Alan MacRuairi

M, #3391, b. circa 1225, d. 1285

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Alan was born circa 1225 in Scotland.1,2
  • Death*: Alan died in 1285.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 13 Aug 2015

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S220] Rev. A. MacDonald & Rev. A. MacDonald, The Clan Donald.

Christina MacRuairi

F, #3392, b. circa 1250

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Christina was born circa 1250.1
  • Last Edited: 14 Dec 2012

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Ruairi MacRuairi of Lorn

M, #3393, b. circa 1275, d. circa 1325

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Ruairi was born circa 1275 in Scotland.1,2
  • Death*: Ruairi died circa 1325.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 13 Aug 2015

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S220] Rev. A. MacDonald & Rev. A. MacDonald, The Clan Donald.

Ranald MacRuairi

M, #3394, b. circa 1270

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Ranald was born circa 1270.1
  • Last Edited: 14 Dec 2012

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Lachlan MacRuairi

M, #3395, d. 1318

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Lachlan was born.1
  • Death*: Lachlan died in 1318.1
  • Last Edited: 14 Dec 2012

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Ranald MacRuairi

M, #3396, b. circa 1300

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Ranald was born circa 1300.1
  • Last Edited: 14 Dec 2012

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Alan MacRuairi

M, #3397, b. circa 1300

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Alan was born circa 1300.1
  • Last Edited: 14 Dec 2012

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Egidia Stewart [of Atholl]1

F, #3398, b. before 1378

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 28 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S726] Clan Donald Family Tree, Family Tree Chart (Excel file), March 6, 1999 Donald James MacFarlane.
  2. [S577] Norman H. MacDonald, The Clan Ranald of Knoydart & Glengarry, page 19.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p51028.htm#i510278
  4. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 298.
  5. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Daughter Fraser [of Lovat]

F, #3399, b. circa 1380

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 22 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S220] Rev. A. MacDonald & Rev. A. MacDonald, The Clan Donald.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p51028.htm#i510278

Allan MacDonald 2nd of Clanranald & Moidart1

M, #3400, b. circa 1360, d. after 1428

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name Variation: Allan MacDonald 2nd of Clanranald & Moidart was also known as Alan MacRanald.
  • Birth*: Allan was born circa 1360 in Scotland.2
  • Marriage*: He married Daughter Stewart of Appin circa 1400.2
  • Death*: Allan MacDonald 2nd of Clanranald & Moidart died after 1428 in Scotland.4
  • Last Edited: 28 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p50306.htm#i503055
  2. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  3. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 298.
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p45046.htm#i450458

Daughter Stewart of Appin

F, #3401, b. circa 1370

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 21 Dec 2016

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Godfrey MacDonald of Isla

M, #3402, b. circa 1350

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Godfrey was born circa 1350 in Scotland.1
  • Biography*: Siol Gorrie (Siolach Ghoirridh) is a Scottish Clan and a branch of Clan Donald. The progenitor of Siol Gorrie is Gorrie (Godfrey), a son of John of Islay and Amy of Garmoran.

    Godfrey was titled Lord of Uist. The Siol Gorrie feuded with their cousins Clan Ranald and Siol Murdoch, which almost led to Siol Gorrie's extinction after three generations. Alister MacGorrie, son of Godfrey was executed at Inverness by King James I of Scotland in 1427. The lands of the clan were given by John of Islay, Earl of Ross to Hugh MacDonald, Lord of Sleat in 1495, however Clan Ranald disputed and fought against this charter.1,3
  • Last Edited: 27 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 59.
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siol_Gorrie

Ian Fraoch MacDonald

M, #3403, b. circa 1300

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Ian was born circa 1300 in Scotland.1,2
  • Biography*: This Ian was founder of the MacIan MacDonalds of Glencoe.1,4
  • Last Edited: 27 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S220] Rev. A. MacDonald & Rev. A. MacDonald, The Clan Donald.
  3. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 48.
  4. [S577] Norman H. MacDonald, The Clan Ranald of Knoydart & Glengarry.

