Raymond Pons (?) Count of Toulouse1

M, #7771, b. circa 920, d. circa 960

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Name Variation: Raymond Pons (?) Count of Toulouse was also known as Raimond III Pons (?) Comte de Toulouse.3
  • Birth*: He was born circa 920 in Toulouse, France*.3,1
  • Marriage*: He married Gersende (?) circa 945.3
  • Marriage*: Raymond Pons (?) Count of Toulouse married Adelaide d'Anjou, daughter of Fulk II d'Anjou Comte d'Anjou and Gerberge de Tours, circa 947 in France*.4
  • Death*: Raymond Pons (?) Count of Toulouse died circa 960 in Toulouse, France*.2
  • Biography*: He succeeded to the title of Comte de Toulouse in 924.

    Raymond Pons (Regimundus Pontio; died after 944), who may be numbered Raymond III or Pons I,[1] was the Count of Toulouse from 924.

    In 932, Raymond Pons with his uncle, Count Ermengol of Rouergue, and the Duke of Gascony, Sancho IV, travelled north to do homage to King Rudolph.

    In 936, Raymond Pons founded the monastery of Chanteuges. Between 940 and 941, he controlled Auvergne. In 944, when Hugh the Great and King Louis IV entered Aquitaine, the former met Raymond at Nevers and confirmed his titles while the Toulousain returned with the king to the royal court.

    Raymond Pons married a daughter of García II of Gascony, who was either the same person as his known wife Gersenda or a distinct earlier wife. He was succeeded by his son Raymond (III).2,1

Family 1: Gersende (?)

Family 2: Adelaide d'Anjou b. c 940, d. 1026

  • Last Edited: 9 Dec 2014

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_Pons,_Count_of_Toulouse.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p398.htm#i3976
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p11358.htm#i113577
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_III,_Count_of_Toulouse.

Gersende (?)1

F, #7772

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

Family: Raymond Pons (?) Count of Toulouse b. c 920, d. c 960

  • Last Edited: 9 Dec 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p11358.htm#i113577

Raymond II (?) Count of Toulouse1

M, #7773, b. circa 870, d. 924

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Name Variation: Raymond II (?) Count of Toulouse was also known as Raimond II (?) Comte de Toulouse.3
  • Birth*: He was born circa 870 in Toulouse, France*.3,4
  • Death*: He died in 924 in Toulouse, France*.2,1
  • Biography*: He succeeded to the title of Comte de Toulouse in 919.

    Raymond II (died 924) was the Count of Toulouse, Nîmes, and Albi. He was the, probably elder, son of Odo of Toulouse and Garsenda.

    In 886, at the death of Bernard the Calf, he succeeded to the comital title in Nîmes and Albi while Odo his father received the county of Toulouse. In 898, his father made him Count of Rouergue. In 906, Odo gave Rouergue to his younger son Ermengol and made Raymond co-count in Toulouse. In 918, Odo died and Toulouse went to Raymond, while Rouergue, along with Nîmes and Albi, went to Ermengol. Raymond also received his father's title of Duke of Septimania. He died in 924 and left his titles to his son Raymond Pons.

    Raymond married Guinidilda, daughter of Wilfred II Borrel, Count of Barcelona. Their only child was Raymond Pons.2,1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 2 Nov 2014

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_II,_Count_of_Toulouse.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p15042.htm#i150416
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p398.htm#i3976
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odo,_Count_of_Toulouse.

Odo (?) Count of Toulouse1

M, #7774, b. circa 850, d. 919

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Name Variation: Odo (?) Count of Toulouse was also known as Eudes (?) Comte de Toulouse.3
  • Birth*: He was born circa 850 in Toulouse, France*.3,1
  • Death*: He died in 919.2
  • Biography*: Odo (or Eudes) (also Odon or Odonus) was the Count of Toulouse from 872 to 918 or 919, when he died.

    He was a son of Raymond I of Toulouse and Bertha[1] or of Bernard II of Toulouse.

    He married Garsenda, daughter of Ermengol of Albi, and probably had three children. His sons were Raymond II, whom he associated in the countship by giving him Rouergue (before 898), and Ermengol, who inherited that same province. It has been suggested for onomastic reasons that Odo was the father of Garsenda, wife of Wilfred II of Barcelona.2,1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 31 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odo,_Count_of_Toulouse.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p15042.htm#i150417
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p15042.htm#i150416

Raymond I (?) Count of Toulouse1

M, #7775, d. 865

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Raymond I (?) Count of Toulouse was born in France*.3
  • Name Variation: Raymond I (?) Count of Toulouse was also known as Raimond I (?) Comte de Toulouse.3
  • Death*: He died in 865 in France*.2,1
  • Biography*: He succeeded to the title of Comte de Toulouse in 852.

    Raymond I (died 865) was the Count of Limoges (from 841), Rouergue and Quercy (from 849), and Toulouse and Albi (from 852). He was the younger son of Fulcoald of Rouergue and Senegund, niece of William of Gellone through his sister Alda.

    In 852, on the death of his brother Fredelo, he, already count of Limoges, Quercy, and Rouergue, received Toulouse and Albi. In 862, he was attacked by Humfrid, Count of Barcelona, and forced to abdicate Limoges. In 863, he was likewise forced to abdicate Rouergue and Toulouse. He died in 865 while fighting for his possessions against the new count Sunifred I.

    Raymond married Bertha and had five children:
    Bernard II, count at one time or another of Toulouse, Rouergue, Quercy, Albi, and Nîmes
    Fulgaud, viscount of Limoges
    Odo, count at one time or another of Toulouse, Rouergue, and Quercy and duke of Septimania
    Aribert, abbot of Vabres
    a daughter who married Lupo I of Bigorre.2,1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 2 Nov 2014

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_I,_Count_of_Toulouse.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p15042.htm#i150418
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p15042.htm#i150417

Fulcoald (?) Comte de Rouergue1

M, #7776

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Fulcoald (?) Comte de Rouergue was born in France.1
  • Name Variation: Fulcoald (?) Comte de Rouergue was also known as Fulcoald (?) Count of Rouergue.2
  • Biography*: Fulcoald, Foucaud, Fulguald or Fulqualdus is sometimes called the Count of Rouergue and founder of that dynasty of counts which ruled Toulouse and often all of Gothia for the next four centuries. In 837, he was appointed missus dominicus along with Ragambald in the pago Rutenico seu Nemausense: country of Rouergue and Nîmes (probably Septimania).

    Fulcoald married Senegunda (or Senegundia, French Sénégonde), whose family is not recorded, although some web sites, without source, name her as a daughter of Alda ("of Gellone"). By her he had two sons: Fredelo and Raymond.2
  • Last Edited: 11 Oct 2014

Paul Thorfinnsson1

M, #7777, b. circa 1025, d. after 1098

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Paul Thorfinnsson was born circa 1025 in Norway*.1
  • Death*: He died after 1098.2
  • Biography*: Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson were the sons of Thorfinn Sigurdsson and Ingibiorg Finnsdottir. Through Ingibiorg's father Finn Arnesson and his wife, the family was related to the Norwegian Kings Olav II and Harald II.

    Their lives and times are recounted in the Orkneyinga Saga. The first mention of the brothers is when they accompanied the Norwegian king Harald Hardrade and Tostig Godwinson on the ill-fated expedition to England in 1066. Paul and Erlend were with Harald's son Olaf Kyrre, guarding the ships, when the battle of Stamford Bridge was fought. Along with Olaf they were allowed to leave by the English king Harold Godwinson. Olaf overwintered on Orkney with them and left on good terms with the Thorfinssons.

    The saga says that Paul and Erlend were on good terms until their children grew to adulthood, after which the disputes between their sons led to a quarrel and open hostility between the brothers. As the disputes between the descendants of Paul and Erlend loomed large in the affairs of 12th century Orkney, the saga goes into some detail on their family relationships.

    Paul was married to an unnamed daughter of Norwegian earl Hakon Ivarsson. Two sons and four daughters are named. Of these, Hakon played the greatest part in events.
    Erlend married Thora, daughter of one Sumarlidi Ospaksson, and they had two sons and two daughters, while Erlend had a third, illegitimate daughter as well. Erlend's son Magnus appears in the saga as earl, martyr and saint. The troubles between the earls began with rivalry between Hakon Paulsson and Magnus's brother Erling. Both are described as quarrelsome, arrogant men, and talented too. Erland's daughter Gunnhild's was married to Kol Kalison and Rognvald Kali Kolsson was their son.

    Magnus III of Norway took possession of the islands in 1098, deposing Erlend and Paul. Paul's son, Haakon Paulsson, then became regent on behalf of the Norwegian prince, the future King Sigurd I of Norway, who made Haakon earl in 1105.2

Family:

  • Last Edited: 16 Dec 2016

Ingibiorg Finnsdottir1

F, #7778, b. circa 1000, d. circa 1069

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Ingibiorg Finnsdottir was born circa 1000 in Norway*.1
  • Marriage*: She married Thorfinn Sigurdsson, son of Sigurd Hlodvirsson and Olith (?), circa 1025.1
  • Marriage*: Ingibiorg Finnsdottir married Malcolm III 'Canmore' (?) King of the Scots, son of Duncan I (?) King of the Scots and Sybilla (?) of Northumbria, circa 1058 in Scotland.2
  • Death*: Ingibiorg Finnsdottir died circa 1069 in Scotland.2
  • Biography*: Ingibiorg Finnsdottir (Standard Old Norse: Ingibjörg Finnsdóttir) was a daughter of Earl Finn Arnesson and Bergljot Halvdansdottir (Halfdansdottir), a niece of the Norwegian Kings Saint Olaf and Harald Hardraade. She is also known as Ingibiorg, the Earls'-Mother. The dates of her life are not certainly known.

    She married Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney. The Orkneyinga Saga claims that Kalf Arnesson, Ingibiorg's uncle, was exiled in Orkney after her marriage to Thorfinn. This was during the reign of Magnus the Good, son of Saint Olaf, who ruled from 1035 to 1047, and probably before the death of Harthacanute in 1042. Thorfinn and Ingibiorg had two known sons, Paul and Erlend, who fought in Harald Hardraade's ill-fated invasion of the Kingdom of England in 1066.

