub (Dub mac Maíl Coluim), who had defeated Cuilén in battle in 965.

    The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba reports several events in the reign of Cuilén. It says that Marcan son of Breodalach was killed in Lothian, that Cellach, Bishop of Cennrígmonaid and Máel Brigte, also a Bishop, died. Other reported deaths include Domnall mac Cairill and Máel Brigte mac Dubacain, the identities of whom are unknown, but they must evidently have been important men. Máel Brigte might be a son of the Dubacan mac Indrechtaig, Mormaer of Angus, who was killed at the Battle of Brunanburh in 937. Finally, we are told that Leot and Sluagadach went to Rome, presumably on church business.

    In 971 Cuilén, along with his brother Eochaid, was killed in a hall-burning in Lothian by Amdarch, a prince of Strathclyde. The killing was said to be revenge for Cuilén's rape of Amdarch's daughter. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba does not say that he was buried on Iona, but the report of Dub's death makes it clear that this was likely the case.
    Cuilén was succeeded by Dub's brother Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim), who was driven from the throne for a short time in the later 970s by Cuilén's brother Amlaíb.

    Cuilén's son Constantine III (Causantín mac Cuilén) was later king.1,2

Family:

  • Last Edited: 1 Apr 2015

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuil%C3%A9n

Kenneth II (?) King of the Scots

M, #3457, b. circa 925, d. 995

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Kenneth was born circa 925 in Scotland.1,3
  • Burial*: He was buried in 995 in Isle of Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland.2
  • Death*: He died in 995 in Finella's Castle, Fettercain, Scotland.2
  • Biography*: Kenneth was King of the Scots from 971 to 995.

    He gained the title of King Kenneth of Alba. He succeeded to the title of King Kenneth II of Scotland in 971.

    He was possbily killed by Finvela, a noblewoman whose son was killed by the king. She is said to have lured Kenneth into her home promising to unmask traiters. In one room, a statue was connected to several hidden crossbows which were set to fire bolts from every side when a golden apple on the statue was lifted. After a great feast, at which wine flowed freely, Finvela took her drunken guest into the fatal room and offered him the golden apple as a gesture of peace. As he lifted the apple, he was struck by a hail of bolts.

    He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.
    Kenneth II d. 995, son of Malcolm I, succeeded to the Scottish Pictish monarchy on the death of Culen [qv.] in 971. He continued the war with the Britons of Strathclyde, who had slain his predecessor, and the Pictish Chronicle records a defeat of his foot-soldiers by the Britons at a place which Skene ingeniously identifies with the Moss of the Cornag, a burn which falls into the Firth at Abercorn. He seems to have been more successful in the raids which, according to the same chronicle, he made on Northumbria, now divided between the two Earls Oslac and Eadulf Evil-child, who ruled from the Tees to the Forth. Kenneth is said to have harried as far as Stanemore, at the head of the Tees; Cliva, perhaps Cleveland in Yorkshire; and the pools of Deram (Derna?) or Deerham in Cumberland. But as it is added that he fortified the fords of the Forth, it is evident he did not feel secure from attack, either by the Britons or the Angles of Northumbria. Next year he again ravaged Northumbria, and took captive a son of its king, probably Earl Eadulf. With the statement that Kenneth gave the great city of Brechin to the Lord the Pictish Chronicle closes; and if, as is reasonably conjectured, this chronicle was composed at Brechin in Kenneth's reign, its brief statements have the value of a contemporary record. In the round tower still standing at Brechin we have perhaps the monument of this donation. Its position indicates what is corroborated by other evidence—that the extension of the Scottish monarchy during his reign was to the north of the Tay rather than to the south of the Forth, where Kenneth, though he made successful raids, was unable to keep more than his predecessors had won. He is stated in the Annals of Ulster to have slain in 977, the sixth year of his reign, the son of Indulf, king of Alban; and this may probably have secured to him the fort of Edinburgh, which Indulf had taken from the Angles of Northumbria.

    Kenneth's relations with Eadgar, the king of Wessex, have been much disputed. The relations between Kenneth's predecessor Malcolm and Eadgar's predecessor Eadmund have been represented as those of a feudal baron to his suzerain, on account of the grant of Cumberland by the English to the Scottish king. Similarly Florence of Worcester, writing in the twelfth century, gives among the dependent kings who rowed Eadgar, king of England, on the Dee at Chester in 972, in sign of homage, the names of Kenneth, king of Scotland, Malcolm, king of the Cumbrians, Maccus, king of the Isles, and five Welsh chiefs. Mr. E. W. Robertson points out that no such king of Cumbria as Malcolm is to be found at this date, and that suspicion attaches to the names of two of the Welsh princes. The names are not given in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and the account of Kenneth's presence at Chester in 972 is inconsistent with the Pictish Chronicle, which represents him at the period as making successful raids in Northumbria. Another statement of later English chroniclers, which first appears in a tract on the Arrival of the Saxons, and was afterwards expanded in the chronicle of John of Wallingford, or the monk of St. Albans, about 1214, is that Eadgar, at the request of Kenneth, who came to London for the purpose, ceded Lothian to the Scottish king on condition of receiving homage from the latter, and that he should allow its natives to retain their English speech. This is almost certainly an invention to conceal the conquest of Lothian by the victory of Carham in 1018, gained by Malcolm II [qv.], the son of Kenneth, over Eadulf Cutel, the Northumbrian earl. The probable conclusion is that Kenneth neither did homage to Eadgar on the Dee, nor received from him a grant of Lothian. According to Fordoun, the relations between the Scotch and English kings were peaceable. There is no mention of Kenneth II in the English chronicles of the reign (975-8) of Edward the Martyr, or his successor Ethelred the Unready (968?-1016).

    Kenneth's death seems to have been due to a conflict with the Mormaers or chiefs of Angus, the district now known as the shires of Forfar and Kincardine, or the Mearns, and probably including Gowry, part of the shire of Perth. A Mormaer of Angus called Cunchar or Connachar (perhaps equivalent to Connor), dying without male issue, left his succession to a daughter, Fenella, and Kenneth put to death her only son at Dunsinane, the chief fort of the Angus Mormaers. In revenge Fenella, by a stratagem which left a deep impression on traditionary history, contrived to murder Kenneth at Fettercairn in the Mearns in 995. Tighernac notes that he was slain by his own subjects; the Annals of Ulster add, by treachery. A chronicle of the Picts and Scots of 1251, and Wyntoun, writing about 1395, attribute the treachery to Fenella. Fordoun and later annalists tell in various forms the story that she constructed a figure which, on the touch of the king, shot arrows from crossbows which destroyed him; this is probably an invention, to give a vivid image of her treachery.

    The real drift of Kenneth's reign appears to have been the consolidation and defence of the central districts of Scotland, from the Forth and Clyde to the Mounth or the Grampians. Cumbria was held at the time by a separate line of princes, and it may be doubted whether Kenneth possessed permanently any territory south of the Forth.1,2

Family:

  • Last Edited: 29 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102889
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102890
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102888

Constantine III (?) King of the Scots

M, #3458, b. before 971, d. 997

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Constantine III (?) King of the Scots was born before 971 in Scotland.1,2
  • Death*: He died in 997 in Scotland.2
  • Biography*: Constantine III was King of the Scots from 995 to 997.

    Constantine, son of Cuilén (Mediaeval Gaelic: Causantín mac Cuiléin; Modern Gaelic: Còiseam mac Chailein), known in most modern regnal lists as Constantine III, (before 971–997) was king of Scots from 995 to 997. He was the son of Cuilén, King of Scotland (Cuilén mac Iduilb). John of Fordun calls him, in Latin, Constantinus Calvus, which translates to Constantine the Bald. Benjamin Hudson notes that insular authors from Ireland and Scotland typically identified rulers by sobriquets. Noting for example the similarly named Eugenius Calvus (Owen the Bald), an 11th-century King of Strathclyde.

    Background
    The Scottish monarchy of this period based its succession system on the rule of tanistry. All adult male descendants of previous monarchs were eligible for the throne. The kingship regularly switched from one line of royal descendants to another, though they were all closely related. Constantine was able to rise to the throne, despite his cousin and predecessor having a son of his own. The next two kings (Kenneth III, Malcolm II) were his cousins, and killed their respective predecessor to gain the throne. The succession rule had the benefit of ensuring that there would always be an adult king on the throne, avoiding the usual problems of minority reigns. The various kings had their lands and power bases in different areas of Scotland, preventing any single region from claiming full domination of the others. This may have helped the country avoid significant secession movements. The downside was that any single king had to face adult rivals for the throne. His kinsmen had their own ambitions and would not wait for his death from natural causes to achieve them. The succession was often decided through acts of warfare and murder, resulting in early deaths and high casualty rates in the extended royal family.

    During the 10th century, there were dynastic conflicts in Scotland between two rival lines of royalty. One descended from Causantín mac Cináeda (Constantine I, reigned 862-877), the other from his brother Áed mac Cináeda (reigned 877-878). Constantine III belonged to the second line. His royal ancestors included Áed himself, Constantine II of Scotland (reigned 900-943), Indulf (reigned 954-962), and Cuilén (reigned 967-971). Amlaíb of Scotland (reigned 973-977) was his paternal uncle. The alternation between the two royal lines seems to have been peaceful for a long time; Alfred P. Smyth regards this early phase as "a century of kingly coexistence". The armed conflict between the lines seems to have started in the 960s, when Cuilén challenged the rule of his cousin Dub, King of Scotland (962-967). The initial motivation behind the conflict is unclear. Smyth speculates that control over the Kingdom of Strathclyde might have been a major factor.

    Reign
    According to John of Fordun (14th century), Kenneth II of Scotland (reigned 971-995) attempted to change the succession rules, allowing "the nearest survivor in blood to the deceased king to succeed", thus securing the throne for his own descendants. He reportedly did so to specifically exclude Constantine (III) and Kenneth (III), called Gryme in this source. The two men then jointly conspired against him, convincing Finnguala, daughter of Cuncar, Mormaer of Angus, to kill the king. She reportedly did so to achieve personal revenge, as Kenneth II had killed her own son. Entries in the Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, collected by William Forbes Skene, provide the account of Finnguala killing Kenneth II in revenge, but not her affiliation to Constantine or his cousins. These entries date to the 12th and 13th centuries. The Annals of Ulster simply record "Cinaed son of Mael Coluim [Kenneth, son of Malcolm], king of Scotland, was deceitfully killed", with no indication of who killed him.

    In the account of John of Fordun, Constantine the Bald, son of King Cullen and Gryme were "plotting unceasingly the death of the king and his son". One day, Kenneth II and his companions went hunting into the woods, "at no great distance from his own abode". The hunt took him to Fettercairn, where Finella resided. She approached him to proclaim her loyalty and invited him to visit her residence, whispering into his ear that she had information about a conspiracy plot. She managed to lure him to "an out-of-the-way little cottage", where a booby trap was hidden. Inside the cottage was a statue, connected by strings to a number of crossbows. If anyone touched or moved the statue, he would trigger the crossbows and fall victim to their arrows. Kenneth II gently touched the statue and "was shot though by arrows sped from all sides, and fell without uttering another word." Finella escaped through the woods and managed to join her abettors, Constantine III and Gryme. The hunting companions soon discovered the bloody king. They were unable to locate Finella, but burned Fettercairn to the ground. Smyth dismisses the elaborate plotting and the mechanical contraption as mere fables, but accepts the basic details of the story, that the succession plans of Kenneth II caused his assassination. Alan Orr Anderson raised his own doubts concerning the story of Finella, which he considered "semi-mythical". He noted that the feminine name Finnguala or Findguala means "white shoulders", but suggested it derived from "find-ela" (white swan). The name figures in toponyms such as Finella Hill (near Fordoun) and Finella Den (near St Cyrus), while local tradition in The Mearns (Kincardineshire) has Finella walking atop the treetops from one location to the other. Anderson thus theorized that Finella could be a mythical figure, suggesting she was a local stream-goddess.[13] A later passage of John of Fordun mentions Finele as mother of Macbeth, King of Scotland (reigned 1040–1057), but this is probably an error based on the similarity of names. Macbeth was son of Findláech of Moray, not of a woman called Finella.

    The narrative of John of Fordun continues on to the reign of Constantine III. The day following the death of Kenneth II, Constantine the Bald, son of King Cullen usurped the throne. He had reportedly won the support of a number of nobles. The throne was also claimed by his cousin Malcolm II, son of Kenneth II, resulting in long-lasting division of the Scottish population, and conflict. Constantine III reigned for a year and a half [18 months], "continually harassed by Malcolm and his illegitimate uncle, named Kenneth, a soldier of known prowess, who was his unwearied persecutor, and strove with his whole might to kill him, above all others." The Chronicle of the Kings of Scotts (Cronica Regum Scottorum, 12th century) shortens the reign to one year and four months (16 months). This source was a king-list compiled during the reign of William the Lion (reign 1165–1214), the last king mentioned in it. It has survived as the fifth text of the Poppleton manuscript. The existence of Kenneth, illegitimate uncle to Malcolm II, is not recorded in older sources. Charles Cawley suggests treating his existence with caution. John of Fordun had apparently listed this Kenneth as an illegitimate son of Malcolm I of Scotland. Skene noted that this could be an error, and suggested that Kenneth, son of Malcolm was actually Kenneth III (Kenneth, son of Dubh). Kenneth III was a grandson of Malcolm I, rather than a son. Robert Shaw also doubted Kenneth II having a brother, illegitimate or not, who was also named Kenneth, pointing out that Malcolm I would have no reason to give the same name to two of his sons.[18] Alex Woolf accepted the identification of Kenneth, son of Malcolm with Kenneth III as a possible solution, but suggested a number of alternatives. Kenneth II himself was a Kenneth, son of Malcolm; his name could have been transferred to the killer of his successor by a faulty text. Or Kenneth, son of Malcolm could be an accidental reversal of Malcolm (II), son of Kenneth. Or the killer could be a Kenneth, son of Malcolm who was not actually a member of the royal family.