Donald (?) 6th Earl of Mar1

M, #3404, b. circa 1230, d. 1365

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Donald (?) 6th Earl of Mar was born circa 1230 in Scotland.3
  • Marriage*: He married Helen ferch Daffyd, daughter of Daffyd ap Llewelyn Prince of North Wales and Isabella de Braose, after 1266.4,2
  • Death*: Donald (?) 6th Earl of Mar died in 1365 in Scotland.3
  • Name Variation: As of 1887, Donald (?) 6th Earl of Mar was also known as David (?) 6th Earl of Mar.5
  • Biography*: He was invested as a Knight on 29 September 1270. He succeeded to the title of 6th Earl of Mar [S., c. 1115] on 25 July 1281. In February 1283/84 he was one of the leading Scottish nobles who recognised King Alexander III's daughter Margaret as heir to the throne after her father's death. In 1290 following Margaret's death, he supported Robert the Bruce, but was one of the seven Earls of Scotland who referred a decision in the matter to King Edward I of England. On 13 June 1291 he swore fealty to as overlord to King Edward I of England. He was a leading participation in the Scottish Uprising against the English. He fought in the Battle of Dunbar on 27 April 1296, after which he was captured, and renewed his allegiance to King Edward I.

    Domhnall I Earl of Mar - Domhnall mac Uilleim (Anglicized: Donald, William's son) - was the seventh known Mormaer of Mar, or Earl of Mar ruling from the death of his father, Uilleam of Mar, in 1276 until his own death somewhere between 1297 and 1302. Excluding Gille Christ he is counted as sixth Mormaer or Earl of Mar.

    In 1284 he joined with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heir to King Alexander. Domhnall was later a strong supporter of the Bruce cause during the crisis of the late 13th century. He was at Norham in 1292, probably in the camp of Robert de Brus, then Earl of Carrick.

    He married to Helen (sometimes called Ellen), possibly the natural daughter of Llywelyn the Great of Wales, who herself had previously been married to Mormaer Maol Choluim II, Earl of Fife. By Helen, he had three sons, including his successor Gartnait, and two daughters. His daughter Isabella of Mar was the first wife of Robert I of Scotland and mother of Marjorie Bruce who married Walter, 6th High Steward, the parents of Robert II and the Royal Stewart Kings of Scotland.

    The last record of a living Domhnall comes from 1297, and the earliest record of his son Gartnait as Mormaer is from 1305, creating the range of Domhnall's possible year of death to somewhere in between these two points. However, a document dating to 1302, containing terms of reconciliation between Edward I and RobeDomhnall I Earl of Mar - Domhnall mac Uilleim (Anglicized: Donald, William's son) - was the seventh known Mormaer of Mar, or Earl of Mar ruling from the death of his father, Uilleam of Mar, in 1276 until his own death somewhere between 1297 and 1302. Excluding Gille Christ he is counted as sixth Mormaer or Earl of Mar.

    In 1284 he joined with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heir to King Alexander. Domhnall was later a strong supporter of the Bruce cause during the crisis of the late 13th century. He was at Norham in 1292, probably in the camp of Robert de Brus, then Earl of Carrick.

    He married to Helen (sometimes called Ellen), possibly the natural daughter of Llywelyn the Great of Wales, who herself had previously been married to Mormaer Maol Choluim II, Earl of Fife. By Helen, he had three sons, including his successor Gartnait, and two daughters. His daughter Isabella of Mar was the first wife of Robert I of Scotland and mother of Marjorie Bruce who married Walter, 6th High Steward, the parents of Robert II and the Royal Stewart Kings of Scotland.2,6

Family 1:

Family 2: Helen ferch Daffyd b. b 1246, d. a Feb 1294

  • Last Edited: 15 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p22101.htm#i221002
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10916.htm#i109156
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domhnall,_Earl_of_Lennox.
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10209.htm#i102090
  5. [S816] M.A., D.D., F.S.A James Taylor, The Great Historic Families of Scotland, The Ancient Earldom of Mar.
  6. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domhnall_I,_Earl_of_Mar.
  7. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10788.htm#i107878
  8. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  9. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p2587.htm#i25864

Duncan (?)