    Ingibiorg remarried after Thorfinn's death (date unknown). Her second husband was Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada), the King of Scots. Whatever the exact date of the marriage, Malcolm and Ingibiorg had at least one son, and probably two. The Orkneyinga Saga tells us that Duncan II of Scotland (Donnchad mac Mail Coluim') was their son, and it is presumed that the "Domnall son of Máel Coluim, King of Scotland" whose death in 1085 is reported by the Annals of Ulster was their son.

    Ingibiorg is presumed to have died in around 1069 as Malcolm married Margaret, sister of Edgar Ætheling, in about 1070. It may be, however, that she died before Malcolm became king, as an Ingeborg comitissa appears in the Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis, a list of those monks and notables from whom prayers were said at Durham, alongside persons known to have died around 1058. If Ingibiorg was never Queen, it would help to explain the apparent ignorance of her existence displayed by some Scots chroniclers.2

Family 1: Thorfinn Sigurdsson b. c 1009, d. c 1064

  • Last Edited: 18 Sep 2016

Thorfinn Sigurdsson1

M, #7779, b. circa 1009, d. circa 1064

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Thorfinn Sigurdsson was born circa 1009 in Norway*.3
  • Marriage*: He married Ingibiorg Finnsdottir, daughter of Earl Finn Arnesson and Bergljot Halvdansdottir, circa 1025.4
  • Death*: Thorfinn Sigurdsson died circa 1064.2
  • Biography*: Thorfinn Sigurdsson (1009?–c. 1064?), called Thorfinn the Mighty, was an 11th-century Earl of Orkney. One of five brothers (with Brusi, Sumarlidi, Einar and Hvelp), sons of Earl Sigurd Hlodvirsson by his marriage to the daughter of Malcolm II of Scotland. Thorfinn was the youngest of the five known sons of Earl Sigurd Hlodvirsson, but the only son of Sigurd's marriage to a daughter of Máel Coluim mac Cináeda. His elder half-brothers Einar, Brusi and Sumarlidi survived to adulthood, while a brother called Hundi ("the Dog") or 'Hvelp ("the Whelp") died in Norway, a hostage at the court of King Olaf Trygvasson. Thorfinn married Ingibiorg Finnsdottir, daughter of Finn Arnesson, Jarl of Halland.

    The Heimskringla of Icelandic historian Snorri Sturluson, and the anonymous compiler of the Orkneyinga Saga, wrote that Thorfinn was the most powerful of all the earls of Orkney. He is said to have been earl for seventy-five years and ruler of nine earldoms in Scotland, of the Hebrides, and of part of Ireland. A sizable part of the account in the Orkneyinga Saga concerns his wars with a "King of Scots" named Karl Hundason whose identity is very uncertain.

    Background
    Thorfinn was the youngest of the five known sons of Earl Sigurd Hlodvirsson, but the only son of Sigurd's marriage to a daughter of Máel Coluim mac Cináeda. His elder half-brothers Einar, Brusi and Sumarlidi survived to adulthood, while a brother called Hundi ("the Dog") or 'Hvelp ("the Whelp") died in Norway, a hostage at the court of King Olaf Trygvasson.

    Earl Sigurd was killed at the Battle of Clontarf on 23 April 1014. Before setting out for Ireland, he had sent Thorfinn, then aged five, to be fostered by his maternal grandfather, the King of Scots. When the news of Sigurd's death came, Thorfinn's older half-brothers divided Orkney and Shetland between them. King Máel Coluim set Thorfinn up as ruler of Caithness and Sutherland with Scots advisors to rule for him. The lands in the Hebrides which Earl Sigurd had held appear to have escaped control of the earls of Orkney at this time.

    The Orkneyinga Saga gives this description of Thorfinn:
    He was unusually tall and strong, an ugly-looking man with a black head of hair, sharp features, a big nose and bushy eyebrows, a forceful man, greedy for fame and fortune. He did well in battle, for he was both a good tactician and full of courage.

    Joint rule
    Sumarlidi died some time before 1020, and the disposition of his third share in Orkney and Shetland became a matter of dispute. Thorfinn had grown up fast, and he claimed Sumarlidi's third as his. While Brusi was willing to grant it to him, Einar was not and took it for himself. Einar was an unpopular ruler, and the farmers of the isles objected to his frequent calls for military service and taxes. A certain Thorkel Amundason led the opposition to Einar. Thorkel, in danger of his life, fled to Thorfinn's court in Caithness, and became his foster-father, from which the other name by which he is known, Thorkel the Fosterer. Einar and Thorfinn began raising armies to settle matters by force, but Earl Brusi made peace between them by persuading Einar to give Thorfinn what he asked for.

    Thorfinn appointed Thorkel the Fosterer as his tax-gatherer in the islands, but Einar had not forgotten their earlier dispute and Thorkel left the islands in fear of his life, returning to Caithness. Thorkel then travelled to Norway with Thorfinn's support, to meet with King Olaf Haraldsson. He was well received there, for Olaf bore his own grudge against Einar for the killing of his comrade Eyvind Aurochs-Horn some years earlier. Olaf invited Thorfinn to Norway, and he too was welcomed to Olaf's court. Thorfinn and Thorkel returned to Orkney, to find Einar raising an army against them. Brusi again made peace between them, but this ended with Einar planning Thorkel's killing and Thorkel killing Einar first. The killing of Earl Einar is dated to 1020 by the Icelandic Annals.

    The death of Einar did not end the dispute over Sumarlidi's third of the islands. Brusi considered that it belonged to him, as he and Einar had agreed when Thorfinn received a third of the islands. Thorfinn thought that the islands should be divided equally. However, Thorfinn could count on the assistance of his grandfather, King Máel Coluim, while Brusi had only the forces he could raise from his share of the islands, making any conflict a very unequal one. Brusi went to Norway, to the court of King Olaf Haraldsson, to have Olaf judge the dispute, and Thorfinn joined him there. Brusi surrendered the earldom to Olaf, who granted a third to each brother, and kept a third for himself. Thorfinn attempted to use his relationship with the King of Scots as a means to avoid acknowledging Olaf as his overlord in Orkney and Shetland, but Olaf threatened to appoint another to rule Thorfinn's share. Following Thorkel the Fosterer's advice, Thorfinn agreed to Olaf's settlement. After Thorfinn left Norway, Olaf gave Brusi the disputed third to rule on his behalf, but kept Brusi's son Rognvald in Norway as a hostage. These events are dated to 1021.

    The arrangement with Olaf Haraldsson lasted while Olaf was king. But in 1028 he was overthrown by the Danish king Canute the Great. After this, the islands were raided by Norwegians and Danes. In order to have the islands better defended, Brusi agreed to give King Olaf's third to Thorfinn, in return for Thorfinn seeing to the defence of the islands. This agreement lasted until Brusi's death, some time between 1030 and 1035. After that, Thorfinn was sole ruler of the earldom. This resulted in Thorfinn holding the Earldom of Caithness from the King of Scots and the Jarldom of Orkney from the King of Norway.

    Karl Hundason
    The Orkneyinga Saga says that a dispute between Thorfinn and Karl Hundason began when Karl Hundason became "King of Scots" and claimed Caithness. In the war which followed, Thorfinn defeated Karl in a sea-battle off Deerness at the east end of the Orkney Mainland. Then Karl's nephew Mutatan or Muddan, appointed to rule Caithness for him, was killed at Thurso by Thorkel the Fosterer. Finally, a great battle at Tarbat Ness on the south side of the Dornoch Firth ended with Karl defeated and fugitive or dead. Thorfinn, the saga says, then marched south through Scotland as far as Fife, burning and plundering as he passed. A later note in the saga claims that Thorfinn won nine Scottish earldoms.

    The identity of Karl Hundason, unknown to Scots and Irish sources, has long been a matter of dispute, and it is far from clear that the matter is settled. The most common assumption is that Karl Hundason was an insulting byname ("Churl, son of a Dog") given to Mac Bethad (MacBeth) by his enemies. Skene's suggestion that he was Donnchad mac Crínáin has been revived in recent years. Lastly, the idea that the whole affair is a poetic invention has been raised.

    Whoever Karl son of Hundi may have been, it appears that the saga is reporting a local conflict with a Scots ruler of Moray or Ross:
    [T]he whole narrative is consistent with the idea that the struggle of Thorfinn and Karl is a continuation of that which had been waged since the ninth century by the Orkney earls, notably Sigurd Rognvald's son, Ljot, and Sigurd the Stout, against the princes or mormaers of Moray, Sutherland, Ross, and Argyll, and that, in fine, Malcolm and Karl were mormaers of one of these four provinces.

    Rognvald Brusason
    Thorfinn ruled alone in Orkney until the return of his nephew Rognvald Brusason in about 1037. Rognvald had received the favour of King Magnus the Good, who granted him Brusi's share of the islands and the third which Olaf Haraldsson had claimed after Einar's death. Thorfinn agreed to this division, but presented the transfer of the third claimed by the Norwegian king as a gift to Rognvald in return for aid in Thorfinn's wars in the Hebrides and the Irish Sea.

    King Sigtrygg Silkbeard had died in 1035 or 1036, and the kingship in Dublin had come to Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, who was challenged by Imar mac Arailt and driven out in 1038. This instability in Dublin can only have helped Thorfinn and Rognvald, who raided far and wide and established their rule over some part of the lands around the Irish Sea. They are said to have won a major victory beside Vattenfjord, perhaps Loch Vatten on the west coast of the Isle of Skye. The Earls are said to have raided in England, with mixed success.