    The Annals of Tigernach report that Constantine was killed in a battle between the Scots in 997: "A battle between the Scots, in which fell Constantine son of Culannan, king of Scotland, and many others." Another entry of the same year reports the death of Máel Coluim I of Strathclyde, though it is unclear if the two deaths were connected. A Chronicle of the Scots and Picts entry adds a number of details. Constantine, son of Culen was killed by Kenneth, son of Malcolm (see above) at Rathinveramon. Constantine's body was transported for burial to Iona. An entry in the Chronicle of Melrose describes "King Constantine, Culen's son... slain by the sword" at the mouth of Almond in Tegalere. Again the killer is reported as Kenneth, son of Malcolm. John of Fordun's narrative is more verbose. According to it, Constantine and Kenneth, son of Malcolm met one day in Laudonia (Lothian), by the banks of the River Almond. They engaged in battle, resulting in great slaughter on both sides and the death of both leaders. The guards of Constantine fled to Gryme (Kenneth III), "colleague" of their leader, allowing him to win the throne. However, news of the battle and its results reached Malcolm (II) in Cumbria. He learned of the death of his "uncle and the rest of his faithful friends", and returned to gather reinforcements for his cause—though he was defeated in his initial conflict against Gryme.

    John of Fordun consistently depicts Malcolm II holding Cumbria, emerging from it to combat Constantine III and Kenneth III (or his son Giric). In 1000, Malcolm reportedly defended Cumbria against the invasion of Æthelred the Unready, King of England. A relevant entry from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle confirms that the Danish fleet which regularly raided England departed in 1000. This sudden relief from attack Æthelred used to gather his thoughts, resources, and armies: the fleet's departure in 1000 "allowed Æthelred to carry out a devastation of Strathclyde, the motive for which is part of the lost history of the north." But this indicates the limits to Constantine's (and Kenneth's) area of authority, and informs us that Cumbria/Strathclyde lay beyond them. The opponent of Æthelred is not however specified by the Chronicle. Benjamin Hudson notes that John of Fordun was at times confused when depicting events of this period. The conflict depicted could actually be one between Æthelred and Kenneth III, Scottish and Anglo-Saxon armies fighting over control of Strathclyde—Aethelred wanting to restore Anglo-Saxon control in an area once conquered by Edmund the Elder (reigned 939-946), his grandfather. Perhaps he was desperately seeking to add some revenue to his treasury. Kenneth and the Scots were naturally unwilling to lose an area under their own rule for two generations.

    Location of death
    James Young Simpson, who had written several articles on archaeology, observed that there were contradictory accounts concerning the location of Constantine's death. While most accounts place the battle near the River Almond, there were two rivers of that name in Scotland, one in Perthshire and one in Lothian. George Chalmers identified the one in Perthsire to have been the intended location. But John of Fordun, the Scotichronicon, Hector Boece, and George Buchanan all point to the one in Lothian. The Chronicle of Melrose places the battle near the River Avon. Andrew of Wyntoun places it near the river "Awyne". John Lesley places it near the River Annan, and considers it part of an ongoing invasion of Cumbria.

    There are also contradictions concerning the location of the battle in relation to the river. The Scotichronicon, Melrose, and Wyntoun placed the battle at the river source. Melrose also adding the word "Tegalere" to describe the location. Which might be the same as the "Inregale regens" of the Scotichronicon and the "Indegale" of the Liber Dumblain. Boece and Buchanan place the battle at a river mouth, where the Almond enters the Firth of Forth. That is where Cramond is located, called "Crawmond" in some editions of Boece. The "Nomina Regum Scottorum et Pictorum", discovered by Robert Sibbald at the St Andrews Cathedral Priory, place the death sites of both Domnall mac Ailpín and Constantine III at Rathveramoen (Rathinveramon). Which etymologically derives from "Rath Inver Amoen", the ráth at the mouth of the Amoen/Amon (the Almond). That is the fortress Bertha in Perth, located at the mouth of the Almond. A location where the Almond joins the River Tay, and in proximity to Scone. Rathinveramon also lay at short distance from Perth. Monzievaird, where Kenneth III was eventually killed, was about 15 miles from Perth. Forteviot, connected to Kenneth MacAlpin and his death, is also located in Perthshire.

    Alex Woolf points that the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, reports another location for the death of Domnall mac Ailpín: the palace of Cinnbelathoir. Which was probably the same as the "Bellathor", mentioned alongside "Rigmonath" as the major settlements of their time. Rigmonath has been identified with Rigmonaid, another name for St Andrews. Since Rigmonath was a church-settlement, perhaps the same was true for Bellathor. Seeking for a likely location in the vicinity of Rathinveramon, Woolf suggests that Bellathor was an older name for Scone. The location was used for the inauguration ceremonies of kings, pointing at the significance of the area. Earlier the same area, including Forteviot, had served as the population centre of the southern Picts. The lack of fortification at Forteviot could indicate that it too served as a church site. One associated with the kings. Already in 728, there is mention of a Pictish royal stronghold at the hill of Moncrieffe, where the River Tay meets the River Earn. The location lies just outside Perth, 8 km from Forteviot, close to both Abernethy and Scone. Suggesting that the area long served as a "key royal centre", though the central location switched over time. From Moncrieffe to Forteviot to Scone.

    In the 18th century, there was a theory that the Cat Stane of Kirkliston could be connected to the final battle of Constantine III. The Reverend John Muckarsie alluded to this idea, in a text eventually collected in the Statistical Account of Scotland by Sir John Sinclair, 1st Baronet. In 1780, the founding meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland took place. Its founder David Erskine, 11th Earl of Buchan mentioned the idea in his opening discourse. He noted an extant transcription of the Cat Stane's text, reading: "IN HOC TUM- JAC - CONSTAN- VIC- VICT". Where "Constan" was understood to have been Constantine IV (III). The speech was recorded in The Scots Magazine. The idea went that the Cat Stane was erected as a memorial for Constantine, at the location where the man lost his life in battle. The New Statistical Account went a bit further, suggesting that the stone marked the burial place of Constantine. Simpson strongly opposed this theory. Finding it unlikely that such a monument would be erected for Constantine the Bald, a king who fell in a civil war. A king with no family legacy. A king who was treated with contempt by primary sources. He examined other transcription of the texts, where the word "Constan" was absent. Dismissing the theory as based on a faulty reading of the original text.1,2
  • Last Edited: 1 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_III_of_Scotland

Kenneth III (?) King of the Scots

M, #3459, b. circa 950

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  • Birth*: Kenneth was born circa 950 in Scotland.1
  • Biography*: Kenneth III was King of the Scots from 997 to 1005.

    Cináed mac Duib (Modern Gaelic: Coinneach mac Dhuibh) anglicised as Kenneth III, and nicknamed An Donn, "the Chief" or "the Brown", (before 967–25 March 1005) was King of Scots from 997 to 1005. He was the son of Dub (Dub mac Maíl Coluim). Many of the Scots sources refer to him as Giric son of Kenneth son of Dub, which is taken to be an error. An alternate explanation is that Kenneth had a son, Giric, who ruled jointly with his father.

    Reign and descendants
    The primary sources concerning the life and "reign" of Giric include chronicle entries dating to the years 1251 and 1317. They can be found in The Chronicles of the Picts and Scots of William Forbes Skene. The chronicle of John of Fordun (14th century) mentions Giric as "Grim" or "Gryme", reporting him killed by Malcolm II of Scotland. Charles Cawley, a modern genealogist, cautions about the late date of these sources. Giric is not mentioned by earlier sources, which would make his existence questionable. John Bannerman theorised that mac Duib, the Gaelic patronymic of Kenneth III, evolved to the surnames Duff and MacDuff. And that Kenneth III could be a direct ancestor to Clan MacDuff, which produced all Mormaers and Earls of Fife from the 11th to the mid-14th century. Noting that Giric could be the actual founder of the house, following a pattern of several Scottish clans seemingly founded by grandsons of their eponym.

    The only event reported in Kenneth's reign is the killing of Dúngal mac Cináeda by Gille Coemgáin mac Cináeda, by the Annals of the Four Masters s.a. 999. It is not certain that this refers to events in Scotland, and whether one or both were sons of this Kenneth, or of Kenneth II of Scotland, or some other person or persons, is not known. A "Gilla Caemgein son of Cinaed" also appears in the Annals of Ulster. An entry from the year 1035 reports that his unnamed granddaughter and her husband Cathal, son of Amalgaid, were both killed by Cellach, son of Dúnchad. This Cathal was reportedly king to the Western Laigin, possibly connected to the Kings of Leinster. The context is unclear but it is likely that this is the same Gille Coemgáin, connected to Kenneth III.

    Kenneth III was killed in battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn by Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) in 1005. Whether Boite mac Cináeda was a son of this Kenneth, or of Kenneth II, is uncertain, although most propose this Kenneth. A son, or grandson of Boite, was reported to be killed by Malcolm II in 1032 in the Annals of Ulster. The relevant entry has been translated as: "The grandson of Baete son of Cinaed was killed by Mael Coluim son of Cinaed."

    Kenneth's granddaughter, Gruoch daughter of Boite (Gruoch ingen Boite meic Cináeda) — William Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth — was wife firstly of Gille Coemgáin, Mormaer of Moray, and secondly of King Macbeth; her son by Gille Coemgáin, Lulach (Lulach mac Gille Coemgáin), would briefly succeed Macbeth as King of Scotland. The meic Uilleim, descendants of William fitz Duncan by his first marriage, were probably descended from Kenneth; and the Clann Mac Aoidh or Clan Mackay claim descent from Kenneth III through Lulach's daughter.

    The theory that Clan MacDuff were descendants of Kenneth III was based on their close connection to royalty. Andrew of Wyntoun reported that Malcolm III of Scotland (reigned 1058–1093) had granted to a "MacDuff, thane of Fife" the privilege of enthroning the kings of Scots at their inauguration. While John of Fordun has Malcolm III promise this same unnamed MacDuff that he will be the first man of the kingdom, second only to the king. This unnamed MacDuff appears frequently in stories connected to the rise of Malcolm III to the throne, and was later immortalised in the Shakespearean character Macduff. The status of the successive heads of this clan as the "senior inaugural official" seems confirmed by records of the inauguration ceremonies of Alexander II (reigned 1214–1249) and Alexander III (reigned 1249–1286). While earlier heads of this house "witnessed royal documents far more more frequently" than other members of the nobility. Their names often listed first among the lay witnesses, ahead of both the native Scottish nobility and the Anglo-Norman nobles. A number of 12th-century heads of house served as Justiciars of Scotia. Their leaders were named Donnchadh (Duncan), Mael-Coluim (Malcolm), and Causantin (Constantine), names shared by the royal family. Making a close relation to the reigning royal house likely. Bannerman suggests that the MacDuffs had their own, legitimate claim to the Scottish throne. A claim which they declined to pursue, compensated with privileges by Malcolm III and his descendants.

    Interpretation
    During the 10th century, there were dynastic conflicts in Scotland between two rival lines of royalty; one descended from Causantín mac Cináeda (Constantine I, reigned 862-877), the other from his brother Áed mac Cináeda (reigned 877-878). John of Fordun claims that Kenneth II of Scotland (reigned 971-995) attempted to establish new succession rules, which would limit the right to the throne to his own descendants, excluding all other claimants. While Constantine III of Scotland (reigned 995-997) did manage to rise to the throne, he was the last known descendant of Áed. With his death, the rivalry between descendants of Causantin and Áed gave way to a rivalry between two new royal lines, both descended from Causantin.

    One line descended from Kenneth II and was represented by his son Malcolm II. The other line descended from his brother Dub, King of Scotland (reigned 962-967) and was represented by Kenneth III. Neither Constantine III, nor Kenneth III were able to extend their control to Cumbria, which likely served as a stronghold and powerbase for Malcolm II. He was the legitimate heir according to the succession rules of Kenneth II. When Malcolm II managed to kill Kenneth III, it signified the triumph of his line. He continued to rule to 1034, enjoying a long reign and managed to leave the throne to his own descendants.

    But the rivalry between the two lines survived Kenneth III. In 1033, Malcolm II killed a descendant of Kenneth III. Gruoch, another descendant of Kenneth III was the consort of Macbeth, King of Scotland (reigned 1040–1057), whose rival Duncan I (reigned 1034–1040) was the grandson and heir of Malcolm II. They were continuing the bitter feud which had started in the previous century.

    The contemporary kings of Strathclyde were also involved in the feud, though it is uncertain whether they had dynastic connections with the various Scottish rival lines. A theory that they represented another line of descendants of Donald II of Scotland (reigned 889-900) was based on the idea that Owen I of Strathclyde (d. 937) was son to this king.

    Depictions in fiction
    Kenneth is depicted as a reigning king in the novel High Kings and Vikings (1998) by Nigel Tranter. The fictional protagonist is Cormac mac Farquhar, Thane of Glamis. The novel depicts Cormac and Scotland enduring the conflicts between its short-lived High Kings, while also facing simultaneous Viking raids.

    Kenneth was a mentioned but unseen character in the animated television series Gargoyles. His son Bodhe (Boite) depicted in four episodes, involved in struggles for the Scottish throne. Kenneth was later depicted in three issues of the Gargoyles comic book series. Set in 997, the issues depict Malcolm and his allies, Malcolm III and Findláech of Moray, successfully deposing and killing Constantine III of Scotland. Kenneth the Grim was depicted as a warm-hearted man, in contrast to the ruthless Malcolm.