    In time, Thorfinn and Rognvald fell out. The vivid account of the war between Thorfinn and Rognvald in the Orkneyinga Saga which survives may well be only a part of a much longer saga now lost.[20] Their enmity arose with the arrival of Kalf Arnesson and his followers in Orkney. Kalf was the uncle of Thorfinn's wife Ingibiorg Finnsdottir, and had left Norway to escape King Magnus Olafsson.[21] Rognvald, with Kalf's brothers, had shared Magnus's exile in Kievan Rus under the protection of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, and the saga says that when Kalf came to Ladoga to invite Magnus back to Norway, Rognvald almost attacked him.[22] Thorfinn, it is said, found hosting Kalf and his men a burden, and in time asked Rognvald to return the third of the earldom "which had once belonged to Einar Wry-Mouth". Rognvald refused, saying that it was for King Magnus to settle matters. Thorfinn began raising an army, and Rognvald's islanders were unwilling to fight Thorfinn, so Rognvald sailed to Norway where King Magnus supplied him with ships and men. He returned to the islands, facing Thorfinn and Kalf Arnesson in a sea battle which Arnor the skald commemorated in verse. The battle went Rognvald's way to begin with, but in the end he was defeated and forced again to seek refuge with King Magnus.

    King Magnus offered to fit out another expedition for Rognvald, but he decided to take just one ship and a picked crew. He sailed to Shetland in winter, and learning that Thorfinn was staying on a farm on the Orkney Mainland with only a few men, he set out at once to attack him. Rognvald's men surprised Thorfinn, and set the farm ablaze. The saga says that Thorfinn had to break down a wall and escape, carrying his wife in his arms, flying south to Caithness for safety. Rognvald ruled in Kirkwall over the winter, believing Thorfinn dead, but in the spring, while staying on Papa Stronsay, Thorfinn and his men turned the tables, taking Rognvald by surprise, just as he had surprised Thorfinn. Rognvald escaped the house, but was tracked down, given away by the barking of his lap dog, and killed by Thorkell the Fosterer.

    Pilgrimage
    Even with Rognvald dead, Thorfinn was not entirely secure. The saga recounts an attempt to make peace with Magnus Olafsson, who had sworn vengeance for the death of his men in Thorfinn's attack on Rognvald. Magnus was at war with the Danish king Sweyn Estridsson, and died before he could take any action. Magnus's uncle and successor, Harald Sigurdsson, better known as Harald Hardrada, was more friendly towards Thorfinn, and made a peace, accepting Thorfinn's gifts.

    Unlike his kinsmen, Thorfinn had been raised as a Christian. The Orkneyinga Saga knows of only two sons of Thorfinn, both by his wife Ingibiorg, as opposed to the multiple marriages which appear to have been common before his time. Among the signs of this change in outlook is Thorfinn's pilgrimage to Rome, which took place after his meeting with Harald Sigurdsson, probably beginning in 1048. The saga says that he travelled through Saxony, meeting with Emperor Henry (Henry III) on the journey. Although the saga does not say so, it is thought that he also met with Archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen.

    As a result of Thorfinn's request, it appears that the first Bishop of Orkney was appointed at about this time. Named Thorulf, he may have been the same person as "Roolwer", Bishop of the Isles. The original seat of the bishops of Orkney was Thorfinn's Christchurch at Birsay, or perhaps the Brough of Birsay, where he had his residence in his later years.

    Death and legends
    The Orkneyinga Saga dates Thorfinn's death no more precisely than placing it "towards the end" of Harald Sigurdsson's reign, which is far from exact. Thorfinn returned from Rome in around 1050 and Harald Sigurdsson died at the battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066, leaving a period of perhaps a decade in which Thorfinn's death might be placed. Historians offering a later date, sometimes as late as 1065, propose that King Máel Coluim mac Donnchada married a postulated daughter of Thorfinn named Ingibiorg rather than his widow. If a date in the early 1050s is presumed, then Máel Coluim could well have married Thorfinn's widow as the saga says.

    Archie Duncan argued that Máel Coluim mac Donnchada came to marry Thorfinn's widow because he spent some or all of the period of Mac Bethad's reign in Orkney or Caithness at Thorfinn's court. Thorfinn and Máel Coluim were both descendants of Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, daughter's son and daughter's grandson respectively, and both had good reason to be hostile to Mac Bethad and his kinsmen, the Kings of Moray.

    A less orthodox suggestion was made by author Dorothy Dunnett in her 1982 novel King Hereafter. In the 19th century, William Forbes Skene noted that the historical sources which mention Thorfinn do not know of Mac Bethad, and vice versa. Pursuing this further, Dunnett wrote a novel taking Mac Bethad and Thorfinn to be the same person.

    He was followed as earl by his sons Paul and Erlend.
    Thorfinn was buried in the grounds of St. Magnus Church, Birsay, Mainland Orkney. He is known to history as Thorfinn the Mighty, and at his height of power, he controlled all of Orkney and Shetland, the Hebrides, Caithness and Sutherland, and his influence extended over much of the north of Scotland. The Orkneyinga Saga makes a grander claim - that he controlled seven earldoms in Scotland. As there were only seven earldoms in total, this seems to claim he was King of Scots; but is more probably referring to the strong alliance he held with his half-brother or cousin (historians still debate on this) Macbeth of Moray, King of Scotia. This claim may reflect a royal pretension of his, derived from maternal descent from a king Malcolm (who probably was Malcolm mac Melbrigte, ruler of Moray and titular high king of Alba). Maternal descent, according e.g. Bede's historical accounts, was a strong right to Pictish throne, the lands of Moray and Alba ('seven earldoms').2

Family: Ingibiorg Finnsdottir b. c 1000, d. c 1069

  • Last Edited: 7 Mar 2015

Sigurd Hlodvirsson1

M, #7780, b. circa 960, d. 23 April 1014

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Sigurd Hlodvirsson was born circa 960 in Norway*.1
  • Marriage*: He married Olith (?), daughter of Malcolm II of Alba (?) King of the Scots, circa 1009.1
  • Death*: Sigurd Hlodvirsson died on 23 April 1014; He died at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014.3
  • Biography*: Sigurd Hlodvisson (circa 960–23 April 1014), popularly known as Sigurd the Stout, was Earl of Orkney. The main source for his life is the Orkneyinga Saga, written some two centuries after his death.

    The Orkneyinga Saga reports that Sigurd was the son of Hlodvir, one of the five sons of Thorfinn Skull-Splitter, and Eithne, said to be a daughter of Kjarvalr, King of Ireland—Cerball mac Dúnlainge, King of Osraige, who died in 888. Hlodvir died in his bed and was succeeded as Earl by Sigurd.

    Sigurd's uncle Ljot had been killed in war against the Scots, and Sigurd soon faced trouble from his southern neighbours. An "Earl Finnleik" led an army against him which outnumbered Sigurd's men by seven to one. The Saga famously records Sigurd's mother's reply when he went to her for advice:
    I would long have fostered thee in my wool-basket, if I had known that thou wouldst live for ever, and fortune decides as to a man's life, and not circumstances. It is better to die with honour than to live with dishonour. Receive a standard which I have made with my whole knowledge, and I expect it will be victorious to him before whom it is carried, but the bane of him who bears it.

    The Raven banner worked as just Sigurd's mother said: he was victorious but the standard-bearer was killed.

    The Northern Isles were Christianised by Olav Tryggvasson in 995 when he stopped at South Walls on his way from Ireland to Norway. The King summoned jarl Sigurd and said "I order you and all your subjects to be baptised. If you refuse, I'll have you killed on the spot and I swear I will ravage every island with fire and steel." Unsurprisingly, Sigurd agreed and the islands became Christian at a stroke.

    According to the 13th century Njal's Saga, Gormflaith prompted her son, Sigtrygg Silkbeard, into getting Sigurd to fight against her former husband, Brian Ború:
    "...she sent him to Earl Sigurd to ask for support... Sigtrygg sailed back to Ireland and told his mother that the jarl had joined him."

    The 12th century Irish source, the Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh, records the events of the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. The "foreigners and Leinstermen" were led by Brodir of the Isle of Man and Sigurd, and the battle lasted all day. Though Brian was killed in the battle, the Irishmen ultimately drove back their enemies into the sea, and Sigurd himself was killed, apparently whilst holding a Raven banner. Sigurd left four sons: Brusi, Sumarlidi, Einar and Thorfinn, each of whom would also bear the title Earl of Orkney.3

Family: Olith (?) b. c 980

  • Last Edited: 21 Jan 2015

Olith (?)1

F, #7781, b. circa 980

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

Family: Sigurd Hlodvirsson b. c 960, d. 23 Apr 1014

  • Last Edited: 21 Jan 2015

Thorfinn "Skullsplitter" Hausakljufr1

M, #7782, b. circa 890

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Thorfinn "Skullsplitter" Hausakljufr was born circa 890 in Norway*.1
  • Marriage*: He married Grelod (?) circa 960.1
  • Biography*: Thorfinn 'Skullsplitter' Hausakljufr (Old Norse: Þorfinnr hausakljúfr, "skull-splitter") (died 976) was earl of Orkney. He was the youngest son of Torf-Einarr. Thorfinn married Grelod, daughter of the Mormaer of Caithness and granddaughter of Thorstein the Red. Thorfinn and Grelod had five sons and two daughters. Their son Arnfinn Thorfinnsson married Ragnhild Eiriksdotter, daughter of Eirik Bloodaxe and his widow, Gunnhildr. Thorfinn may have been buried in the broch at Hoxa, on South Ronaldsay. The modern Orcadian beer SkullSplitter is named after him.
    The five sons of Thorfinn were Arnfinn, Havard, Hlodvir, Ljot, and Skuli. Arnfinns' wife, Ragnhild Eiriks-Dottir had her husband killed at Murkle in Caithness and married Havard who ruled as earl for a time. Skuli gave allegiance to the Scots king who made him Earl of Caithness and Orkney but never gained control of Orkney, being killed in battle against Ljot in Caithness. Ljot later died in battle, possibly against MacBeth of Moray.1

Family: Grelod (?)

  • Last Edited: 1 Apr 2015

Grelod (?)1

F, #7783

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

Family: Thorfinn "Skullsplitter" Hausakljufr b. c 890

  • Last Edited: 14 Mar 2015

Torf-Einarr Ragnvaldsson1

M, #7784, b. circa 846

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Torf-Einarr Ragnvaldsson was born circa 846 in Norway*.1
  • Marriage*: He married Alof Aarbod, daughter of Harald I (?) King of Norway, circa 890 in Norway*.3
  • Biography*: Einarr Rögnvaldarson, Torf-Einarr or Turf-Einar (fl. early 890s–920s) was one of the Norse Earls of Orkney. His rise to power is related in sagas which apparently draw on verses of Einarr's own composition for inspiration. After battling for control of the Northern Isles of Scotland, Einarr founded a dynasty which retained control of the islands for centuries after his death.

    Rise to power
    Einarr was the youngest son of Rögnvald Eysteinsson of Møre, Norway, by a concubine. Rögnvald's family conquered the Orkney and Shetland islands in the late ninth century, and Rögnvald's brother, Sigurd Eysteinsson, was made Earl of Orkney. After his death on campaign, Sigurd was succeeded by his son, Guthorm, who died shortly afterward. Rögnvald sent one of his sons, Hallad, to govern the islands but Hallad was unable to maintain control, resigned his earldom and returned to Norway as a common landholder.

    According to the Norse Heimskringla and Orkneyinga sagas, Rögnvald had little regard for his youngest son Einarr because Einarr's mother was a slave. The sagas record that Rögnvald agreed to provide Einarr with a ship and crew in the hope that he would sail away and never return. Einarr sailed to the Scottish islands, where he defeated two Danish warlords, Þórir Tréskegg (Thorir Treebeard) and Kálf Skurfa (Kalf the Scurvy), who had taken residence there, and established himself as earl. It is unclear whether the account in the sagas of Einarr's conquest is accurate. Though the Historia Norvegiæ, written at the same time as the sagas but from a different source, confirms that Rögnvald's family conquered the islands, it gives few details. The scene in the sagas where Einarr's father scorns him is a literary device which often figures in Old Norse literature. Much of Einarr's story in the sagas appears to be derived from five skaldic verses attributed to Einarr himself.

    Relations with Norway
    The five verses attributed to Einarr describe a feud between the families of Rögnvald and the King of Norway, Harald Finehair. The poems are elaborated in the sagas, which say that two of Harald Finehair's unruly sons, Halvdan Hålegg (Hálfdan Longlegs) and Gudrød Ljome (Gudrod the Gleaming), killed Einarr's father Rögnvald by trapping him in his house and setting it alight. Gudrød took possession of Rögnvald's lands while Hálfdan sailed westwards to Orkney and displaced Einarr. The sagas say that King Harald, apparently appalled by his sons' actions, overthrew Gudrød and restored Rögnvald's lands to his son, Thorir Rögnvaldarson. From a base in Caithness, Einarr resisted Hálfdan's occupation of the islands. After a battle at sea, and a ruthless campaign on land, Einarr spied Hálfdan hiding on North Ronaldsay. The sagas claim that Hálfdan was captured, and sacrificed to Odin as a blood-eagle. While the killing of Hálfdan by the Orkney islanders is recorded independently in the Historia Norvegiæ, the manner of his death is unspecified. The blood-eagle sacrifice may be a misunderstanding or an invention of the sagawriters as it does not feature directly in the earlier skaldic verses, which instead indicate that Hálfdan was killed by a volley of spears. The verses do mention the eagle as a carrion bird, and this may have influenced the sagawriters to introduce the blood-eagle element.[5] The sagas relate that Harald sought vengeance for his son's ignoble death, and set out on campaign against Einarr, but was unable to dislodge him. Eventually, Harald agreed to end the fight in exchange for a fine of 60 gold marks levied on Einarr and the allodial owners of the islands. Einarr offered to pay the whole fine if the allodial landowners passed their lands to him, to which they agreed. Einarr's assumption of control over the islands appears well-attested and was considered by later commentators to be the moment at which the Earls of Orkney came to own the entire island group in fee to the King of Norway. Others have interpreted the payment of 60 gold marks as wergild or blood money.

    Legacy
    Apart from the five verses recorded in the sagas, no other examples of Torf-Einarr's poetry are known to survive, though they appear to be part of a larger body of work. A couplet that commemorates Einarr's defeat of the two pirate Vikings, Þórir Tréskegg (Thorir Treebeard) and Kálf Skurfa (Kalf the Scurvy),
    Hann gaf Tréskegg trollum,
    Torf-Einarr drap Skurfu.
    He gave Treebeard to the trolls,
    Torf-Einarr slew Scurvy.
    has a matching metre and alliterative similarities to the attributed verses. Einarr must have had some fame as a poet, as his name is used in the Háttatal, an examination of Old Norse poetry written in the thirteenth-century, to refer to a specific type of metre, Torf-Einarsháttr.
    The remainder of Einarr's long reign was apparently unchallenged, and he died in his bed of a sickness, leaving three sons, Arnkel, Erlend and Thorfinn. The sagas describe Einarr as tall, ugly and blind in one eye, but sharp-sighted nonetheless. Despite these apparent disabilities, as well as his low-born mother, Einarr established a dynasty which ruled the Orkney Islands until 1470.
    The sagas incorrectly claim that he was called "Turf-Einar" because he introduced the practice of burning turf or peat to the islands since wood was so scarce. The real reason for the nickname is unknown. While depletion of woodland could have caused a cultural shift from burning timber to peat, potentially the name arose because the sequestration of the common or allodial rights of the islanders by Einarr forced them away from coppicing towards cutting turves.2
  • Last Edited: 1 Apr 2015

Eystein 'The Noisy' Glumara Jarl of the Uplanders1

M, #7786, b. 788

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Eystein 'The Noisy' Glumara Jarl of the Uplanders was born in 788 in Norway*.2
  • Marriage: He married Ascrida Ragnvaldsdottir circa 810 in Norway*.1
  • Biography*: Eystein Glumra (the Clatterer), also called Eystein Ivarsson (born ca. 830 in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway) was Jarl (Earl) of Oppland and Hedmark in Norway.

    The Heimskringla Saga states that Eystein Glumra was the father of Rognvald Eysteinsson and Sigurd Eysteinsson. And, that he was grandfather of Guthorm Sigurdsson and Torf-Einarr. Although the Saga does mention a few Ivars, none are said to be Eystein's father. Descendents of Rognvald include Rollo, William the Conqueror and the resulting Royal Families of England.

    The first earl in the Orkney Islands was called Sigurd, who was a son of Eystein Glumra, and brother of Ragnvald earl of More. After Sigurd, his son Guthorm was earl for one year. After him Torf-Einar, a son of Ragnvald, took the earldom, and was long earl, and was a man of great power.

    According to the Orkneyinga Saga, Eystein the noisy was the son of Ivar the Uplanders’ earl, and grandson of Halfdan the Old. He was also father of Rognvald The Wise.
    Heiti, Gorr’s son, was father of Sveiði the sea-king, the father of Halfdan the old, the father of Ivar the Uplanders’ earl, the father of Eystein the noisy, the father of earl Rognvald the mighty and the wise in council.3
  • Last Edited: 23 Nov 2014

Tormod MacLeod 12th of MacLeod1

M, #7787, b. circa 1519, d. March 1584

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

Family: Jill MacLean of Duart b. c 1530, d. 1585

  • Last Edited: 8 Jul 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p14706.htm#i147059
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p14706.htm#i147051
  3. [S927] F.S.A., Scot Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacLeods, page 29.
  4. [S861] Ancestry.com, online www.ancestry.com, https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/108749829/…
  5. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p14706.htm#i147059
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p14706.htm#i147051

Jill MacLean of Duart1

F, #7788, b. circa 1530, d. 1585

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

Family: Tormod MacLeod 12th of MacLeod b. c 1519, d. Mar 1584

  • Last Edited: 16 Jul 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p14706.htm#i147059
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50616.htm#i506157
  3. [S861] Ancestry.com, online www.ancestry.com, https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/108749829/…

Alasdair 'Crottach' MacLeod 8th of MacLeod1

M, #7789, b. 1455, d. 1547

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Alasdair 'Crottach' MacLeod 8th of MacLeod was born in 1455 in Dunvegan Castle, Isle of Skye, Inverness-shire, Scotland.1,4,5
  • Marriage*: He married Lady Margaret Cameron of Lochiel, daughter of Allan MacIldny Cameron 12th of Lochiel and Lady Mariot MacDonnell of Keppoch, circa 1500 in Dunvegan Castle, Isle of Skye, Inverness-shire, Scotland.1,6,5
  • Death*: Alasdair 'Crottach' MacLeod 8th of MacLeod died in 1547 in Rodel, Harris, Inverness-shire, Scotland.2,5
  • Biography*: In 1490 was at war with the Macdonalds whom he defeated at Glendale in Skye. On 15 June 1498 had a charter of various lands (which he had held of the Lords of the Isles) from JAMES IV and another charter from JAMES V 13 Feb 1539 for Glenelg and in 1542 for Trotternish, Sleat and North Uist.

    Alasdair Crotach MacLeod (Scottish Gaelic: Alasdair Crotach MacLeòid) (1450 – 1547) is considered to be the eighth chief of Scottish Clan MacLeod. He was the son of the seventh chief William Dubh and succeeded his father in 1480, following William Dubh's death at the Battle of Bloody Bay. He was the first MacLeod chief not to be buried on the island of Iona. The Scottish Gaelic word crotach means "humpbacked" and the nickname refers to wounds he received during battle which crippled him the rest of his life. Alasdair Crotach's tomb is one of the most magnificently carved tombs of its era in Scotland. He was succeeded by his son, William.