    The historical novel Macbeth: An Historical Novel of the Last Celtic King (2011) by Robert Harrison, opens with the victory of Malcolm II of Scotland over his predecessor Kenneth III . "Malcolm stood above the wounded King, sword upraised. No words were spoken, for they both knew the penalty of defeat. The blade whistled in its swiftness, and the bloody head of Kenneth rolled in the mud."1,2
  • Last Edited: 29 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_III_of_Scotland

Malcolm II of Alba (?) King of the Scots1

M, #3460, b. circa 954, d. 25 November 1034

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Malcolm was born circa 954 in Scotland.2,4
  • Death*: He died on 25 November 1034 in Glamis Castle, Glamis, Argyllshire, Scotland; Killed by his kinsmen.3
  • Burial*: He was buried after 25 November 1034 in Isle of Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland.3
  • Biography*: Malcolm II was King of the Scots from 1005 to 1034.

    He succeeded to the title of King Malcolm of Strathclyde between 990 and 991. He was deposed as King of Strathclyde in 995. He gained the title of King Malcolm of Strathclyde in 997. In 1005 reigned. He succeeded to the title of King Malcolm II of Scotland on 25 March 1005. He gained the title of King Malcolm of Lothian circa 1016. He gained the title of King Malcolm of Alba. He gained the title of Prince Malcolm of Cumbria.

    Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich,[1] known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II; died 25 November 1034), was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.

    He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer".

    To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Máel Coluim was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Máel Coluim was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the Kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the southeast.

    Early years
    Malcolm II was born to Kenneth II of Scotland. He was grandson of Malcolm I of Scotland. In 997, the killer of Causantín mac Cuilén is credited as being Cináed mac Maíl Coluim. Since there is no known and relevant Cináed mac Maíl Coluim alive at that time (the king Cináed mac Maíl Coluim having died in 995), it is considered an error for either Cináed mac Duib, who succeeded Causantín, or, possibly, Máel Coluim himself, the son of Cináed II. Whether Máel Coluim killed Causantín or not, there is no doubt that in 1005 he killed Causantín's successor Cináed III in battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn.

    John of Fordun writes that Máel Coluim defeated a Norwegian army "in almost the first days after his coronation", but this is not reported elsewhere. Fordun says that the Bishopric of Mortlach (later moved to Aberdeen) was founded in thanks for this victory over the Norwegians.

    Children
    Malcolm II demonstrated a rare ability to survive among early Scottish kings by reigning for twenty-nine years. He was a clever and ambitious man. Brehon tradition provided that the successor to Malcolm was to be selected by him from among the descendants of King Aedh, with the consent of Malcolm’s ministers and of the church. Ostensibly in an attempt to end the devastating feuds in the north of Scotland, but obviously influenced by the Norman feudal model, Malcolm ignored tradition and determined to retain the succession within his own line. But since Malcolm had no son of his own, he undertook to negotiate a series of dynastic marriages of his three daughters to men who might otherwise be his rivals, while securing the loyalty of the principal chiefs, their relatives. First he married his daughter Bethoc to Crinan, Thane of The Isles, head of the house of Atholl and secular Abbot of Dunkeld; then his youngest daughter, Olith, to Sigurd, Earl of Orkney. His middle daughter, Donada, was married to Findláich, Mormaer of Moray, Thane of Ross and Cromarty and a descendant of Loarn of Dalriada. This was risky business under the rules of succession of the Gael, but he thereby secured his rear and, taking advantage of the renewal of Viking attacks on England, marched south to fight the English. He defeated the Angles at Carham in 1018 and installed his grandson, Duncan, son of the Abbot of Dunkeld and his choice as Tanist, in Carlisle as King of Cumbria that same year.

    Bernicia
    The first reliable report of Máel Coluim's reign is of an invasion of Bernicia in 1006, perhaps the customary crech ríg (literally royal prey, a raid by a new king made to demonstrate prowess in war), which involved a siege of Durham. This appears to have resulted in a heavy defeat by the Northumbrians, led by Uhtred of Bamburgh, later Earl of Bernicia, which is reported by the Annals of Ulster.

    A second war in Bernicia, probably in 1018, was more successful. The Battle of Carham, by the River Tweed, was a victory for the Scots led by Máel Coluim and the men of Strathclyde led by their king, Owen the Bald. By this time Earl Uchtred may have been dead, and Eiríkr Hákonarson was appointed Earl of Northumbria by his brother-in-law Cnut the Great, although his authority seems to have been limited to the south, the former kingdom of Deira, and he took no action against the Scots so far as is known. The work De obsessione Dunelmi (The siege of Durham, associated with Symeon of Durham) claims that Uchtred's brother Eadwulf Cudel surrendered Lothian to Máel Coluim, presumably in the aftermath of the defeat at Carham. This is likely to have been the lands between Dunbar and the Tweed as other parts of Lothian had been under Scots control before this time. It has been suggested that Cnut received tribute from the Scots for Lothian, but as he had likely received none from the Bernician Earls this is not very probable.

    Cnut
    Cnut, reports the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, led an army into Scotland on his return from pilgrimage to Rome. The Chronicle dates this to 1031, but there are reasons to suppose that it should be dated to 1027. Burgundian chronicler Rodulfus Glaber recounts the expedition soon afterwards, describing Máel Coluim as "powerful in resources and arms … very Christian in faith and deed." Ralph claims that peace was made between Máel Coluim and Cnut through the intervention of Richard, Duke of Normandy, brother of Cnut's wife Emma. Richard died in about 1027 and Rodulfus wrote close in time to the events.

    It has been suggested that the root of the quarrel between Cnut and Máel Coluim lies in Cnut's pilgrimage to Rome, and the coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II, where Cnut and Rudolph III, King of Burgundy had the place of honour. If Máel Coluim were present, and the repeated mentions of his piety in the annals make it quite possible that he made a pilgrimage to Rome, as did Mac Bethad mac Findláich ("Macbeth") in later times, then the coronation would have allowed Máel Coluim to publicly snub Cnut's claims to overlordship.

    Cnut obtained rather less than previous English kings, a promise of peace and friendship rather than the promise of aid on land and sea that Edgar and others had obtained. The sources say that Máel Coluim was accompanied by one or two other kings, certainly Mac Bethad, and perhaps Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of Mann and the Isles, and of Galloway. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle remarks of the submission "but he [Máel Coluim] adhered to that for only a little while". Cnut was soon occupied in Norway against Olaf Haraldsson and appears to have had no further involvement with Scotland.

    Orkney and Moray
    Olith a daughter of Máel Coluim, married Sigurd Hlodvisson, Earl of Orkney. Their son Thorfinn Sigurdsson was said to be five years old when Sigurd was killed on 23 April 1014 in the Battle of Clontarf. The Orkneyinga Saga says that Thorfinn was raised at Máel Coluim's court and was given the Mormaerdom of Caithness by his grandfather. Thorfinn, says the Heimskringla, was the ally of the king of Scots, and counted on Máel Coluim's support to resist the "tyranny" of Norwegian King Olaf Haraldsson. The chronology of Thorfinn's life is problematic, and he may have had a share in the Earldom of Orkney while still a child, if he was indeed only five in 1014. Whatever the exact chronology, before Máel Coluim's death a client of the king of Scots was in control of Caithness and Orkney, although, as with all such relationships, it is unlikely to have lasted beyond his death.

    If Máel Coluim exercised control over Moray, which is far from being generally accepted, then the annals record a number of events pointing to a struggle for power in the north. In 1020, Mac Bethad's father Findláech mac Ruaidrí was killed by the sons of his brother Máel Brigte. It seems that Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti took control of Moray, for his death is reported in 1029.

    Despite the accounts of the Irish annals, English and Scandinavian writers appear to see Mac Bethad as the rightful king of Moray: this is clear from their descriptions of the meeting with Cnut in 1027, before the death of Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti. Máel Coluim was followed as king or mormaer by his brother Gille Coemgáin, husband of Gruoch, a granddaughter of King Cináed III. It has been supposed that Mac Bethad was responsible for the killing of Gille Coemgáin in 1032, but if Mac Bethad had a cause for feud in the killing of his father in 1020, Máel Coluim too had reason to see Gille Coemgáin dead. Not only had Gille Coemgáin's ancestors killed many of Máel Coluim's kin, but Gille Coemgáin and his son Lulach might be rivals for the throne. Máel Coluim had no living sons, and the threat to his plans for the succession was obvious. As a result, the following year Gruoch's brother or nephew, who might have eventually become king, was killed by Máel Coluim.

    Strathclyde and the succession
    It has traditionally been supposed that King Eógan the Bald of Strathclyde died at the Battle of Carham and that the kingdom passed into the hands of the Scots afterwards. This rests on some very weak evidence. It is far from certain that Eógan died at Carham, and it is reasonably certain that there were kings of Strathclyde as late as the 1054, when Edward the Confessor sent Earl Siward to install "Máel Coluim son of the king of the Cumbrians". The confusion is old, probably inspired by William of Malmesbury and embellished by John of Fordun, but there is no firm evidence that the kingdom of Strathclyde was a part of the kingdom of the Scots, rather than a loosely subjected kingdom, before the time of Máel Coluim II of Scotland's great-grandson Máel Coluim mac Donnchada.

    By the 1030s Máel Coluim's sons, if he had any, were dead. The only evidence that he did have a son or sons is in Rodulfus Glaber's chronicle where Cnut is said to have stood as godfather to a son of Máel Coluim.[26] His grandson Thorfinn would have been unlikely to accepted as king by the Scots, and he chose the sons of his other daughter, Bethóc, who was married to Crínán, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and perhaps Mormaer of Atholl. It may be no more than coincidence, but in 1027 the Irish annals had reported the burning of Dunkeld, although no mention is made of the circumstances.[27] Máel Coluim's chosen heir, and the first tánaise ríg certainly known in Scotland, was Donnchad mac Crínáin ("Duncan I").

    It is possible that a third daughter of Máel Coluim married Findláech mac Ruaidrí and that Mac Bethad was thus his grandson, but this rests on relatively weak evidence.

    Death and posterity
    Máel Coluim died in 1034, Marianus Scotus giving the date as 25 November 1034. The king lists say that he died at Glamis, variously describing him as a "most glorious" or "most victorious" king. The Annals of Tigernach report that "Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, king of Scotland, the honour of all the west of Europe, died." The Prophecy of Berchán, perhaps the inspiration for John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun's accounts where Máel Coluim is killed fighting bandits, says that he died by violence, fighting "the parricides", suggested to be the sons of Máel Brigte of Moray.

    Perhaps the most notable feature of Máel Coluim's death is the account of Marianus, matched by the silence of the Irish annals, which tells us that Donnchad I became king and ruled for five years and nine months. Given that his death in 1040 is described as being "at an immature age" in the Annals of Tigernach, he must have been a young man in 1034. The absence of any opposition suggests that Máel Coluim had dealt thoroughly with any likely opposition in his own lifetime.

    Tradition, dating from Fordun's time if not earlier, knew the Pictish stone now called "Glamis 2" as "King Malcolm's grave stone". The stone is a Class II stone, apparently formed by re-using a Bronze Age standing stone. Its dating is uncertain, with dates from the 8th century onwards having been proposed. While an earlier date is favoured, an association with accounts of Máel Coluim's has been proposed on the basis of the iconography of the carvings.

    On the question of Máel Coluim's putative pilgrimage, pilgrimages to Rome, or other long-distance journeys, were far from unusual. Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Cnut and Mac Bethad have already been mentioned. Rognvald Kali Kolsson is known to have gone crusading in the Mediterranean in the 12th century. Nearer in time, Dyfnwal of Strathclyde died on pilgrimage to Rome in 975 as did Máel Ruanaid uá Máele Doraid, King of the Cenél Conaill, in 1025.

    Not a great deal is known of Máel Coluim's activities beyond the wars and killings. The Book of Deer records that Máel Coluim "gave a king's dues in Biffie and in Pett Meic-Gobraig, and two davochs" to the monastery of Old Deer.[32] He was also probably not the founder of the Bishopric of Mortlach-Aberdeen. John of Fordun has a peculiar tale to tell, related to the supposed "Laws of Malcolm MacKenneth", saying that Máel Coluim gave away all of Scotland, except for the Moot Hill at Scone, which is unlikely to have any basis in fact.2,3,5

Family:

  • Last Edited: 22 Jan 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102883
  2. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102888
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102889
  5. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_II_of_Scotland
  6. [S218] Stewart Ross, Monarchs of Scotland.
  7. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorfinn_Sigurdsson

Bethoc (?) of Scotland1

F, #3461, b. circa 984

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Bethoc was born circa 984 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland.2,3
  • Marriage*: She married Crinan (?) Mormaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld circa 1000 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland.2,3
  • Biography*: She was also known as Beatrix of Scotland. She gained the title of Heiress of Scone. As a result of her marriage, Bethoc of Scotland was styled as Lady of Atholl.

    Bethóc ingen Maíl Coluim meic Cináeda was the eldest daughter of Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots, who had no known sons.

    Princess Bethóc married Crínán, Abbot of Dunkeld. The first son of this marriage was Donnchad I, who ascended to the throne of Scotland in 1034. Early writers have asserted that Máel Coluim also designated Donnchad as his successor under the rules of tanistry because there were other possible claimants to the throne.

    In this period, the Scottish throne still passed in Picto-Gaelic matrilineal fashion, from brother to brother, uncle to nephew, and cousin to cousin. Duncan I's accession is thus noteworthy for being the beginning the transition to the evolving Anglo-Norman system of primogeniture.3,4

Family: Crinan (?) Mormaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld b. c 975, d. 1045

  • Last Edited: 14 Sep 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10288.htm#i102879
  2. [S218] Stewart Ross, Monarchs of Scotland.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102883
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beth%C3%B3c
  5. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10665.htm#i106641

Crinan (?) Mormaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld1

M, #3462, b. circa 975, d. 1045

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Crinan was born circa 975 in Scotland.3,4,1
  • Marriage*: He married Bethoc (?) of Scotland circa 1000 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland.3,5
  • Death*: Crinan died in 1045 in Scotland.3,1
  • Biography*: He gained the title of Mormaer of Atholl. He gained the title of Abthane of Dule. He held the office of Steward of the Western Isles. He was Lay Abbot of Dunkeld

    Crínán of Dunkeld
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Crínán of Dunkeld (died 1045) was the lay abbot of the diocese of Dunkeld, and perhaps the Mormaer of Atholl. Crínán was progenitor of the House of Dunkeld, the dynasty which would rule Scotland until the later 13th century.