    Life
    Alasdair the Humpbacked
    Alasdair Crotach was the son of William Dubh, seventh chief of Clan MacLeod. The Scottish Gaelic word crotach means "humpbacked". According to MacLeod tradition, Alasdair Crotach earned this nickname during a pitched battle in which he was severely wounded. In the late 15th century, Angus Og MacDonald, bastard son of John MacDonald, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles, attempted to depose his father. Angus was supported by all the branches of Clan Donald, as well as the MacLeods of Lewis. However, other island clans, such as the MacLeods of Harris and Dunvegan, the MacLeans and the MacNeils, supported John. The Bannatyne manuscript states that the opposing clans fought skirmishes throughout the Hebrides. One such skirmish took place on Skye between the MacDonalds and MacLeods when a large force of MacDonalds, led by "Evan MacKail", son of the chief of Clanranald, landed at Aird Bay with the intention of laying waste to MacLeod territory. At this particular time, William Dubh was away and his only son, Alasdair, rallied the clan's forces and marched them towards the MacDonalds who were encamped near their galleys. The opposing forces clashed with each other and Alasdair was wounded in the back by Evan MacKail, who wielded a battle axe. As the wounded Alasdair fell he grabbed hold of Evan MacKail and brought him to the ground as well. Alasdair then killed the MacDonald with his dirk and cut off the dead man's head as a trophy. The battle ended with the defeat of the MacDonalds, who lost most of their men, and ten galleys. The writer of the manuscript states that at the time of writing (about the 1830s), there were heaps of skulls and bones which could still be seen where the battle was said to have taken place.

    Chief of the clan
    MacLeod tradition preserved within the 19th century Bannatyne manuscript states that Alasdair Crotach succeeded to the chiefship following his father's death at the Battle of Bloody Bay in 1480. Angus later followed up on this victory and had a force invade the MacLeod lands of Trotternish. In consequence, Duntulm Castle was taken from the MacLeods by surprise and the clan never repossessed the fortress. According to the Bannatyne manuscript, in about the year 1490, the MacDonalds attacked the MacLeods again—in what is known as the Battle of Glendale.[3] However, the historian J.L. Roberts considered it likely that several battles were confused in MacLeod tradition; and that the battle fought at Glendale was fought at a much later date than which MacLeod tradition records. Roberts proposed that MacDonalds could have landed on the north-west coast of Skye, following Alasdair Crotach's seizure of Dunscaith Castle after the year 1513; and that the opposing forces could have met and done battle at Glendale. Roberts noted that Alasdair Crotach later received a lease to the lands of Trotternish, from the Crown. These lands had been held at various times by Torquil MacLeod of Lewis, and Ranald Ban MacDonald of Clanranald.[4] For example, A. and A. Macdonald stated that in June 1498, the king granted Alasdair Crotach many lands on Skye, among them were two unciates of the barony of Trotternish, with the office of bailiary for these lands. In October of the same year, the king then granted the same office of bailiary of Trotternish, to Torquil MacLeod of Lewis.[5] Roberts stated that in 1528, Donald Gruamach joined forces with his half-brother, John MacLeod, eldest son of Torquil MacLeod of Lewis; together the half-brothers drove Alasdair Crotach MacLeod out of Trotternish.[4] According to R.C. MacLeod, Alasdair Crotach was recorded as a tenant of the Crown in Troternish; and in 1542, received a Crown charter of Trotternish, Sleat, and North Uist. MacLeod, however, stated that he did not believe that Alasdair Crotach ever really possessed these lands (except the two unce-lands of Trotternish, which his grandson exchanged for Waternish in 1610). MacLeod noted that during the 15th century, the MacLeods lost about half of their ancient lands: the part of North Uist was ceded by chief Iain Borb in 1406; Sleat was lost in about 1435; and as noted above, during the tenure of Alasdair Crotach, Trotternish was lost in about 1482.

    Hebridean anarchy; massacre on Eigg
    The Bannatyne manuscript states that while the Western Isles were now nominally under the direct rule of the Scottish Crown, that the chiefs took the law into their own hands and in consequence anarchy descended across the West Highlands and Isles. The manuscript states that the most vicious acts were carried out between the MacLeods and MacDonalds of Clanranald. The manuscript gives several examples of feuding between the clans. One such example is a story of a birlinn which was driven ashore on the island of Eigg. The crew were refused provisions and in consequence they slaughtered some local livestock to sustain themselves. The locals then put the majority of the crew to death and set three others to sea, where they miraculously washed ashore on Skye. When Alasdair Crotach heard of the treatment of the crew he swore he would not change his clothes until every soul on the islands of Eigg, Rum, and Canna was put to death. The chief ordered six large galleys to be made ready, and together with his son, William, and several hundred armed men, sailed for the Small Isles. The inhabitants of the islands knew the intentions of the MacLeods and attempted to escape their fury by hiding themselves in a large cave on Eigg. When the MacLeods reached the island they waited for three days before discovering the cave and the inhabitants within.

    The manuscript states that Alasdair Crotach was a religious man; so before the massacre of all the local inhabitants, he prayed for six hours incessantly. Before his prayers, he declared that if the wind was blowing off mouth of the cave at the end of the six hours, then the people should be spared; however, if the wind was blowing on the mouth of the cave, they should be put to death. While Alasdair Crotach prayed, the wind blew sideways across the mouth of the cave, but at the last moment it shifted to blowing hard upon the mouth of the cave. Alasdair Crotach took this as a sign from heaven and ordered the massacre. The manuscript claims that he then sailed to Skye and left actual killing to his son, William, who collected all the combustible material he could find and set it alight and smothered everyone within the cave. The manuscript states that 395 MacDonalds died within and that their remains were still there (in about the 1830s). For his part in the massacre, William was afterwards known as 'William of the Cave'. The massacre was reported to James VI, to have taken place in the year 1577, but this would put the event years after Alasdair Crotach's death. Roberts noted that MacLeod tradition dates the massacre to about the year 1510. MacLeod considered that this event may date to the years between 1502 to 1520. Roberts thought it dated to the reign of James V, or to the time just after his death.

    The cave is known in English as the Massacre Cave, it is called in Scottish Gaelic Uamh Fhraing ("Frances's Cave"). It is located at grid reference NM47498352. Sir Walter Scott is said to have visited the site and discovered bones there in 1814, taking away a souvenir with him. A human skull, found within by a boy on holiday, was handed over to Birmingham Museum in 1979. The skull was verified to be human by the coroner; it was stated to be quite old and that of a child, aged about five or six years old.

    Later life
    Years before his death, Alasdair Crotach gave up the leadership of the clan to his son, William. He then retired to the monastery of Rodel, on Harris. He endowed the monastery with lands and restored the church. He also built two churches, one at Nic Caperrall close to Toe Head, and one in Scarpa, an island off Loch Resort on the west side of North Harris. MacLeod stated that both were now in ruins. Alasdair Crotach also had work done on Dunvegan Castle, where he built a tower which is known by his name.

    The Bannatyne manuscript states that Alasdair Crotach formed a college of pipers on Skye. He was a man of culture, and employed a number of harpers, bards and shenachies. The manuscript claims that few could wield his claymore and MacLeod proposed that the claymore kept at Dunvegan Castle, which is called 'Rory Mor's claymore', may actually be that of Alasdair Crotach. MacLeod stated that the sword had been dated to the about the year 1460—which is roughly the time when Alasdair Crotach would have been a young man.

    MacLeod stated that Alasdair Crotach died in 1547. He was buried within a tomb inside St Clement's Church, Rodel, on Harris. The tomb is one of the most richly carved tombs in Scotland of its period. The tomb dates to 1528, about two decades before Alasdair Crotach's death. He was the first MacLeod chief to be buried on Harris, his predecessors are all said to have been buried on the island of Iona.

    Family and issue
    Alasdair Crotach married a daughter of Cameron of Lochiel. The manuscript relates of how Alasdair Crotach was still unmarried even though he was no longer a young man. Cameron of Lochiel had ten daughters and offered him one any of them as a wife. Alasdair Crotach married the youngest of them and she lived to an old age and was buried beside her husband. Alasdair Crotach and his wife had three sons and two daughters; MacLeod considered that their family were likely born between the years 1500 and 1520. The Bannatyne manuscript states that one of the daughters married firstly James MacDonald, second son of Donald of Sleat; she married secondly Allan MacIan of Clanranald; and her third husband was MacDonald of Keppoch. However, while the manuscript states her first marriage was to James, the early 20th-century clan historians A. Macdonald and A. Macdonald stated that a daughter of Alasdair Crotach married not James, but his brother John Og. The two historians state that her second busband, Allan MacDonald, 9th of Clan Ranald repudiated her, and that she afterwards married Ranald MacDonald of Keppoch. The Bannatyne manuscript states that Alasdair Crotach's second daughter married Hector MacLean of Lochbuie.

    The Bannatyne manuscript states that Alasdair Crotach had a natural son, Donald Glass. The manuscript relates how this son was on board a birlinn which was seized by a party of MacDonalds, where it was taken to North Uist. Donald Glass was put in irons, and had a heavy weight wrapped around his neck; he was held for six years and never recovered from the ill-treatment he received at the hands of the MacDonalds. Donald Glass's crew fared much worse, however; they were imprisoned in a dungeon, where they starved to death. The manuscript states that it was said that they ate each other till not one remained alive.2,4

Family: Lady Margaret Cameron of Lochiel b. 1475, d. 1547

  • Last Edited: 8 Jul 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p14706.htm#i147051
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50615.htm#i506143
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50613.htm#i506108
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alasdair_Crotach_MacLeod
  5. [S861] Ancestry.com, online www.ancestry.com, https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/tree/108749829/person/…
  6. [S927] F.S.A., Scot Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacLeods, page 25.
  7. [S927] F.S.A., Scot Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacLeods, page 29.

Lady Margaret Cameron of Lochiel1,2,3

F, #7790, b. 1475, d. 1547

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

Family: Alasdair 'Crottach' MacLeod 8th of MacLeod b. 1455, d. 1547

  • Last Edited: 16 Jul 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p14706.htm#i147051
  2. [S927] F.S.A., Scot Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacLeods, page 25.
  3. [S861] Ancestry.com, online www.ancestry.com, https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/tree/108749829/person/…
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50615.htm#i506145
  5. [S861] Ancestry.com, online www.ancestry.com, https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/108749829/…
  6. [S927] F.S.A., Scot Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacLeods, page 29.