    Crinán was married to Bethoc, daughter of King Malcolm 2nd of Scotland (reigned 1005–1034). As Malcolm 2nd had no son, the strongest hereditary claim to the Scottish throne descended through Bethóc, and Crinán's eldest son Donnchad I (reigned 1034–1040), became King of Scots. Some sources indicate that Malcolm 2nd designated Duncan as his successor under the rules of tanistry because there were other possible claimants to the throne.

    Crinán's second son, Maldred of Allerdale, held the title of Lord of Cumbria. It is said that from him, the Earls of Dunbar, for example Patrick Dunbar, 9th Earl of Dunbar, descend in unbroken male line.
    Crinán was killed in battle in 1045 at Dunkeld.

    Sir Iain Moncreiffe argued he belonged to a Scottish sept of the Irish Cenél Conaill royal dynasty.

    Crinán as Lay Abbot of Dunkeld

    The monastery of Saint Columba was founded on the north bank of the River Tay in the 6th century or early 7th century following the expedition of Columba into the land of the Picts. Probably originally constructed as a simple group of wattle huts, the monastery - or at least its church - was rebuilt in the 9th century by Kenneth 1st of Scotland (reigned 843–858). Caustantín of the Picts brought Scotland's share of the relics of Columba from Iona to Dunkeld at the same time others were taken to Kells in Ireland, to protect them from Viking raids. Dunkeld became the prime bishopric in eastern Scotland until supplanted in importance by St Andrews since the 10th century.

    While the title of Hereditary Lay Abbot was a feudal position that was often exercised in name only, Crinán does seem to have acted as Abbot in charge of the monastery in his time. He was thus a man of high position in both clerical and secular society.

    The magnificent semi-ruined Dunkeld Cathedral, built in stages between 1260 and 1501, stands today on the grounds once occupied by the monastery. The Cathedral contains the only surviving remains of the previous monastic society: a course of red stone visible in the east choir wall that may be re-used from an earlier building, and two stone 9th century-10th century cross-slabs in the Cathedral Museum.1,6

Family: Bethoc (?) of Scotland b. c 984

  • Last Edited: 14 Sep 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10288.htm#i102882
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10767.htm#i107669
  3. [S218] Stewart Ross, Monarchs of Scotland.
  4. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  5. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102883
  6. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cr%C3%ADn%C3%A1n_of_Dunkeld
  7. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10288.htm#i102879
  8. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10665.htm#i106641

Duncan I (?) King of the Scots1

M, #3463, b. circa 1001, d. 14 August 1040

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Duncan was born circa 1001 in Scotland.2,3
  • Marriage*: He married Sybilla (?) of Northumbria, daughter of Siward Digera Earl of Northumberland, circa 1031.4
  • Death*: Duncan I (?) King of the Scots died on 14 August 1040 in Pitsgaveny, Elgin, Morayshire, Scotland; killed by a blow from MacBeth.3
  • Burial*: He was buried after 14 August 1040 in Isle of Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland.3
  • Biography*: Duncan I was King of the Scots from 1034 to 1040.

    He gained the title of King Duncan of Strathclyde in 1018. He succeeded to the title of King Duncan I of Scotland on 25 November 1034.

    Duncan I of Scotland
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Duncan I

    King of Alba
    Reign     1034–1040
    Donnchad mac Crínáin (Modern Gaelic: Donnchadh mac Crìonain; anglicised as Duncan I, and nicknamed An t-Ilgarach, "the Diseased" or "the Sick"; ca. 1001 – 14 August 1040) was king of Scotland (Alba) from 1034 to 1040. He was son of Crínán, hereditary lay abbot of Dunkeld, and Bethóc, daughter of king Malcolm II of Scotland (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda).

    Unlike the "King Duncan" of Shakespeare's Macbeth, the historical Duncan appears to have been a young man. He followed his grandfather Malcolm as king after the latter's death on 25 November 1034, without apparent opposition. He may have been Malcolm's acknowledged successor or tánaise as the succession appears to have been uneventful. Earlier histories, following John of Fordun, supposed that Duncan had been king of Strathclyde in his grandfather's lifetime, between 1018 and 1034, ruling the former Kingdom of Strathclyde as an appanage. Modern historians discount this idea.

    An earlier source, a variant of the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba (CK-I), gives Duncan's wife the Gaelic name Suthen. Whatever his wife's name may have been, Duncan had at least two sons. The eldest, Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) was king from 1058 to 1093, the second Donald III (Domnall Bán, or "Donalbane") was king afterwards. Máel Muire, Earl of Atholl is a possible third son of Duncan, although this is uncertain.

    The early period of Duncan's reign was apparently uneventful, perhaps a consequence of his youth. Macbeth (Mac Bethad mac Findláich) is recorded as his dux, literally duke, but in the context — "dukes of Francia" had half a century before replaced the Carolingian kings of the Franks and in England the over-mighty Godwin of Wessex was called a dux — this suggests that Macbeth was the power behind the throne.

    In 1039, Duncan led a large Scots army south to besiege Durham, but the expedition ended in disaster. Duncan survived, but the following year he led an army north into Moray, traditionally seen as Macbeth's domain. There he was killed in action, at Bothganowan, now Pitgaveny, near Elgin, by his own men led by Macbeth, probably on 14 August 1040. He is thought to have been buried at Elgin before later relocated to the Isle of Iona.5,3,1
  • Last Edited: 4 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duncan_I_of_Scotland
  2. [S218] Stewart Ross, Monarchs of Scotland.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10288.htm#i102879
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10216.htm#i102153
  5. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  6. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102881

Donalda (?)1

F, #3464, b. circa 980

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Findlaech (?) Mormaer of Moray b. c 950, d. 1020

  • Last Edited: 11 Sep 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p262.htm#i2611
  2. [S218] Stewart Ross, Monarchs of Scotland.
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_and_Erlend_Thorfinnsson

Findlaech (?) Mormaer of Moray

M, #3465, b. circa 950, d. 1020

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Findlaech was born circa 950 in Scotland.1,2
  • Marriage*: He married Donalda (?) circa 1000 in Scotland.1
  • Death*: Findlaech died in 1020 in Scotland.1,2
  • Biography*: Findláech of Moray (or Findláech mac Ruaidrí, anglicised as Findlay of Moray) was the King or Mormaer of Moray, ruling from some point before 1014 until his death in 1020.
    In the Annals of Ulster and in the Book of Leinster, Findláech is called rí Alban, which meant "King of Scotland" in the Gaelic language. As far as we know from other sources, the only rí Alban of the time was Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, i.e. Máel Coluim II, so this title can only mean that Findláech, as ruler of Moray, was understood by many to have been the High-King of all northern Britain.

    However, Findláech's main claim to fame these days is as the father of Mac Bethad, made famous by William Shakespeare's play Macbeth. Indeed, the Irish historian known in Latin as Marianus Scotus calls Macbethad simply MacFindlaeg.

    Historians are fairly certain that Findláech was ruling before 1014 because the Orkneyinga Saga reads that before the Battle of Clontarf, Jarl Siguðr of Orkney fought a battle with the Scots, who were led by a Jarl Finnlekr (i.e. Findláech the Mormaer). An Irish princess called Eithne made a banner for Siguðr, which had on it a raven. The saga records that Siguðr later brought the banner to Clontarf, where he was killed. If we believe this, then Findláech would be ruler quite a bit before 1014.

    His death date, as mentioned above, derives from the Annals of Ulster, which notes s.a. 1020 Finnloech m. Ruaidhri, ri Alban, a suis occisus est, that is, that Findláech was killed by his own people. No reason for this is given, but the logical thing is to conclude that his successor, his nephew Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti, had something to do with it. Indeed, the Annals of Tigernach tell us that the sons of Máel Brigte were responsible; the only sons we know of are Máel Coluim and Gille Coemgáin, both of whom evidently benefited from the killing, as both succeeded to the throne.2

Family: Donalda (?) b. c 980

  • Last Edited: 22 Jan 2015

Citations

  1. [S218] Stewart Ross, Monarchs of Scotland.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Findl%C3%A1ech_of_Moray

MacBeth (?) King of the Scots

M, #3466, b. circa 1000, d. 15 August 1057

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: MacBeth was born circa 1000 in Scotland.1
  • Biography*: Before he became king MacBeth was Mormaer of Moray.
    MacBeth was King of the Scots from 1040 to 1057.

    Macbeth, King of Scotland

    Mac Bethad mac Findlaích (Modern Gaelic: MacBheatha mac Fhionnlaigh, anglicised as Macbeth, and nicknamed Rí Deircc, "the Red King"; died 15 August 1057) was King of the Scots (also known as the King of Alba, and earlier as King of Moray and King of Fortriu) from 1040 until his death. He is best known as the subject of William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth and the many works it has inspired, although the play presents a highly inaccurate picture of his reign and personality.

    Origins and Family

    Mormaer of Moray
    Macbeth was the son of Findláech mac Ruaidrí, Mormaer of Moray. His mother, who is not mentioned in contemporary sources, is sometimes supposed to have been Donada, a daughter of the Scottish king Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda).

    Findláech was killed in 1020. According to the Annals of Ulster he was killed by his own people while the Annals of Tigernach say that the sons of his brother Máel Brigte were responsible. One of these sons, Máel Coluim mac Máel Brigte, died in 1029. A second son, Gille Coemgáin, was killed in 1032, burned in a house with fifty of his men. Gille Coemgáin had been married to Gruoch with whom he had a son, the future king Lulach. It has been proposed that Gille Coemgáin's death was the doing of Mac Bethad in revenge for his father's death, or of Máel Coluim mac Cináed to rid himself of a rival.

    The origin myth of the kingdom of Alba traced its foundation to the supposed destruction of Pictland by Kenneth MacAlpin, and its kings were chosen from the male line descendants of Kenneth, with the possible exception of the shadowy Eochaid, said to be Kenneth's daughter's son. During the century in which the lists correspond well with the annals, the succession to the kingship of Alba was held in an alternating fashion by two branches of the descendants of Kenneth MacAlpin, one descended from Kenneth's son Constantín, Clann Constantín mac Cináeda, and one from Constantín's brother Áed, Clann Áeda mac Cináeda. Alternating succession is also seen in Ireland, where the High Kings of Ireland come from two branches of the Uí Néill, the northern Cenél nEógain and the southern Clann Cholmáin. Both systems have been compared with the concept of tanistry found in Early Irish Law, although the political reality appears to have been more complex.

    Both systems of alternating succession coincidentally failed in the early 11th century. In Ireland, the failure of the northern Uí Néill to support their southern kinsman Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill against Brian Bóruma, and the resulting end to the system of Uí Néill High Kingship appears to have been caused by political geography. In northern Britain, the violent struggle between the various candidates for power seems to have removed Clann Áeda mac Cináeda from the contest, leaving only Clann Constantín mac Cináeda, in the person of Máel Coluim son of Cináed, to claim the kingship. Máel Coluim appears to have had rivals from within Clann Constantín killed during his reign.

    It has been proposed that the base of Clann Áeda mac Cináeda's power lay in the north of the kingdom of Alba, beyond the Mounth (eastern Grampians) in what had once been Fortriu and which was now called Moray (in Irish annals of the period, MacBethad is occasionally referred to as King of Fortriu, as well as King/Mormaer of Moray, before his succession to the throne of Alba). It was in this region that Mac Bethad's kin appear to have been based. Later in the eleventh century, from the time of Gille Coemgáin's grandson Máel Snechtai, a genealogy was compiled which traced Máel Snechtai's descent and Clann Ruadrí's origins to the Cenél Loairn founder Loarn mac Eirc. Loarn was supposedly the brother of Fergus Mór, whom the descendants of Kenneth claimed as an ancestor. The genealogy as it survives is apparently constructed by combining two distinct genealogies which are found attached to the Senchus fer n-Alban, that of Ainbcellach mac Ferchair (died 719), to which has been appended that of Ainbcellach's kinsman Mongán mac Domnaill. It is likely that this conception of Clann Ruadrí's origins predates Máel Snechtai and was prevalent in Mac Bethad's time or even earlier.

    The extent to which Gaelic kingship rested on agnatic (male line) descent can be seen in the case of Kenneth MacAlpin's daughter's daughter's son Congalach Cnogba. Congalach was the grandson of High King Flann Sinna of Clann Cholmáin and succeeded to the Uí Néill High Kingship in unusual circumstances on the death of his mother's half-brother Donnchad Donn. Rather than proclaim his near kinship with recent kings—grandson of Flann, nephew of Donnchad and Niall Glúndub—Congalach's propagandists preferred to advance his claim to rule as a male-line descendant in the tenth generation of Áed Sláine (died circa 604). Like Congalach, Clann Ruadrí may have had a claim to the kingship in the female line which legal tradition would have considered to be of little importance. It is possible that Ruaidrí, or his father Domnall if he existed, may have married into Clann Áeda mac Cináeda and so inherited the allegiance of that family's supporters.

    It is not clear whether Gruoch's father was a son of King Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim) (d. 995) or of King Kenneth III (Cináed mac Duib) (d. 1005), either is possible chronologically. After Gille Coemgáin's death, Macbeth married his widow and took Lulach as his stepson. Gruoch's brother, or nephew (his name is not recorded), was killed in 1033 by Malcolm II.