William 'Dubh' MacLeod 7th of MacLeod1

M, #7791, b. circa 1420, d. 1480

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: William 'Dubh' MacLeod 7th of MacLeod was born circa 1420 in Scotland.1,3
  • Marriage*: He married (?) MacLean, daughter of John MacLean 3rd of Lochbuie and Elizabeth MacKay, circa 1450 in Scotland.1,3
  • Death*: William 'Dubh' MacLeod 7th of MacLeod died in 1480 in Scotland.4
  • Biography*: William Dubh MacLeod (Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Dubh MacLeòid) (c. 1415–1480) is considered to be the seventh chief of Clan MacLeod. He is thought to have been a younger son, yet because of the death of his elder brother, William Dubh succeeded his father, Iain Borb, in the year 1442. William Dubh was an old man when he was killed, leading his clan, at the Battle of Bloody Bay in 1480. He was the last MacLeod chief to be buried on the island of Iona. He was succeeded by his son, Alasdair Crotach.

    Life
    Succession
    According to early 20th-century clan historian R.C. MacLeod, William Dubh was born in about the year 1415. He was the son of the MacLeod chief Iain Borb. The Bannatyne manuscript records that Iain Borb married a granddaughter of the Earl of Douglas—several 20th-century clan historians gave her name as Margaret. The couple had two sons, named William and Norman (Tormod), as well as two daughters. The manuscript maintains that Norman was the elder of the brothers, but that he died young and left a son who was too young to succeed to the chiefship. In fact, William was the son that succeeded Iain Borb as chief; MacLeods states that this happened in the year 1442. In MacLeod's opinion, the fact that the clan accepted William Dubh as chief, and not guardian, was evidence that William was in fact the elder brother. Later in the 20th century, A. Morrison stated that Norman was probably an illegitimate son of Iain Borb and that he was considerably older than William, since Norman led the clan in battle in 1428.

    According to 20th-century clan historians Morrison and D. Mackinnon, William Dubh was known as "Long Sword".

    Clan conflicts
    William Dubh and his kinsman, Roderick MacLeod of Lewis, are recorded as witnesses to a charter granted by John MacDonald, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles, to his brother Hugh MacDonald of Sleat, dated on 28 June 1449. According to MacVurich, the Sleat shenachie, William Dubh ('William MacLeod of Harris') accompanied Hugh and other "young gentlemen of the Isles" on a raiding expedition to Orkney. The tradition runs that the Western Islesmen were victorious in their conflict with the Northern Islesmen and that the Earl of Orkney was also slain. Hugh is then said to have ravaged Orkney, and carried off much loot. According to early 20th-century clan historians A. Macdonald and A. Macdonald, this expedition took place around the year 1460.

    In the late 15th century, Angus Og MacDonald, bastard son of John MacDonald, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles, attempted to depose his father. Angus was supported by all the branches of Clan Donald, as well as the MacLeods of Lewis. However, other island clans, such as the MacLeods of Harris and Dunvegan, the MacLeans and the MacNeils, supported John. The Bannatyne manuscript states that the opposing clans fought skirmishes throughout the Hebrides. One such skirmish took place on Skye between the MacDonalds and MacLeods when a large force of MacDonalds, led by "Evan MacKail", son of the chief of Clanranald, landed at Aird Bay with the intention of laying waste to MacLeod territory. At this time William Dubh was away and his only son, Alasdair, rallied the clan's forces and marched them towards the MacDonalds, who were encamped near their galleys. The opposing forces clashed with each other and Alasdair was wounded in the back by Evan MacKail, who swung with a battle axe. As Alasdair fell to the ground he grabbed Evan MacKail and killed him with a dirk and cut off the dead man's head as a trophy. The battle ended with the defeat of the MacDonalds, who lost most of their men, and ten galleys. The manuscript dates from about the 1830s and states that there were heaps of bones and skulls which could still be seen where the battle of was said to have taken place.

    These skirmishes led to the final encounter at the Battle of Bloody Bay in 1480. In this conflict, The Bannatyne manuscript states that William Dubh was killed early on, and at the fall of their chief, the MacLeods began to give way. However, a priest named Callum Clerich made the keeper of the Fairy Flag unfurl his banner. The manuscript states that when the MacLeod's kinsmen, the MacLeods of Lewis, switched sides upon seeing the sacred flag unfurled and joined the forces supporting John. However, the fate of the battle was already decided and the forces of Angus won the day. A large number of the clan was killed during the conflict, including the bearer of the flag, Murcha Beach, as well as the twelve men who were tasked with the flag's protection. William Dubh's body was taken to the island of Iona to be buried with those of his predecessors. The body of Murcha Breac was placed in the same tomb his—the Bannatyne manuscript states that this was the highest honour which could be disposed upon his remains. William Dubh was the last MacLeod chief to be buried on Iona.

    Resting place
    The Bannatyne manuscript states that the first seven chiefs of Clan MacLeod were buried at Iona. The choir of Iona Abbey, for the most part, dates from the early 16th century. Within the centre of the choir there is a large stone which once contained a monumental brass, traditionally said to have been a MacLeod. The stone formed a matrix which at one time contained the brass inlay (tradition states it was a silver inlay). It is the largest carved stone on the island, measuring 7 feet 9.25 inches (2.37 m) by 3 feet 10 inches (1.17 m). R.C. MacLeod speculated that perhaps the clan's founder, Leod, and five of his successors were buried beneath—however, in his opinion the fourth chief, Iain Ciar, was buried elsewhere.

    Family
    The 20th-century clan historians Morrison and MacKinnon stated that William Dubh's first wife was a cousin of his, a daughter of John Maclaine, third chief of Clan Maclaine of Lochbuie. The late 19th-century clan historian A.M. Sinclair, stated that she was the daughter of Murdoch Maclaine, 2nd chief of Clan Maclaine of Lochbuie.[11] Following the death of his first wife, William Dubh then married Anne, daughter of Ranald Ban MacDonald of Moydart and Clanranald. After William Dubh's death, Anne married her cousin, Hector Roy Mackenzie, 1st of Gairloch.

    William Dubh had one son, Alasdair Crotach, who succeeded him on his death. Morrison and MacKinnon stated that his son was a product of his first marriage and that William Dubh also had two daughters—one from each of his two wives. The 19th-century historian A. Mackenzie only gave one daughter to William Dubh and stated she married Lachlan MacLean of Duart.4

Family: (?) MacLean b. c 1450

  • Last Edited: 2 Oct 2016

(?) MacLean1

F, #7792, b. circa 1450

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Last Edited: 4 Dec 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50615.htm#i506143
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50615.htm#i506142
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iain_Borb_MacLeod

Ian 'Borb' MacLeod 6th of MacLeod1

M, #7793, b. circa 1392, d. 1442

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Ian 'Borb' MacLeod 6th of MacLeod was born circa 1392 in Scotland.3,4
  • Marriage*: He married Margaret Douglas circa 1420 in Scotland.1,4
  • Death*: Ian 'Borb' MacLeod 6th of MacLeod died in 1442 in Scotland.2,4
  • Biography*: He was commander the Clan on the side of Donald 8th Lord of the Isles at the Battle of Harlaw on 20 June 1411.

    Iain Borb MacLeod (Scottish Gaelic: Iain Borb MacLeòid; Anglicised as: John "the Turbulent" MacLeod) (1392–1442) is considered to be the sixth chief of Clan MacLeod. He is the first MacLeod chief to which heraldry can be assigned. Clan tradition states that he was a minor at the time of his father's death and for six years an incompetent guardian led the clan to its lowest point in clan history. After reaching the age of maturity, Iain Borb managed to acquire some of the clan's lost lands and led his clan and his kinsmen (the MacLeods of Lewis) in the Battle of Harlaw, in 1411. Iain Borb was wounded in the head during the conflict; the wound never completely healed and confined him to his home on Pabbay for much of his life. Tradition states that he died when this wound re-opened during a fencing/wrestling match. There is some disagreement as to which of his son's were the eldest; however, his son William Dubh was the one who finally succeeded to the chiefship, following his death in 1442.

    Life
    Iain Borb was the son, and successor of William Cleireach, fifth chief of Clan MacLeod. According to the Bannatyne manuscript, he was only ten years old at the time of his father's death. The manuscript relates how during his minority a guardian was chosen to lead the clan. This man's name was Iain Mishealbhach ('John the Unlucky') who was a cousin of the young Iain Borb. During Iain Mishealbhach's tenure as guardian, the MacLeods of Harris and Dunvegan were at their lowest point in their history. Many of the clan opposed the selection of Iain Mishealbhach, favouring instead Tormod Coil who slew Alastair Cannoch at the Battle of Sligachan. Tormod Coil defied the guardian and seized part of the lands of Glenelg.

    The manuscript continues that the during this era, the MacDonalds took full advantage of the disorderedness of the MacLeods. A force of MacDonalds landed at Sleat and took possession of the castles of Dunscaith and Camus and in the process drove the MacLeods out of Sleat. They also invaded North Uist and fought the MacLeods at Cailus, where the MacLeods were completely defeated and further lands were gained by the invaders. Following these victories, the MacDonalds besieged Dunvegan Castle, where the widow of William Cleireach was living at the time. The chief of the MacLeods of Lewis, however, came in force and relieved the castle, defeating the MacDonalds at Fiorlig. Torquil then took the family to Lewis where they remained until Iain Borb reached the age of maturity.

    Iain Borb's first act as chief, according to the manuscript, was to hang Iain Mishealbhach, confiscate the dead man's lands, and banish his family. Later, Iain Borb made an agreement with Domhnall, Lord of the Isles, in which the MacDonalds gave back the lands they won from the MacLeods—except the lands on North Uist. Iain Borb swore his vassalage to the Lord of the Isles and in accordance to this agreement fought under the MacDonalds at the Battle of Harlaw in 1411. During the battle, Iain Borb commanded all the MacLeods (including the MacLeods of Lewis) and the manuscript states that the MacLeods had the honour of fighting on the right of Domhnall's forces. Early 20th century Clan Donald historians A. and A. Macdonald, however, stated that both clans of MacLeods were in the main body of men commanded by Domhnall and that the right wing was made up of MacLeans, commanded by Hector MacLean of Duart (Red Hector of the Battles). The manuscript states how Iain Borb was wounded in the head during the conflict. The wound never entirely healed and for the rest of his life it would bleed whenever he became agitated. For the most part, Iain Borb lived at his castle on Pabbay, where he renovated and enlarged the fortress there. The manuscript tells how during a fencing match with his foster-brother, Somerled MacConn, Iain Borb's wound began to bleed so profusely that he bled to death.