    Mormaer and Dux
    When Cnut the Great came north in 1031 to accept the submission of King Malcolm II, Macbeth too submitted to him:
    ... Malcolm, king of the Scots, submitted to him, and became his man, with two other kings, Macbeth and Iehmarc--

    Some have seen this as a sign of Macbeth's power, others have seen his presence, together with Iehmarc, who may be Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, as proof that Malcolm II was overlord of Moray and of the Kingdom of the Isles. Whatever the true state of affairs in the early 1030s, it seems more probable that Macbeth was subject to the king of Alba, Malcolm II, who died at Glamis, on 25 November 1034. The Prophecy of Berchan is apparently alone in near contemporary sources in reporting a violent death, calling it a kinslaying.[10] Tigernach's chronicle says only:
    Máel Coluim son of Cináed, king of Alba, the honour of western Europe, died.
    Malcolm II's grandson Duncan (Donnchad mac Crínáin), later King Duncan I, was acclaimed as king of Alba on 30 November 1034, apparently without opposition. Duncan appears to have been tánaise ríg, the king in waiting, so that far from being an abandonment of tanistry, as has sometimes been argued, his kingship was a vindication of the practice. Previous successions had involved strife between various rígdomna - men of royal blood. Far from being the aged King Duncan of Shakespeare's play, the real King Duncan was a young man in 1034, and even at his death in 1040 his youthfulness is remarked upon.

    Because of his youth, Duncan's early reign was apparently uneventful. His later reign, in line with his description as "the man of many sorrows" in the Prophecy of Berchán, was not successful. In 1039, Strathclyde was attacked by the Northumbrians, and a retaliatory raid led by Duncan against Durham in 1040 turned into a disaster. Later that year Duncan led an army into Moray, where he was killed by Macbeth on 15 August 1040 at Pitgaveny (then called Bothnagowan) near Elgin.

    High King of Alba

    On Duncan's death, Macbeth became king. No resistance is known at that time, but it would have been entirely normal if his reign were not universally accepted. In 1045, Duncan's father Crínán of Dunkeld (a scion of the Scottish branch of the Cenel Conaill and Hereditary Abbot of Iona) was killed in a battle between two Scottish armies.

    John of Fordun wrote that Duncan's wife fled Scotland, taking her children, including the future kings Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) and Donald III (Domnall Bán mac Donnchada, or Donalbane) with her. On the basis of the author's beliefs as to whom Duncan married, various places of exile, Northumbria and Orkney among them, have been proposed. However, E. William Robertson: proposes the safest place for Duncan's widow and her children would be with her or Duncan's kin and supporters in Atholl.

    After the defeat of Crínán, Macbeth was evidently unchallenged. Marianus Scotus tells how the king made a pilgrimage to Rome in 1050, where, Marianus says, he gave money to the poor as if it were seed.

    Karl Hundason

    The Orkneyinga Saga says that a dispute between Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney, and Karl Hundason began when Karl Hundason became "King of Scots" and claimed Caithness. The identity of Karl Hundason, unknown to Scots and Irish sources, has long been a matter of dispute, and it is far from clear that the matter is settled. The most common assumption is that Karl Hundason was an insulting byname (Old Norse for "Churl, son of a Dog") given to Macbeth by his enemies.

    William Forbes Skene's suggestion that he was Duncan I of Scotland has been revived in recent years. Lastly, the idea that the whole affair is a poetic invention has been raised.

    According to the Orkneyinga Saga, in the war which followed, Thorfinn defeated Karl in a sea-battle off Deerness at the east end of the Orkney Mainland. Then Karl's nephew Mutatan or Muddan, appointed to rule Caithness for him, was killed at Thurso by Thorkel the Fosterer. Finally, a great battle at Tarbat Ness on the south side of the Dornoch Firth ended with Karl defeated and fugitive or dead. Thorfinn, the saga says, then marched south through Scotland as far as Fife, burning and plundering as he passed. A later note in the saga claims that Thorfinn won nine Scottish earldoms.

    Whoever Karl Hundason may have been, it appears that the saga is reporting a local conflict with a Scots ruler of Moray or Ross:
    [T]he whole narrative is consistent with the idea that the struggle of Thorfinn and Karl is a continuation of that which had been waged since the ninth century by the Orkney earls, notably Sigurd Rognvald's son, Ljot, and Sigurd the Stout, against the princes or mormaers of Moray, Sutherland, Ross, and Argyll, and that, in fine, Malcolm and Karl were mormaers of one of these four provinces.

    Final Years

    In 1052, Macbeth was involved indirectly in the strife in the Kingdom of England between Godwin, Earl of Wessex and Edward the Confessor when he received a number of Norman exiles from England in his court, perhaps becoming the first king of Scots to introduce feudalism to Scotland. In 1054, Edward's Earl of Northumbria, Siward, led a very large invasion of Scotland. The campaign led to a bloody battle in which the Annals of Ulster report 3,000 Scots and 1,500 English dead, which can be taken as meaning very many on both sides, and one of Siward's sons and a son-in-law were among the dead. The result of the invasion was that one Máel Coluim, "son of the king of the Cumbrians" (not to be confused with Máel Coluim mac Donnchada, the future Malcolm III of Scotland) was restored to his throne, i.e., as ruler of the kingdom of Strathclyde. It may be that the events of 1054 are responsible for the idea, which appears in Shakespeare's play, that Malcolm III was put in power by the English.

    Macbeth did not survive the English invasion, for he was defeated and mortally wounded or killed by the future Malcolm III ("King Malcolm Ceann-mor", son of Duncan I) on the north side of the Mounth in 1057, after retreating with his men over the Cairnamounth Pass to take his last stand at the battle at Lumphanan. The Prophecy of Berchán has it that he was wounded and died at Scone, sixty miles to the south, some days later. Macbeth's stepson Lulach mac Gille Coemgáin was installed as king soon after.

    Unlike later writers, no near contemporary source remarks on Macbeth as a tyrant. The Duan Albanach, which survives in a form dating to the reign of Malcolm III, calls him "Mac Bethad the renowned". The Prophecy of Berchán, a verse history which purports to be a prophecy, describes him as "the generous king of Fortriu", and says:
    The red, tall, golden-haired one, he will be pleasant to me among them; Scotland will be brimful west and east during the reign of the furious red one.

    Life to Legend

    Macbeth's life, like that of King Duncan I, had progressed far towards legend by the end of the 14th century, when John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun wrote their histories. Hector Boece, Walter Bower, and George Buchanan all contributed to the legend.

    In Shakespeare's play, Macbeth is portrayed initially as a valorous and good-hearted general to King Duncan who is corrupted by ambition. He persuades himself that killing his king to take the throne is the right thing to do. His ambition is fostered by three witches whose prophecies however prove misleading, and his scheme is doomed to failure. His wife (Lady Macbeth) has gained fame along the way, lending her Shakespeare-given title to a short story by Nikolai Leskov and the opera by Dmitri Shostakovich titled Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk. The historical content of Shakespeare's play is drawn from Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, which in turn borrows from Boece's 1527 Scotorum Historiae, which flattered the antecedents of Boece's patron, King James V of Scotland.

    In modern times, Dorothy Dunnett's novel King Hereafter aims to portray a historical Macbeth, but proposes that Macbeth and his rival and sometime ally Thorfinn of Orkney are one and the same (Thorfinn is his birth name and Macbeth his baptismal name). John Cargill Thompson's play Macbeth Speaks 1997, a reworking of his earlier Macbeth Speaks, is a monologue delivered by the historical Macbeth, aware of what Shakespeare and posterity have done to him. Scottish author Nigel Tranter based one of his historical novels on the historical figure, MacBeth the King. David Greig's 2010 play Dunsinane takes Macbeth's downfall at Dunsinane as its starting point, with his just-ended reign portrayed as long and stable in contrast to Malcolm's.2,3
  • Death*: He died on 15 August 1057 in North side of the Mounth, Scotland.3
  • Last Edited: 16 Oct 2015

Citations

  1. [S218] Stewart Ross, Monarchs of Scotland.
  2. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macbeth,_King_of_Scotland.

Malcolm III 'Canmore' (?) King of the Scots1

M, #3467, b. circa 1031, d. 13 November 1093

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Malcolm was born circa 1031 in Scotland.2,3
  • Marriage*: He married Ingibiorg Finnsdottir, daughter of Earl Finn Arnesson and Bergljot Halvdansdottir, circa 1058 in Scotland.4
  • Marriage*: He married Saint Margaret (?) Queen of the Scots in 1069 in Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.5,6,3
  • Death*: Malcolm III 'Canmore' (?) King of the Scots died on 13 November 1093 in near, Alnwick, Northumbria, England*.1
  • Biography*: Malcolm III 'Canmore' was King of the Scots from 1057 to 1093.

    He gained the title of Prince Malcolm of Cumbria in 1034. He gained the title of King Malcolm of Strathclyde in 1034. He succeeded to the title of King Malcolm III of Scotland on 17 March 1058. He was crowned King of Scotland on 25 April 1058 at Scone Abbey, Scone, Perthshire, Scotland.

    He succeeded Macbeth, but was exiled to England during the reign of Macbeth. With English military help he defeated (1054 - Battle of Dunsinane) and killed (1057) Macbeth, and became King of Scotland after the death of Macbeth's stepson and successor Lulach. Five times he unsuccessfully invaded northern England, and was killed on the fifth attempt. He was effectively ruler of Strathclyde and Lothian from 1054.

    Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Dhonnchaidh, called in most Anglicised regnal lists Malcolm III, and in later centuries nicknamed Canmore, "Big Head", either literally or in reference to his leadership, "Long-neck"; died 13 November 1093), was King of Scots. It has also been argued recently that the real "Malcolm Canmore" was this Malcolm's great-grandson Malcolm IV, who is given this name in the contemporary notice of his death. He was the eldest son of King Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin). Malcolm's long reign, lasting 35 years, preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age. He is the historical equivalent of the character of the same name in Shakespeare's Macbeth.

    Malcolm's Kingdom did not extend over the full territory of modern Scotland: the north and west of Scotland remained in Scandinavian, Norse-Gael and Gaelic control, and the areas under the control of the Kings of Scots would not advance much beyond the limits set by Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) until the 12th century. Malcolm III fought a succession of wars against the Kingdom of England, which may have had as their goal the conquest of the English earldom of Northumbria. However, these wars did not result in any significant advances southwards. Malcolm's main achievement is to have continued a line which would rule Scotland for many years, although his role as "founder of a dynasty" has more to do with the propaganda of his youngest son David, and his descendants, than with any historical reality.

    Malcolm's second wife, Saint Margaret of Scotland, was later beatified and is Scotland's only royal saint. However, Malcolm himself gained no reputation for piety. With the notable exception of Dunfermline Abbey he is not definitely associated with major religious establishments or ecclesiastical reforms.

    Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Dhonnchaidh, called in most Anglicised regnal lists Malcolm III, and in later centuries nicknamed Canmore, "Big Head", either literally or in reference to his leadership, "Long-neck"; died 13 November 1093), was King of Scots. He was the eldest son of King Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin). Malcolm's long reign, lasting 35 years, preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age. He is the historical equivalent of the character of the same name in Shakespeare's Macbeth.

    Malcolm's Kingdom did not extend over the full territory of modern Scotland: the north and west of Scotland remained in Scandinavian, Norse-Gael and Gaelic control, and the areas under the control of the Kings of Scots would not advance much beyond the limits set by Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) until the 12th century. Malcolm III fought a succession of wars against the Kingdom of England, which may have had as their goal the conquest of the English earldom of Northumbria. However, these wars did not result in any significant advances southwards. Malcolm's main achievement is to have continued a line which would rule Scotland for many years,[6] although his role as "founder of a dynasty" has more to do with the propaganda of his youngest son David, and his descendants, than with any historical reality.

    Malcolm's second wife, Margaret of Wessex, was later beatified and is Scotland's only royal saint. However, Malcolm himself gained no reputation for piety. With the notable exception of Dunfermline Abbey he is not definitely associated with major religious establishments or ecclesiastical reforms.

    Background
    Scotland in the High Middle Ages
    Malcolm's father Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin) became king in late 1034, on the death of Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda), Duncan's maternal grandfather and Malcolm's Great-grandfather. According to John of Fordun, whose account is the original source of part at least of William Shakespeare's Macbeth, Malcolm's mother was a niece of Siward, Earl of Northumbria, but an earlier king-list gives her the Gaelic name Suthen.
    Other sources claim that either a daughter or niece would have been too young to fit the timeline, thus the likely relative would have been Siward's own sister Sybil, which may have translated into Gaelic as Suthen.
    Duncan's reign was not successful and he was killed by Macbeth (Mac Bethad mac Findlaích) on 15 August 1040. Although Shakespeare's Macbeth presents Malcolm as a grown man and his father as an old one, it appears that Duncan was still young in 1040, and Malcolm and his brother Donalbane (Domnall Bán) were children. Malcolm's family did attempt to overthrow Macbeth in 1045, but Malcolm's grandfather Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in the attempt.

    Soon after the death of Duncan his two young sons were sent away for greater safety — exactly where is the subject of debate. According to one version, Malcolm (then aged about 9) was sent to England, and his younger brother Donalbane was sent to the Isles. Based on Fordun's account, it was assumed that Malcolm passed most of Macbeth's seventeen-year reign in the Kingdom of England at the court of Edward the Confessor.

    According to an alternative version, Malcolm's mother took both sons into exile at the court of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney, an enemy of Macbeth's family, and perhaps Duncan's kinsman by marriage.

    An English invasion in 1054, with Siward, Earl of Northumbria, in command, had as its goal the installation of one "Máel Coluim, son of the King of the Cumbrians". This Máel Coluim has traditionally been identified with the later Malcolm III.[20] This interpretation derives from the Chronicle attributed to the 14th-century chronicler of Scotland, John of Fordun, as well as from earlier sources such as William of Malmesbury. The latter reported that Macbeth was killed in the battle by Siward, but it is known that Macbeth outlived Siward by two years. A. A. M. Duncan argued in 2002 that, using the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry as their source, later writers innocently misidentified "Máel Coluim" with the later Scottish king of the same name.[23] Duncan's argument has been supported by several subsequent historians specialising in the era, such as Richard Oram, Dauvit Broun and Alex Woolf. It has also been suggested that Máel Coluim may have been a son of Owen the Bald, British king of Strathclyde perhaps by a daughter of Máel Coluim II, King of Scotland.