    The Bannatyne manuscript states that the first seven chiefs of Clan MacLeod were buried at Iona. The choir of Iona Abbey, for the most part, dates from the early 16th century. Within the centre of the choir there is a large stone which once contained a monumental brass, traditionally said to have been a MacLeod. The stone formed a matrix which at one time contained the brass inlay (tradition states it was a silver inlay). It is the largest carved stone on the island, measuring 7 feet 9.25 inches (2.37 m) by 3 feet 10 inches (1.17 m). R.C. MacLeod speculated that perhaps the clan's founder, Leod, and five of his successors were buried beneath—however, in his opinion the fourth chief, Iain Ciar, was buried elsewhere.

    Issue
    The Bannatyne manuscript records that Iain Borb married a granddaughter of the Earl of Douglas. Several 20th-century clan historians named her Margaret. The couple had two sons, named William and Norman (Tormod), as well as two daughters. The manuscript maintains that Norman was the elder of the brothers, but that he died young and left a young son who was too young to succeed to the chiefship. In fact, William Dubh succeeded Iain Borb as chief of the clan. R.C. MacLeod considered the fact that the clan considered William chief and not guardian was evidence that William was in fact the elder brother. A. Morrison stated that Norman was probably an illegitimate son of Iain Borb and that he was considerably older than William, since Norman led the clan in battle in 1428. According to Morrison, Norman was killed in 1429 and that his posthumous son was the progenitor of the MacLeods of Waternish. D. MacKinnon stated that he led the MacLeods and was slain at the battle in Lochaber in 1429, supporting Alexander, Lord of the Isles against James I. MacKinnon stated that he married a daughter of Chisholm of Strathglass, and by her had his son, John.

    Morrison stated that Iain Borb's daughters were both born in wedlock. According to MacKinnon, one of the daughters, Margaret, married Roderick MacLeod of Lewis (6th clan chief). MacLeod stated that the other daughter married Lachlan MacLean, of Duart (7th chief of Clan MacLean). The late 19th-century clan historian A.M. Sinclair stated that her name was Finvola and noted that the couple had two sons, Neil and John Garbh.[9] However, several years earlier another late 19th century Clan MacLean historian, J.P. MacLean named Lachlan's wife as "Fionnaghal, daughter of William MacLeod of Harris".

    Heraldry
    Iain Borb is the earliest MacLeod chief to which heraldry can be assigned. The coat of arms of the MacLeods of Harris and Dunvegan appear in the mid 15th century roll of arms Armorial de Berry (although the armorial actually lists the arms as those of "Le sire de bes"). The blazon is: azure, a castle triple-towered argent. The castle may represent the seat of the chiefs—Dunvegan Castle, located on Skye.2,4


Family: Margaret Douglas b. c 1390

  • Last Edited: 4 Dec 2014

Margaret Douglas1,2

F, #7794, b. circa 1390

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

Family: Ian 'Borb' MacLeod 6th of MacLeod b. c 1392, d. 1442

  • Last Edited: 12 Mar 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50614.htm#i506135
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iain_Borb_MacLeod
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50613.htm#i506135

William 'Cleirach' MacLeod 5th of MacLeod1

M, #7795, b. circa 1365, d. 1402

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: William 'Cleirach' MacLeod 5th of MacLeod was born circa 1365 in Scotland.1,4
  • Marriage*: He married (?) Maclaine, daughter of (?) Maclaine of Lochbuie, circa 1390.1,5
  • Death*: William 'Cleirach' MacLeod 5th of MacLeod died in 1402 in Scotland.2
  • Biography*: William Cleireach MacLeod (Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Cleireach MacLeòid) (1365 – c.1402) is considered to be fifth chief of Clan MacLeod. He was a younger son of chief Iain Ciar and was originally intended to enter the church, as his nickname shows; however, on the death of his elder brother, William Cleireach became the heir to the chiefship. As chief of the clan, he led his followers in attacks against the Frasers and defended his lands against the MacDonalds. He did not live a long life and was said to have been buried on the isle of Iona with his predecessors.

    Life
    The Bannatyne manuscript states that William Cleireach was the second son of Iain Ciar, fourth chief of Clan MacLeod. William Cleireach was originally bred for the church, having been educated in a monastery abroad. For this reason, he was known as "the clerk". His elder brother was killed at a feast and upon his death, William Cleireach returned home. As Iain Ciar's only surviving son and that William Cleireach succeeded his father upon his death, in 1392. The Bannatyne manuscript records that at the time of William Cleireach's succession, the MacLeods and Frasers were quarrelling as they had been for years previous; in consequence, William invaded the Fraser controlled lands of Aird. The MacLeods were successful in this particular venture and carried off much loot from their invasion.

    According to the early 20th-century clan historian R.C. MacLeod, the first record of conflict between the MacLeods and MacDonalds took place during the tenure of William Cleireach. MacLeod stated that Alexander III had originally placed the isles of Skye and Lewis into the earldom of Ross; making the Earl of Ross superiors to the MacLeods. However, in 1335, these lands had been granted by charter to John MacDonald, who would later become the Lord of the Isles. Later, in 1344, the grant of Lewis was confirmed, but Skye reverted to the Earl of Ross. When William Cleireach succeeded to the chiefship in 1392, he then held his lands under three feudal superiors—in Glenelg, as a vassal of the king of Scots; in Skye, as a vassal of the Lord of the Isles; in Skye as a vassal to the Earl of Ross. MacLeod also stated that matters were further complicated by the fact that Donald, who succeeded to the Lordshop of the Isles in 1380, claimed that Skye had been given to him in terms of his marriage to a daughter of the Earl of Ross; and in consequence he claimed that William Cleireach was his own vassal on both Harris and Skye.

    The MacDonalds, under Alasdair, brother of the Lord of the Isles (and ancestor of the MacDonalds of Keppoch), landed at Eynort. The MacLeods, under William Cleireach, met the invading MacDonald force at the head of Loch Sligachan. The manuscript states that during the bloody encounter, the MacDonalds were defeated and their leader was slain by Tormod Coil, cousin of William Cleireach (and the son of Murdo, William Cleireach's uncle). Following the battle, William Cleireach divided the loot amongst his followers.

    The Bannatyne manuscript relates how William Cleireach did not live very long and died relatively young at Castle Camus, in Sleat. It states that he was buried on the sacred island of Iona, probably in about the year 1402.

    Issue
    The Bannatyne manuscript describes William Cleireach as being much beloved by his followers. He was said to have had many illegitimate children whose descendants were still alive when the manuscript was written (c.1830s). The manuscript described two of his twin sons as the "Castor and Pollux of the islanders". According to the manuscript, William Cleireach married a daughter of MacLean of Duart (chief of Clan MacLean). The late 19th-century historian A. Mackenzie stated that William's wife was a daughter of John Maclean of Lochbuie (of Clan MacLaine of Lochbuie). However, A.M. Sinclair, another late 19th-century historian, stated that William Cleireach married a daughter of Murdoch MacLaine of Lochbuie (second chief of his clan). The manuscript relates how William and his wife had three sons—John, his heir; Tormod; and George. The manuscript states that from Tormod descended the "Mac Vic Williams"; it notes that the only living descendants were the sons of Capt. William MacLeod of Borline then existed (in about the 1830s), though it also noted that some of the family lived in North Carolina. The manuscript mentions another family, called "Mac Vic Alastair Ruaidh", which was descended from Tormod's second son. The head of this family lived on St Kilda and a notable member of this family was the poetess Mairi nighean Alasdair Ruaidh. The manuscript states that William's third son, George, went abroad and settled in Lorraine. An account of the George's descendants was sent to a MacLeod in Britain in the year 1758. The manuscript states that this account professed that descendants of George were known on the continent as "de Leod" and "Von Leod"; that some of them were landowners before the French Revolution.2,4

Family: (?) Maclaine b. 1370

  • Last Edited: 2 Oct 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50614.htm#i506131
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50613.htm#i506128
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iain_Ciar_MacLeod
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cleireach_MacLeod
  5. [S927] F.S.A., Scot Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacLeods, page 13.

(?) Maclaine1

F, #7796, b. 1370

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Last Edited: 2 Oct 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50614.htm#i506131
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50613.htm#i506130
  3. [S927] F.S.A., Scot Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacLeods, page 13.

Ian Ciar MacLeod 4th of MacLeod1,2

M, #7797, b. 1330, d. circa 1392

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Ian Ciar MacLeod 4th of MacLeod was born in 1330 in Scotland.1,2
  • Marriage*: He married (?) O'Neil circa 1350 in Scotland.1,2
  • Death*: Ian Ciar MacLeod 4th of MacLeod died circa 1392 in Scotland; Killed.3,2
  • Biography*: Iain Ciar MacLeod (Scottish Gaelic: Iain Ciar MacLeòid) (1330 – c.1392) is considered to be fourth chief of Clan MacLeod. He was the eldest son of, and is thought to have succeeded his father, Malcolm, in the years spanning 1360–1370. Clan tradition states that he was the most tyrannical of all MacLeod chiefs. His wife supposedly was as cruel as he was; she is said to have had two of her daughters buried alive in the dungeon of Dunvegan Castle when they attempted to leave the clan. Iain Ciar was killed in an ambush in about 1392. He was succeeded by his second and only surviving son, William Cleireach.

    Life
    According to the twentieth-century clan historian, R.C. MacLeod, Iain Ciar is estimated to have been born in the year 1330, or possibly later; he was the eldest child and succeeded his father, Malcolm, sometime between the years 1360 and 1370. The early nineteenth century Bannatyne manuscript states that he received a charter from Robert II, for the lands of Trotternish and all his other lands on Skye—although MacLeod noted that he could not find any evidence for the said charter. The manuscript states that Iain Ciar was said to have been "the most tyrannical and bloodthirsty despot, equally feared and hated by all his vassals, and by the members of his own family". It continues that he married the daughter of an Irish O'Neil chieftain and that she was just as cruel as her husband. For example, the manuscript tells that when she discovered that two of her daughters were about to escape her tyranny with their lovers (two MacQueen brothers from Roag), she had the brothers flogged to death, their bodies thrown into the sea, and her two daughters were buried alive within the dungeon of Dunvegan Castle.