    In 1057 various chroniclers report the death of Macbeth at Malcolm's hand, on 15 August 1057 at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach, who was crowned at Scone, probably on 8 September 1057. Lulach was killed by Malcolm, "by treachery", near Huntly on 23 April 1058. After this, Malcolm became king, perhaps being inaugurated on 25 April 1058, although only John of Fordun reports this.

    Malcolm and Ingibiorg
    If Orderic Vitalis is to be relied upon, one of Malcolm's earliest actions as King may have been to travel south to the court of Edward the Confessor in 1059 to arrange a marriage with Edward's kinswoman Margaret, who had arrived in England two years before from Hungary. If he did visit the English court, he was the first reigning King of Scots to do so in more than eighty years. If a marriage agreement was made in 1059, however, it was not kept, and this may explain the Scots invasion of Northumbria in 1061 when Lindisfarne was plundered. Equally, Malcolm's raids in Northumbria may have been related to the disputed "Kingdom of the Cumbrians", reestablished by Earl Siward in 1054, which was under Malcolm's control by 1070.

    The Orkneyinga saga reports that Malcolm married the widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Ingibiorg, a daughter of Finn Arnesson. Although Ingibiorg is generally assumed to have died shortly before 1070, it is possible that she died much earlier, around 1058. The Orkneyinga Saga records that Malcolm and Ingibiorg had a son, Duncan II (Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim), who was later king. Some Medieval commentators, following William of Malmesbury, claimed that Duncan was illegitimate, but this claim is propaganda reflecting the need of Malcolm's descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Duncan's descendants, the Meic Uilleim. Malcolm's son Domnall, whose death is reported in 1085, is not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga Saga. He is assumed to have been born to Ingibiorg.

    Malcolm's marriage to Ingibiorg secured him peace in the north and west. The Heimskringla tells that her father Finn had been an adviser to Harald Hardraade and, after falling out with Harald, was then made an Earl by Sweyn Estridsson, King of Denmark, which may have been another recommendation for the match. Malcolm enjoyed a peaceful relationship with the Earldom of Orkney, ruled jointly by his stepsons, Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson. The Orkneyinga Saga reports strife with Norway but this is probably misplaced as it associates this with Magnus Barefoot, who became king of Norway only in 1093, the year of Malcolm's death.

    Malcolm and Margaret
    Although he had given sanctuary to Tostig Godwinson when the Northumbrians drove him out, Malcolm was not directly involved in the ill-fated invasion of England by Harald Hardraade and Tostig in 1066, which ended in defeat and death at the battle of Stamford Bridge.[40] In 1068, he granted asylum to a group of English exiles fleeing from William of Normandy, among them Agatha, widow of Edward the Confessor's nephew Edward the Exile, and her children: Edgar Ætheling and his sisters Margaret and Cristina. They were accompanied by Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria. The exiles were disappointed, however, if they had expected immediate assistance from the Scots.

    In 1069 the exiles returned to England, to join a spreading revolt in the north. Even though Gospatric and Siward's son Waltheof submitted by the end of the year, the arrival of a Danish army under Sweyn Estridsson seemed to ensure that William's position remained weak. Malcolm decided on war, and took his army south into Cumbria and across the Pennines, wasting Teesdale and Cleveland then marching north, loaded with loot, to Wearmouth. There Malcolm met Edgar and his family, who were invited to return with him, but did not. As Sweyn had by now been bought off with a large Danegeld, Malcolm took his army home. In reprisal, William sent Gospatric to raid Scotland through Cumbria. In return, the Scots fleet raided the Northumbrian coast where Gospatric's possessions were concentrated. Late in the year, perhaps shipwrecked on their way to a European exile, Edgar and his family again arrived in Scotland, this time to remain. By the end of 1070, Malcolm had married Edgar's sister Margaret of Wessex, the future Saint Margaret of Scotland.

    The naming of their children represented a break with the traditional Scots Regal names such as Malcolm, Cináed and Áed. The point of naming Margaret's sons, Edward after her father Edward the Exile, Edmund for her grandfather Edmund Ironside, Ethelred for her great-grandfather Ethelred the Unready and Edgar for her great-great-grandfather Edgar and her brother, briefly the elected king, Edgar Ætheling, was unlikely to be missed in England, where William of Normandy's grasp on power was far from secure. Whether the adoption of the classical Alexander for the future Alexander I of Scotland (either for Pope Alexander II or for Alexander the Great) and the biblical David for the future David I of Scotland represented a recognition that William of Normandy would not be easily removed, or was due to the repetition of Anglo-Saxon Royal name—another Edmund had preceded Edgar—is not known.[45] Margaret also gave Malcolm two daughters, Edith, who married Henry I of England, and Mary, who married Eustace III of Boulogne.

    In 1072, with the Harrying of the North completed and his position again secure, William of Normandy came north with an army and a fleet. Malcolm met William at Abernethy and, in the words of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle "became his man" and handed over his eldest son Duncan as a hostage and arranged peace between William and Edgar. Accepting the overlordship of the king of the English was no novelty, previous kings had done so without result. The same was true of Malcolm; his agreement with the English king was followed by further raids into Northumbria, which led to further trouble in the earldom and the killing of Bishop William Walcher at Gateshead. In 1080, William sent his son Robert Curthose north with an army while his brother Odo punished the Northumbrians. Malcolm again made peace, and this time kept it for over a decade.

    Malcolm faced little recorded internal opposition, with the exception of Lulach's son Máel Snechtai. In an unusual entry, for the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains little on Scotland, it says that in 1078:
    Malcholom [Máel Coluim] seized the mother of Mælslæhtan [Máel Snechtai] ... and all his treasures, and his cattle; and he himself escaped with difficulty.

    Whatever provoked this strife, Máel Snechtai survived until 1085.

    Malcolm and William Rufus
    When William Rufus became king of England after his father's death, Malcolm did not intervene in the rebellions by supporters of Robert Curthose which followed. In 1091, however, William Rufus confiscated Edgar Ætheling's lands in England, and Edgar fled north to Scotland. In May, Malcolm marched south, not to raid and take slaves and plunder, but to besiege Newcastle, built by Robert Curthose in 1080. This appears to have been an attempt to advance the frontier south from the River Tweed to the River Tees. The threat was enough to bring the English king back from Normandy, where he had been fighting Robert Curthose. In September, learning of William Rufus's approaching army, Malcolm withdrew north and the English followed. Unlike in 1072, Malcolm was prepared to fight, but a peace was arranged by Edgar Ætheling and Robert Curthose whereby Malcolm again acknowledged the overlordship of the English king.

    In 1092, the peace began to break down. Based on the idea that the Scots controlled much of modern Cumbria, it had been supposed that William Rufus's new castle at Carlisle and his settlement of English peasants in the surrounds was the cause. However, it is unlikely that Malcolm did control Cumbria, and the dispute instead concerned the estates granted to Malcolm by William Rufus's father in 1072 for his maintenance when visiting England. Malcolm sent messengers to discuss the question and William Rufus agreed to a meeting. Malcolm travelled south to Gloucester, stopping at Wilton Abbey to visit his daughter Edith and sister-in-law Cristina. Malcolm arrived there on 24 August 1093 to find that William Rufus refused to negotiate, insisting that the dispute be judged by the English barons. This Malcolm refused to accept, and returned immediately to Scotland.

    It does not appear that William Rufus intended to provoke a war, but, as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports, war came:
    For this reason therefore they parted with great dissatisfaction, and the King Malcolm returned to Scotland. And soon after he came home, he gathered his army, and came harrowing into England with more hostility than behoved him ...
    Malcolm was accompanied by Edward, his eldest son by Margaret and probable heir-designate (or tánaiste), and by Edgar.[54] Even by the standards of the time, the ravaging of Northumbria by the Scots was seen as harsh.

    Death
    While marching north again, Malcolm was ambushed by Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumbria, whose lands he had devastated, near Alnwick on 13 November 1093. There he was killed by Arkil Morel, steward of Bamburgh Castle. The conflict became known as the Battle of Alnwick. Edward was mortally wounded in the same fight. Margaret, it is said, died soon after receiving the news of their deaths from Edgar. The Annals of Ulster say:
    Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French [i.e. Normans] in Inber Alda in England. His queen, Margaret, moreover, died of sorrow for him within nine days.[58]
    Malcolm's body was taken to Tynemouth Priory for burial. The king's body was sent north for reburial, in the reign of his son Alexander, at Dunfermline Abbey, or possibly Iona.

    On 19 June 1250, following the canonisation of Malcolm's wife Margaret by Pope Innocent IV, Margaret's remains were disinterred and placed in a reliquary. Tradition has it that as the reliquary was carried to the high altar of Dunfermline Abbey, past Malcolm's grave, it became too heavy to move. As a result, Malcolm's remains were also disinterred, and buried next to Margaret beside the altar.

    Issue
    Malcolm and Ingebjorg had 3 sons:
    Duncan II of Scotland, succeeded his father as King of Scotland
    Donald, died ca.1094
    Malcolm, died ca.1085
    Malcolm and Margaret had eight children, six sons and two daughters:
    Edward, killed 1093.
    Edmund of Scotland
    Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld
    King Edgar of Scotland
    King Alexander I of Scotland
    King David I of Scotland
    Edith of Scotland, also called Maud, married King Henry I of England
    Mary of Scotland, married Eustace III of Boulogne

    Depictions in fiction
    Malcolm appears in William Shakespeare’s Macbeth. He is the son of King Duncan and heir to the throne. He first appears in the second scene where he is talking to a sergeant, with Duncan. The sergeant tells them how the battle was won thanks to Macbeth. Then Ross comes and Duncan decides that Macbeth should take the title of Thane of Cawdor. Then he later appears in Act 1.4 talking about the execution of the former Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth then enters and they congratulate him on his victory. He later appears in Macbeth’s castle as a guest. When his father is killed he is suspected of the murder so he escapes to England. He later makes an appearance in Act 4.3, where he talks to Macduff about Macbeth and what to do. They both decide to start a war against him. In Act 5.4 he is seen in Dunsinane getting ready for war. He orders the troupes to hide behind branches and slowly advance towards the castle. In Act 5.8 he watches the battle against Macbeth and Macduff with Siward and Ross. When eventually Macbeth is killed, Malcolm takes over as king.
    The married life of Malcolm III and Margaret has been the subject of two historical novels: A Goodly Pearl (1905) by Mary H. Debenham, and Malcolm Canmore's Pearl (1907) by Agnes Grant Hay. Both focus on court life in Dunfermline, and the Margaret helping introduce Anglo-Saxon culture in Scotland. The latter novel covers events to 1093, ending with Malcolm's death.2,3,7

Family 1: Ingibiorg Finnsdottir b. c 1000, d. c 1069

Family 2: Saint Margaret (?) Queen of the Scots b. 1045, d. 16 Nov 1093

Family 3:

  • Last Edited: 18 Sep 2016

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_III_of_Scotland
  2. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10216.htm#i102153
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingibiorg_Finnsdottir
  5. [S119] Nigel Tranter, Lord of the Isles.
  6. [S283] Nigel Tranter, David the Prince.
  7. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_III_Canmore
  8. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_of_Scotland
  9. [S829] Clanmacfarlanegenealogy Website, online Clanmacfarlanegenealogy.info, http://www.clanmacfarlanegenealogy.info/genealogy/…
  10. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10204.htm#i102034
  11. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10216.htm#i102157

Duncan II (?) King of the Scots

M, #3469, b. circa 1060

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Duncan II (?) King of the Scots was born circa 1060 in Scotland.1
  • Biography*: Duncan II was King of the Scots in 1094.

    Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim (Modern Gaelic: Donnchadh mac Mhaoil Chaluim; at an unknown age anglicised as Duncan II; before c. 1060 – 12 November 1094) was king of Scots. He was son of Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) and his first wife Ingibiorg Finnsdottir, widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson.

    Early life
    The identity of Duncan's mother is given by the Orkneyinga saga, which records the marriage of Malcolm and Ingibiorg, and then mentions "their son was Duncan, King of Scots, father of William". Duncan II got his name from that of his grandfather, Duncan I of Scotland. However Ingibiorg is never mentioned by primary sources written by Scottish and English chroniclers. She might have been a concubine or have a marriage not recognized by the church. William of Malmesbury calls Duncan an illegitimate son of Malcolm III. This account influenced a number of Medieval commentators, who also dismissed Duncan as an illegitimate son. But this claim is propaganda reflecting the need of Malcolm's descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Duncan's descendants, the Meic Uilleim. There is no primary source which would indicate that Duncan was ever excluded from the royal succession.

    Duncan was given into the keeping of William I of England in 1072 as a hostage. The Annals of Ulster note that "French went into Scotland and brought away the son of the king of Scotland as hostage". The French of the text were actually the Normans. The primary source does not identify Duncan by name, but his known half-brothers were at the time either infants or yet to be born. The context of this event was the initial conflict between Malcolm III and William I. Edgar Ætheling, the last remaining male member of the English royal family had fled to Scotland, in 1068, seeking protection from the invading Normans. Edgar sought Malcolm's assistance in his struggle against William. The relationship was reinforced when Malcolm married the Ætheling's sister, Margaret, in 1071. The Norman conquest of England also involved William securing control over the areas of Northumbria. Malcolm probably perceived this move as a threat to his own areas of Cumbria and Lothian. In 1070, possibly claiming he was redressing the wrongs against his brother-in-law, Malcolm responded with a "savage raid" of Northern England.

    The formal link between the royal house of Scotland and Wessex and Malcolms forays in northern England, was an obvious threat to William who in 1072, counter-attacked with a full-scale invasion of southern Scotland. Pursuing the retreating Malcolm to Abernethy. The resulting Treaty of Abernethy forced Malcolm to become a vassal to his rival. A response to the harsh reality that the armed forces of Malcolm had met their match. One of the conditions of the agreement was the expulsion of Edgar Ætheling from the Scottish court. The offering of Duncan, his eldest son, as a hostage was probably another term of the treaty.