    The manuscript relates a story in which Iain Ciar was hunting deer with the leading men of his clan. The forest on Harris, in which they hunted, was owned in ancient times by Clan Vic Ghitthich ("the children of the Wolf") and still was partially possessed by the family, although they paid tribute to MacLeod. During the hunt, Iain Ciar expressed his anger that they had not come across the white stag that was known to live in the area; the MacLeod chief offered a large reward to whoever could discover the offender who had killed the animal. An enemy of the MacGhitthich chief put the blame on MacGhitthich and in consequence, Iain Ciar had MacGhitthich cruelly put to death by forcing the antlers of a large deer into his bowels. When the hunting party returned to Rodel, intending to set sail for Dunvegan, the vengeful MacGhitthiches attacked the MacLeods. Iain Ciar was struck by an arrow. His son, William Cleireach managed to rally his clan and fend off the attackers. Iain Ciar's wife, three of his illegitimate daughters, and other women, fled the hostilities in a galley. The ship was, however, blown out to sea and across The Minch, before it was dashed to pieces against rocks, which the manuscript describes as being called "the Maidens". The wounded Iain Ciar was taken to the church at Rodel, where he died that evening. His body was taken to Iona where it was buried. He was succeeded by his surviving son, William Cleireach. The late nineteenth-century historian A. MacKenzie stated that Iain Ciar died shortly after the ascension of Robert III; MacLeod thought that he was killed in the year 1392.

    The Bannatyne manuscript states that the first seven chiefs of Clan MacLeod were buried at Iona. The choir of Iona Abbey, for the most part, dates from the early sixteenth century. Within the centre of the choir there is a large stone which once contained a monumental brass, traditionally said to have been a MacLeod marker. The stone formed a matrix which at one time contained the brass inlay (tradition states that it was a silver inlay). It is the largest carved stone on the island, measuring 7 feet 9.25 inches (2.37 m) by 3 feet 10 inches (1.17 m). R. C. MacLeod speculated that perhaps Leod and five of his successors were buried beneath—however, in his opinion Iain Ciar was buried elsewhere.

    MacLeod stated that there was another MacLeod tombstone on Iona, which was supposed to have been the stone of a sixteenth-century MacLeod of Lewis. In spite of this, MacLeod speculated that this stone was in fact that of Iain Ciar; since, in his opinion, Iain Ciar was too wicked a man to have been buried in the family vault with his predecessors. MacLeod transcribed the stone and considered the Latin short-form to represent: "Here lies the body of the distinguished John Dominus M'Leoid", as well as the date, "1414". He also noted that the stone bears a coat of arms and described it as containing a lymphad, below which were four animals standing erect. The two animals on the left were facing one another and MacLeod thought they could be lions. The third animal he considered to be a stag; the fourth MacLeod could not identify, though he supposed it could represent some heraldic device from his wife, who was of the Irish O'Neil dynasty.

    Issue
    According to the Bannatyne manuscript, Iain Ciar and his O'Neil wife had two sons, four daughters. It also records that he had three illegitimate daughters who were killed with his wife. The eldest son, Malcolm, was killed at a feast on Lewis where he intended to wed the daughter of his kinsman. A fight broke out during the feast, however, and both he and his kinsman were slain. In consequence, bitterness was felt between the two branches—Sìol Torcaill and Sìol Tormoid—for some time afterward. Iain Ciar's second son, William, was intended to be trained for the church, and was known as "a Cleireach", the clerk. He ended up succeeding his father.

    The manuscript states that one of Iain Ciar's daughters married Lachlan MacLean of Duart and another married Cameron of Locheil—both had issue. Two were murdered, as noted above, before marriage.2


  • Last Edited: 4 Dec 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50613.htm#i506128
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iain_Ciar_MacLeod
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50613.htm#i506120

(?) O'Neil1

F, #7798

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

Family: Ian Ciar MacLeod 4th of MacLeod b. 1330, d. c 1392

  • Last Edited: 4 Dec 2014

Malcolm MacLeod 3th of MacLeod1

M, #7799, b. 1296, d. 1370

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Birth*: Malcolm MacLeod 3th of MacLeod was born in 1296 in Scotland.1,4
  • Marriage*: He married (?) Campbell in 1319 in Scotland.5
  • Death*: Malcolm MacLeod 3th of MacLeod died in 1370 in Castle Stornoway, Scotland.2,4
  • Biography*: Malcolm MacLeod (Scottish Gaelic: Gille Caluim MacLeòid) (1296–1370) is considered to be the third chief of Clan MacLeod. He was the son of Tormod. Malcolm and his kinsman Torquil are the first MacLeod chiefs to appear in contemporary records. Clan tradition states he was the greatest hero of the clan and links him to the origin of the clan relic known as Sir Rory Mor's Horn. He is said to have become extremely overweight in his old age and was known as 'Good Fat Malcolm' or 'Malcolm the thick-legged'. According to tradition he was buried at Iona. Malcolm's son, Iain Ciar MacLeod, succeeded him as chief of the clan.

    Life
    Malcolm has traditionally been said to have been the son of Tormod, second chief of Clan MacLeod. The traditional view was that Tormod was a grandson of Leod, founder of the clan; that Tormod's father, also named Tormod, died before Leod, and thus when Leod died the chiefship skipped his generation. The current view is that the 'middle' Tormod did not exist and that Malcolm was the son of Tormod, and thus the grandson of Leod. According to early 20th-century clan historian R.C. MacLeod, Malcolm was born in 1296 and succeeded his father in the year 1320. Malcolm and his kinsman Torquil are the first MacLeod chiefs to appear in contemporary records. Their names are recorded as "Malcolme, son to Tormode M'Cloyde", and that of "Torkyll M'Cloyd", in a royal charter dating to about 1343, during the reign of David II (r. 1329–1371).

    The Bannatyne manuscript is the main authority for information on the early chiefs of Clan MacLeod. This traditional account of the clan is thought to date to about the 1830s. The document describes Malcolm as the greatest hero of all MacLeods and states that he married a daughter of Sir Neil Campbell of Lochow, ancestor of the Dukes of Argyll. According to 19th-century historian A. Mackenzie, Malcolm married Martha, daughter of the Earl of Mar. R.C. MacLeod speculated that this earl was "the seventh" and considered it not impossible that Malcolm could have married both women. MacLeod noted that both marriages would have had close links to the family of Robert the Bruce; both Sir Neil, and Lord Mar, had married sisters of Bruce (Mary Bruce and Christina Bruce).

    According to clan tradition, Malcolm was both brave and strong. The manuscript tells a tale of how Malcolm returned from a tryst with the Campbell wife of the chief of the Frasers who possessed part of the lands of Glenelg. That night Malcolm encountered a bull which lived in the woods of Glenelg and which had terrorised the local inhabitants. Armed with only a dirk, Malcolm slew the bull and broke off one of its horns. He then carried off the horn to Dunvegan as a trophy of his prowess. For this act of valour, Fraser's wife forsook her husband for Malcolm; thus starting a lengthy clan feud between the Frasers and the MacLeods. The tradition runs that ever since the horn has remained at Dunvegan and that it had since been converted into a drinking horn, which each chief must drain to the bottom in one draught. The manuscript continues that ever since Malcolm defeated the bull, the family of MacLeod of MacLeod have used a bull's head as their heraldic crest, with the motto "hold fast". Today the crest of the MacLeods of MacLeod contains a bull and the clan possesses a drinking horn, known as Sir Rory Mor's Horn, which is said to be the horn of clan tradition—it is located in Dunvegan Castle with other heirlooms.

    The manuscript states that in his old age, Malcolm became extremely overweight, and for this he was known as "Callum Reamhar Math" (Good Fat Malcolm). It also noted the within the 1767 memorial, he is known as "Malcolm Coise Reamhar" ("the thick-legged"). It states that he died in the castle of Stornoway while visiting his kinsman, MacLeod of Lewis; and that he was laid to rest on the isle of Iona, beside his father.

    Issue
    The Bannatyne manuscript states that Malcolm had four sons—John, his heir; Tormod; Murdo; and Malcolm Og. Tormod, the second son, lived on Bernera, Harris. His descendants lived there until the time of Sir Rory Mor; the writer of the manuscript also notes that at the top of writing, Tormod's descendants lived on Pabbay and called themselves "Clan Vic Gillecallam cas Reamhar Vic Leod". Malcolm's third son, Murdo, was left the lands of Glenelg; his descendants held onto these lands for several generations and were known as the MacLeods of Gesto. The head of the Gesto branch was always called "Mac Vic Tormod". The fourth son of Malcolm, Malcolm Og, married a daughter of MacDuffie of Colonsay and settled in Argyll. The manuscript states that general belief amongst MacCallums was that Malcolm Og was their founding ancestor. However, the writer of the manuscript notes another possible origin for the MacCallums, which he had learned from another source. The manuscript states that Malcolm fathered six illegitimate sons with his Campbell lover (who had left her Fraser husband). These children then lived in their mother's native Argyll and considered themselves a sept of the Campbells. The writer of the manuscript states that according ot his source, the oldest senachies of the MacCallums traced their descent from these illegitimate sons of Malcolm.4

Family: (?) Campbell

  • Last Edited: 4 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50613.htm#i506120
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50613.htm#i506118
  3. [S927] F.S.A., Scot Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacLeods, page 11.
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_MacLeod_(clan_chief).
  5. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50613.htm#i506120
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p50612.htm#i506113
  6. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iain_Ciar_MacLeod

(?) Campbell1

F, #7800

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

Family: Malcolm MacLeod 3th of MacLeod b. 1296, d. 1370

  • Last Edited: 2 Oct 2016