    Duncan was raised in the Anglo-Norman court of William I, becoming familiar with the culture, education, and institutions of his hosts. Trained as a Norman knight, and participating in the campaigns of William I. In 1087, William I died, and his eldest surviving son Robert Curthose succeeded him as Duke of Normandy. According to Florence of Worcester, Robert released Duncan from custody and had him officially knighted. Duncan was allowed to leave the Duchy of Normandy. He chose to join the court of William II of England, younger brother to Robert. His father, who had many sons, appears to have made no effort to obtain Duncan's return. Edward, the eldest paternal, half-brother of Duncan had been designated heir in his absence. Duncan notably chose to stay with his adoptive culture. Partly due to the influence of 15-years of Norman life, partly in pursuit of personal wealth and glory.

    In 1092, hostilities between Malcolm III and William II were ongoing. William II managed to capture Carlisle, a major settlement of Cumbria. In 1093, William started construction of Carlisle Castle. Malcolm reacted by leading his last raid into Northumberland. While marching north again, Malcolm was ambushed by Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumbria, whose lands he had devastated, near Alnwick on 13 November 1093. There he was killed by Arkil Morel, steward of Bamburgh Castle. The conflict became known as the Battle of Alnwick. Edward was mortally wounded in the same fight. Malcolm's consort Margaret, it is said, died soon after receiving the news of their deaths from her son Edgar. The resulting power vacuum allowed Donalbane (Domnall Bán mac Donnchada), younger brother of Malcolm, to seize the throne. Reigning as Donald III, the new monarch represented the interests of "a resentful native aristocracy", driving out the Anglo-Saxons and Normans who had staffed the court of Malcolm and Margaret. The event allowed Duncan to lay claim to the throne, attempting to depose his uncle. He had the support of William II, in exchange of an oath of fealty to his patron.

    Marriage
    Duncan married Ethelreda of Northumbria, daughter of Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria. The marriage is recorded in the Cronicon Cumbriæ. They had a single known son, William fitz Duncan. A surviving charter of Duncan II mentions him as "infans mei" (Latin: my child), indicating that William was an only child.

    Reign and death
    Donald III had been unable to gain the support of certain landowners and church officials of the Scottish Lowlands, who had ties to the regime of his predecessor. Duncan took advantage, negotiating alliances with these disgruntled supporters of his fathers. Gaining essential military and financial support for his cause. While William II himself had no intention to join in the campaign, he lent part of the Norman army to the new "warrior-prince". Duncan was able to recruit further levies from local barons and towns of England. He bought support with promises of land and privilege, estates and title.

    By 1094, Duncan was leading a sizeable army, consisting of mercenary knights, and infantry. Many of these soldiers probably came from Northumbria, reflecting the familial association of Duncan to Gospatrick. In the early summer, Duncan led his army in an invasion of Scotland. Donald III mobilized his own vassals and troops in response. The early phase of the war took place in June, resulting in victory for Duncan. Donald III was forced to retreat towards the Scottish Highlands. Duncan II was crowned king at Scone, but his support and authority probably did not extend north of the Forth. His continued power was reliant on the presence of his Anglo-Norman allies.

    The continued presence of a foreign occupation army was naturally resented by much of the local population. Duncan II himself had spent most of his life abroad, granting him outsider status. Months into his reign, landowners and prelates rose against the Normans. The occupation army fared poorly against a series of ongoing raids. Duncan II was only able to maintain the throne by negotiating with the rebels. He agreed to their terms, sending most of his foreign supporters back to William II.

    Sending away his support troops soon backfired. The Lowland rebels seem to have seized their activities. But Donald III had spent the intervening months rebuilding his army and political support. In November 1094, Donald led his army to the Lowlands and confronted his nephew. On 12 November, Duncan II was ambushed and killed in battle, having reigned for less than seven months. Primary sources are unclear about the exact manner of his death. The Annals of Inisfallen report that "Donnchadh [Duncan] son of Mael Coluim [Malcolm], king of Alba, was slain by Domnall [Donald], son of Donnchadh [Duncan]. That same Domnall, moreover, afterwards took the kingship of Alba." The Annals of Ulster report that "Donnchad son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland, was treacherously killed by his own brothers Domnall and Edmond". As Duncan had no brothers by those names, the text probably points to his uncle Donald III and half-brother Edmund of Scotland, though later texts identify a noble by the name of Máel Petair of Mearns as the actual murderer.

    William of Malmesbury later reported that " "murdered by the wickedness of his uncle Donald". Florence of Worcester reported that Duncan was killed, but never states who killed him. In Chronicle of the Picts and Scots (1867), there is a 13th-century entry recording that Duncan was killed by Malpeder [Máel Petair], through the treachery of Donald. John of Fordun (14th century) finally recorded the better known account of the event, that Duncan II was "slain at Monthechin by the Earl of Mernys...through the wiles of his uncle Donald".

    There are two, contradictory accounts about the burial place of Duncan II. One reports him buried at Dunfermline Abbey, the other at the isle of Iona.

    Interpretation
    William Forbes Skene viewed the conflict between Donald III and Duncan II as being essentially a conflict between "the Celtic and the Saxon laws of succession". In other words, it was a conflict between tanistry and hereditary monarchy, Donald being the legitimate heir under the former, Duncan and his brothers under the latter. Donald probably derived his support from the Gaels of Scotland, who formed the majority of the population. His supporters would have had reason to feel threatened by the large number of Anglo-Saxons which had arrived in Scotland under the reign of Malcolm III. The descendants of Malcolm were Anglo-Saxons "in all respects, except that of birth". Their claim to power would be alarming at best to the Gaels.

    Skene considered that two foreign rulers played their own part in the conflict. Magnus III of Norway and his fleet were campaigning at the Irish Sea, attempting to establish his authority over the Kingdom of the Isles. The lack of conflict between Donald III and Magnus III might point to an alliance between them. Magnus offering recognition of Donald's rights to the throne, while Donald would withdraw all Scottish claims to the area. Duncan himself was obviously supported by William II of England, who lent him "a numerous army of English and Normans".

    The brief reign of Duncan II and his death at the hands of his own subjects, allude to his unpopularity. He was a usurper in the eyes of the Gaels. His half-brother Edgar, King of Scotland only managed to gain the throne due to the intervention of William II, his claims again opposed by most of the Gaels. The effects of Edgar's victory were significant, as Anglo-Saxon laws, institutions, and forms of government were adopted in the Kingdom of Scotland. All in "in imitation of the Ango-Saxon kingdoms", before David I (reigned 1124–1153) introduced Anglo-Norman institutions to the country.

    The Edinburgh History of Scottish Literature: From Columba to the Union, until 1707 includes a history of the Kingship by Benjamin Hudson. Hudson feels that Duncan II doomed his own reign by the "fatal move" of senting away his foreign troops, thus divesting himself of his own supporters. He feels that the male-line descendants of Malcolm III and Saint Margaret managed to hold to the throne until the 13th century, precisely because none of them made the same mistake. He points that Edgar succeeded in holding the throne for a decade, because he continued to depend on aid from his political patrons: William II and Henry I of England. The House of Normandy having resources far surpassing those of Donald III and his supporters.

    Legacy
    His son by Ethelreda, William fitz Duncan, was a prominent figure during the reigns of Duncan's half-brothers Alexander and David. William seems to have served as an acknowledged heir to them for part of their reigns.[19] His descendants the Meic Uilleim led various revolts against later Scottish kings. The last remaining Meic Uilleim, an infant daughter of Gille Escoib or one of his sons, was put to death in 1229 or 1230: "[T]he same Mac-William's daughter, who had not long left her mother's womb, innocent as she was, was put to death, in the burgh of Forfar, in view of the market place, after a proclamation by the public crier. Her head was struck against the column of the market cross, and her brains dashed out".

    The sole surviving charter of Duncan II granted Tynninghame and its surrounding area to the monks of Durham. Among the witnesses of the charter was someone called "Uuiget". The name is probably a rendering of the Old English "Wulfgeat", which was also rendered as "Uviet" in the Domesday Book. The name seems to have been popular in the Midlads and Southern England. There was at least one notable landowner of that name in 11th-century Yorkshire.

    G. W. S. Barrow argues that this "Uuiget" is actually Uviet the White, lord of Treverlen (modern Duddingston). Uviet is known for also signing charters of Kings Edgar (reigned 1097–1107), Alexander I (reigned 1107–1124), and David I (reigned 1124–1153). He was closely associated with the royal household for decades, his own descendants forming the landowning dynasties variously known as Uviet(h)s, Eviot(h)s, and Ovioths. With certain lines enduring to the 17th century. Barrows theorises that Uviet the White originally entered Scotland as a companion of Duncan II, and that the two shared a similar background, as ambitious knights in the court of William II. His continued support for Duncan's half-brothers points to them inheriting whatever circle of supporters Duncan had formed.

    Reputation
    The history of George Buchanan considers Duncan to have been summoned to Scotland by its people, as Donald had alienated "all good men who had a veneration for the memory of Malcolm and Margaret" and those nobles refusing to swear allegiance to him. Buchanan assesses Duncan as a distinguished and experienced military man. But "being a military man and not so skilful in the arts of peace", he angered his people with his arrogant and imperious matter.3,4
  • Last Edited: 22 Jan 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10216.htm#i102153
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingibiorg_Finnsdottir
  3. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duncan_II_of_Scotland

Edgar (?) King of the Scots

M, #3470, b. circa 1074, d. 8 January 1107

Edgar
King of Alba
or
King of the Scots

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Edgar was born circa 1074 in Scotland.1,2
  • Death*: He died on 8 January 1107 in Scotland.3
  • Biography*: Edgar was King of the Scots from 1097 to 1107.

    Edgar or Étgar mac Maíl Choluim (Modern Gaelic: Eagar mac Mhaoil Chaluim), nicknamed Probus, "the Valiant" (c. 1074 – 8 January 1107), was king of Alba from 1097 to 1107. He was the fourth son of Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) and Margaret of Wessex (later Saint Margaret) but the first to be considered eligible for the throne after the death of his father.

    Reign
    Edgar claimed the kingship in early 1095, following the murder of his half-brother Duncan II (Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim) in late 1094 by Máel Petair of Mearns, a supporter of Edgar's uncle Donald III (Domnall Bán mac Donnchada). His older brother Edmund sided with Donald, presumably in return for an appanage and acknowledgement as the heir of the ageing and son-less Donald.

    Edgar received limited support from William II (William Rufus) as Duncan had before him; however, the English king was occupied with a revolt led by Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumbria, who appears to have had the support of Donald and Edmund. Rufus campaigned in northern England for much of 1095, and during this time Edgar gained control only of Lothian. A charter issued at Durham at this time names him "... son of Máel Coluim King of Scots ... possessing the whole land of Lothian and the kingship of the Scots by the gift of my lord William, king of the English, and by paternal heritage."

    Edgar's claims had the support of his brothers Alexander and David — Ethelred was Abbot of Dunkeld, and Edmund was divided from his siblings by his support of Donald — and his uncle Edgar Ætheling as these witnessed the charter at Durham.

    William Rufus spent 1096 in Normandy which he bought from his brother Robert Curthose, and it was not until 1097 that Edgar received the further support which led to the defeat of Donald and Edmund in a hard-fought campaign led by Edgar Ætheling.

    Although Geoffrey Gaimar claimed that Edgar owed feudal service to William Rufus, it is clear from Rufus's agreement to pay Edgar 40 or 60 shillings a day maintenance when in attendance at the English court that this was less than accurate. In any event, he did attend the court on occasion. On 29 May 1099, for example, Edgar served as sword-bearer at the great feast to inaugurate Westminster Hall. After William Rufus's death, however, Edgar ceased to appear at the English court. He was not present at the coronation of Henry I.

    Edgar was certainly not heir by primogeniture, as later kings would be, since Duncan II had a legitimate son and heir in the person of William fitz Duncan. With Donald and Edmund removed, however, Edgar was uncontested king of Scots, and his reign incurred no major crisis. Compared with his rise to power, Edgar's reign is obscure. One notable act was his gift of a camel (or perhaps an elephant), presumably a 'souvenir' of the First Crusade, to his fellow Gael Muircheartach Ua Briain, High King of Ireland.
    In 1098, Edgar signed a treaty with Magnus Barefoot, King of Norway, setting the boundary between Scots and Norwegian claims in the west. By ceding claims to the Hebrides and Kintyre to Magnus, Edgar acknowledged the practical realities of the existing situation. Edgar's religious foundations included a priory at Coldingham in 1098, associated with the Convent of Durham. At Dunfermline Abbey he sought support from Anselm of Canterbury with his mother's foundation from which the monks of Canterbury may have been expelled by Domnall Bán.

    Edgar died in Edinburgh on 8 January 1107 and was buried at Dunfermline Abbey. Unmarried and childless, he acknowledged his brother Alexander as his successor. Edgar's will also granted David an appanage in "Cumbria" (the lands of the former Kingdom of Strathclyde), and perhaps also in southern parts of Lothian. David would later be known as Prince of the Cumbrians.

    Contradictory account of his death
    There is a contradictory account of his death, recorded by Orderic Vitalis (12th century). According to this account, Edgar was killed by his uncle Donald III. While Donald III was killed by Alexander I. This account reports: "On the death of Malcolm [III], king of the Scots, great divisions rose among them, in reference to the succession to the crown. Edgar, the king's eldest son, assumed it as his lawful right, but Donald, King Malcolm's brother, having usurped authority, opposed him with great cruelty, and at length the brave youth [Edgar] was murdered by his uncle. Alexander [I], however, his brother, slew Donald, and ascended the throne; being thus the avenger as well as the successor of his brother...".

    Benjamin Hudson dismisses the story as "completely false". But its existence points to the circulation of "incorrect" tales about the monarchs of the late 11th century. Verses of The Prophecy of Berchán allude to the murder of another Scottish king: "Alas a king will take sovereignity for four nights and one month;I think it is grievous that the Gaels will boast, woe to him who celebrates him. ... A son of the woman of the English... I think it is wretched, that his brother will kill him." The English woman is obviously Saint Margaret, the Anglo-Saxon consort of Malcolm III. But none of her children, male or female, are known to have been killed by one of their own siblings. The confusion probably derives from the murder of their half-sibling Duncan II of Scotland, son of Malcolm III and his first wife Ingibiorg Finnsdottir. A note in the Annals of Ulster claims that Duncan II was murdered by his brothers Donmall [Donald] and Edmund. As Duncan had no brothers by these names, the text probably points to his uncle Donald III and half-brother Edmund of Scotland. Though later texts identify a noble by the name of Máel Petair of Mearns as the actual murderer.1,3
  • Last Edited: 7 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10216.htm#i102153
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar,_King_of_Scotland.

Alexander I (?) King of the Scots

M, #3471, b. 1078, d. 23 April 1124

Alexander I
King of the Scots

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Alexander was born in 1078 in Scotland.1,2
  • Death*: He died on 23 April 1124 in Scotland.2
  • Biography*: Alexander I was King of the Scots from 1107 to 1124.

    Alexander I (c. 1078 – 23 April 1124), (Medieval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Maíl Coluim; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Mhaol Chaluim) and nicknamed "The Fierce", was King of the Scots from 1107 to his death.

    Life
    Alexander was the fifth son of Malcolm III by his wife Margaret of Wessex, grandniece of Edward the Confessor. Alexander was named after Pope Alexander II.
    He was the younger brother of King Edgar, who was unmarried, and his brother's heir presumptive by 1104 (and perhaps earlier). In that year he was the senior layman present at the examination of the remains of Saint Cuthbert at Durham prior to their re-interment. He held lands in Scotland north of the Forth and in Lothian.
    On the death of Edgar in 1107 he succeeded to the Scottish crown; but, in accordance with Edgar's instructions, their brother David was granted an appanage in southern Scotland. Edgar's will granted David the lands of the former kingdom of Strathclyde or Cumbria, and this was apparently agreed in advance by Edgar, Alexander, David and their brother-in-law Henry I of England. In 1113, perhaps at Henry's instigation, and with the support of his Anglo-Norman allies, David demanded, and received, additional lands in Lothian along the Upper Tweed and Teviot. David did not receive the title of king, but of "prince of the Cumbrians", and his lands remained under Alexander's final authority.

    The dispute over Tweeddale and Teviotdale does not appear to have damaged relations between Alexander and David, although it was unpopular in some quarters. A Gaelic poem laments:
    It's bad what Malcolm's son has done,
    dividing us from Alexander;
    he causes, like each king's son before,
    the plunder of stable Alba.

    The dispute over the eastern marches does not appear to have caused lasting trouble between Alexander and Henry of England. In 1114 he joined Henry on campaign in Wales against Gruffudd ap Cynan of Gwynedd. Alexander's marriage with Henry's illegitimate daughter Sybilla de Normandy may have occurred as early as 1107, or as at late as 1114.

    William of Malmesbury's account attacks Sybilla, but the evidence argues that Alexander and Sybilla were a devoted but childless couple and Sybilla was of noteworthy piety. Sybilla died in unrecorded circumstances at Eilean nam Ban (Kenmore on Loch Tay) in July 1122 and was buried at Dunfermline Abbey. Alexander did not remarry and Walter Bower wrote that he planned an Augustinian Priory at the Eilean nam Ban dedicated to Sybilla's memory, and he may have taken steps to have her venerated.

    Alexander had at least one illegitimate child, Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair, who was later to be involved in a revolt against David I in the 1130s. He was imprisoned at Roxburgh for many years afterwards, perhaps until his death some time after 1157.

    Alexander was, like his brothers Edgar and David, a notably pious king. He was responsible for foundations at Scone and Inchcolm. His mother's chaplain and hagiographer Thurgot was named Bishop of Saint Andrews (or Cell Rígmonaid) in 1107, presumably by Alexander's order. The case of Thurgot's would-be successor Eadmer shows that Alexander's wishes were not always accepted by the religious community, perhaps because Eadmer had the backing of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Ralph d'Escures, rather than Thurstan of York. Alexander also patronised Saint Andrews, granting lands intended for an Augustinian Priory, which may have been the same as that intended to honour his wife.

    For all his religiosity, Alexander was not remembered as a man of peace. John of Fordun says of him:
    Now the king was a lettered and godly man; very humble and amiable towards the clerics and regulars, but terrible beyond measure to the rest of his subjects; a man of large heart, exerting himself in all things beyond his strength.

    He manifested the terrible aspect of his character in his reprisals in the Mormaerdom of Moray. Andrew of Wyntoun's Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland says that Alexander was holding court at Invergowrie when he was attacked by "men of the Isles". Walter Bower says the attackers were from Moray and Mearns. Alexander pursued them north, to "Stockford" in Ross (near Beauly) where he defeated them. This, says Wyntoun, is why he was named the "Fierce". The dating of this is uncertain, as are his enemies' identity. However, in 1116 the Annals of Ulster report: "Ladhmann son of Domnall, grandson of the king of Scotland, was killed by the men of Moray." The king referred to is Alexander's father, Malcolm III, and Domnall was Alexander's half brother. The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray was ruled by the family of Macbeth (Mac Bethad mac Findláich) and Lulach (Lulach mac Gille Coemgáin); not overmighty subjects, but a family who had ruled Alba within little more than a lifetime. Who the Mormaer or King was at this time is not known, it may have been Óengus of Moray or his father, whose name is not known. As for the Mearns, the only known Mormaer of Mearns, Máel Petair, had murdered Alexander's half-brother Duncan II (Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim) in 1094.

    Alexander died in April 1124 at his court at Stirling; his brother David, probably the acknowledged heir since the death of Sybilla, succeeded him.

    Fictional portrayals
    Alexander I has been depicted in a fantasy novel.:
    Pater Nostras Canis Dirus: The Garrison Effect (2010). Alexander is depicted troubled by his lack of direct heirs, having no child with his wife Sybilla of Normandy. He points that his father-in-law Henry I of England is asking them for a grandson.1,3
  • Last Edited: 22 Jan 2015

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10216.htm#i102153
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_I_of_Scotland

Henry (?) Earl of Huntingdon1

M, #3472, b. circa 1114, d. 1152

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Henry was born circa 1114 in Scotland.2,3
  • Marriage*: He married Ada de Warenne in 1139 in England.2,4
  • Death*: Henry died in 1152.2
  • Biography*: He succeeded to the title of Earl of Huntingdon circa February 1136. He gained the title of Earl of Northumberland in 1139.3

Family: Ada de Warenne b. 1120, d. c 1178

  • Last Edited: 15 Jun 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10778.htm
  2. [S218] Stewart Ross, Monarchs of Scotland.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10293.htm#i102926
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ada_de_Warenne
  5. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10777.htm#i107770
  6. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10248.htm#i102479

Ada de Warenne1

F, #3473, b. 1120, d. circa 1178

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Ada was born in 1120 in England.4,2,3
  • Marriage*: She married Henry (?) Earl of Huntingdon in 1139 in England.4,3
  • Death*: Ada de Warenne died circa 1178.2
  • Biography*: Ada de Warenne (or Adeline de Varenne) (c. 1120 – 1178) was the Anglo-Norman wife of Henry of Scotland, Earl of Northumbria and Earl of Huntingdon. She was the daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey by Elizabeth of Vermandois, and a great-granddaughter of Henry I of France. She became mother to two Kings of Scots, Malcolm the Maiden and William the Lion.

    Marriage and motherhood
    Ada and Henry were married in England in 1139.[1] They had seven children:
    Malcolm IV, King of Scots.
    William the Lion, King of Scots
    Margaret of Huntingdon married 1) Conan IV, Duke of Brittany and 2) Humphrey III de Bohun.[2]
    David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon married Mathilda (Maud) of Chester. Through their daughter, Isobel, they were the direct ancestors of the renowned Scottish King, Robert the Bruce.
    Matilda of Huntingdon, born and died 1152.
    Marjorie of Huntingdon, married Gille Críst, Earl of Angus.
    Ada of Huntingdon, married Count Floris III of Holland.

    As part of her marriage settlement, the new Countess Ada was granted the privileges of Haddington, amongst others in East Lothian. Previously the seat of a thanage Haddington is said to be the first Royal burgh in Scotland, created by Countess Ada's father-in-law, David I of Scotland, who held it along with the church and a mill.

    In close succession both her husband and King David died, in 1152 and 1153 respectively. Following the death of Henry, who was buried at Kelso Abbey, King David arranged for his grandson to succeed him, and at Scone on 27 May 1153, the twelve-year-old was declared Malcolm IV, King of Scots. Following his coronation, Malcolm installed his brother William as Earl of Northumbria (although this county was "restored" to King Henry II of England by Malcolm in 1157), and the young dowager-Countess retired to her lands at Haddington.

    On Thursday 9 December 1165 King Malcolm died at the age of 25 without issue. His mother had at that time been attempting to arrange a marriage between him and Constance, daughter of Conan III, Duke of Brittany, but Malcolm died before the wedding could be celebrated.

    Following his brother's death Ada's younger son William became King of Scots at the age of twenty two. William the Lion was to become the longest serving King of Scots until the Union of the Crowns in 1603.

    Church patroness
    Religious houses were established in Haddington at an early date. They came to include the Blackfriars (who came into Scotland in 1219) and most notably the Church of the Greyfriars, or Minorites (came into Scotland in the reign of Alexander II), which would become famous as "Lucerna Laudoniae"- The Lamp of Lothian, the toft of land upon which it stands being granted by King David I of Scotland to the Prior of St. Andrews (to whom the patronage of the church of Haddington belonged). David I also granted to the monks of Dunfermline "unam mansuram" in Haddington, as well as to the monks of Haddington a full toft "in burgo meo de Hadintun, free of all custom and service."

    Ada devoted her time to good works, improving the lot of the Church at Haddington, where she resided. Countess Ada gave lands to the south and west of the River Tyne near to the only crossing of the river for miles, to found a Convent of Cistercian Nuns ("white nuns") dedicated to St. Mary, in what was to become the separate Burgh of Nungate, the extant remains are still to be seen in the ruined parish church of St. Martin. The nunnery she endowed with the lands of Begbie, at Garvald and Keith Marischal amongst other temporal lands. Miller, however, states that she only "founded and richly endowed a nunnery at the Abbey of Haddington" and that "Haddington, as demesne of the Crown, reverted to her son William the Lion upon her death".

    Haddington seat
    According to inscriptions within the town of Haddington, Countess Ada's residence was located near the present day County buildings and Sheriff Court. Countess Ada died in 1178 and is thought to be buried locally. Her remaining dower-lands were brought back into the Royal desmesne and William the Lion's wife, Ermengarde de Beaumont, is said to have taken to her bed in Countess Ada's house to bear the future Alexander II. Miller states that when the future King was born in Haddington in 1198 it took place "in the palace of Haddington".3

Family: Henry (?) Earl of Huntingdon b. c 1114, d. 1152

  • Last Edited: 15 Jun 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10778.htm
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10293.htm#i102929
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ada_de_Warenne
  4. [S218] Stewart Ross, Monarchs of Scotland.
  5. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10777.htm#i107770
  6. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10248.htm#i102479

Dugall (?)

M, #3474

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Last Edited: 7 Oct 2012

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Mary MacDonald1

F, #3476, b. circa 1350

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Last Edited: 27 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/…
  2. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  3. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 59.
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50587.htm#i505862

Lachlan 'Lubanach' MacLean 2nd of Duart1

M, #3477, b. circa 1350, d. before 1405

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Lachlan was born circa 1350 in Scotland.3
  • Marriage*: He married Mary MacDonald, daughter of John the Good of Isla Lord of the Isles and Euphemia MacRuairi, circa 1380 in Scotland.4,5
  • Death*: Lachlan 'Lubanach' MacLean 2nd of Duart died before 1405 in Scotland.2,4
  • Biography: House Steward to the Lord of the Isles.

    The date of the beginning of Lachainn Lubanach as fifth chief of MacLean, and successor to his father, Iain Dubh mac Gilliemore Maclean, is not known. It was probably before 1365.

    His feuds with the MacDougalls and Camerons were during that period after he became chief. John of Islay, Lord of the Isles, lived until 1386, when he was succeeded by his son Domhnall of Islay, Lord of the Isles. Under Domhnall, as the second Lord of the Isles, Lachlan took due precaution to have his lands confirmed by charter, which occurred in 1390.

    He married Mary Mcdonald, the daughter of John of Islay, Lord of the Isles. They had five sons:
    Eachuinn Ruadh nan cath Maclean, also known as Hector, his successor in Duart
    John Maclean
    Lachlan Maclean
    Neil Maclean
    Somerled Maclean

    Lachlan Lubanach lived to a great age, but the date of his death is not known, but it must have been before 1405, for on January 28, 1405 of that year, at Dundonald, Hector was a witness to a charter confirmed by the king in favour of James Kennedy.

    Lachlan Lubanach is generally regarded as the first Maclean of Duart because the oldest recorded charter in existence is in his favour. But that does not imply that he was the first possessor.

    A fictionalized legendary account of Lachlan's marriage and coming in possession of Duart was given by Fitzroy MacLean in The Isles of The Sea.2,4

Family: Mary MacDonald b. c 1350

  • Last Edited: 27 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50587.htm#i505862
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50587.htm#i505860
  3. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/…
  5. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 59.

Hugh (?) Thane of Glentilt

M, #3478, b. circa 1365

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Last Edited: 28 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

[heiress] Mackintosh of Glentilt

F, #3479, b. circa 1360

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Hugh (?) Thane of Glentilt b. c 1365

  • Last Edited: 1 Dec 2014

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Margaret MacDonald

F, #3480, b. circa 1365

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Last Edited: 28 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 60.