M, #3405, b. circa 1260

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Duncan (?) was born circa 1260 in Scotland.
  • Biography*: Duncan was the second son of the Earl.1
  • Last Edited: 3 Nov 2014

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Isabel (?) of Mar1

F, #3406, b. 1270

Isabella of Mar
Countess of Carrick

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Isabel was born in 1270 in Scotland.2,3
  • Married Name: As of circa 1295,her married name was Bruce of Mar.3
  • Marriage*: She married Robert Bruce King Robert I of Scotland circa 1295 in Scotland.2,3
  • Biography*: Isabella of Mar (modern Scottish Gaelic: Iseabail) (c. 1277 – 12 December 1296) was the first wife of Robert the Bruce and the grandmother of Robert II of Scotland, founder of the royal House of Stuart. She died before Robert was crowned King of Scots, and never became Queen.

    She was the daughter of Domhnall I, Earl of Mar and Helen (or Ellen) of Wales (1246–1295), the illegitimate daughter of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth ("the Great") Prince of Wales; she had previously been the wife of Maol Choluim II, Earl of Fife. Her father was one of the seven guardians of Scotland who believed Robert Bruce to be the rightful King of Scotland. Despite the considerable risks, the Earl of Mar could foresee the advantage of the two families joining in marriage and bearing an heir to the throne, and the marriage of Isabella and Robert was arranged. Mar was the first to sign over the estates of his family to the Bruce.

    Isabella was married to Robert at the age of 18 and legend has it that they were much in love. Shortly after their marriage Isabella became pregnant. She had a healthy pregnancy but she died soon after giving birth to a daughter, Marjorie Bruce in 1296. She is buried at Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire.

    Robert married his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh, six years later. Isabella's daughter Princess Marjorie (died 1316) married Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland, and their son became Robert II of Scotland. From him descend the monarchs of the House of Stewart and the later royal families of the United Kingdom.4

Family: Robert Bruce King Robert I of Scotland b. 11 Jul 1274, d. 7 Jun 1329

  • Last Edited: 9 Jan 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10209.htm#i102090
  2. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10209.htm#i102089
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, hhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_of_Mar

Robert Bruce King Robert I of Scotland

M, #3407, b. 11 July 1274, d. 7 June 1329

Robert the Bruce and Elizabeth de Burgh

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Robert was born on 11 July 1274 in Turnberry Castle, Ayreshire, Scotland.1,2
  • Marriage*: He married Isabel (?) of Mar circa 1295 in Scotland.1,2
  • Marriage*: Robert Bruce King Robert I of Scotland married Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of Richard de Burgh 2nd Earl of Ulster and Margaret de Burgh, in 1302.2
  • Death*: Robert Bruce King Robert I of Scotland died on 7 June 1329 in Cardoss Castle, Cardross, Argyllshire, Scotland, at age 54.2
  • Burial*: He was buried after 7 June 1329 in Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.2
  • Biography*: He was created 1st Earl of Carrick [Scotland] on 27 October 1292. He succeeded to the title of Lord of Annandale between 1295 and 1304. He succeeded to the title of 2nd Lord Brus [E., 1297] circa April 1304. On 20 February 1305/6 he was attainted, and his English estates declared forfeit by King Edward I. He gained the title of King Robert I of Scotland on 25 March 1306. He was crowned King of Scotland on 27 March 1306 at Scone Abbey, Scone, Perthshire, Scotland. He fought in the Battle of Bannockburn on 24 June 1314 at Bannockburn, Stirlingshire, Scotland. He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.

    In August 1296, Bruce and his father swore fealty to Edward I of England at Berwick-upon-Tweed, but in breach of this oath, which had been renewed at Carlisle, the younger Robert supported the Scottish revolt against King Edward in the following year. Urgent letters were sent ordering Bruce to support Edward's commander, John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (to whom Bruce was related) in the summer of 1297; but instead of complying, Bruce continued to support the revolt against Edward. On 7 July, Bruce and his friends made terms with Edward by a treaty called the Capitulation of Irvine. The Scottish lords were not to serve beyond the sea against their will, and were pardoned for their recent violence in return for swearing allegiance to King Edward. The Bishop of Glasgow, James the Steward, and Sir Alexander Lindsay became sureties for Bruce until he delivered his infant daughter Marjorie as a hostage which he never did, and he was soon actively fighting for the Scots again.

    Shortly after the Battle of Stirling Bridge, Bruce again defected to the Scots; he laid waste to Annandale and burned the English-held castle of Ayr. Yet, when King Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, Annandale and Carrick were excepted from the Lordships and lands which he assigned to his followers.

    William Wallace resigned as Guardian of Scotland after the Battle of Falkirk. He was succeeded by Robert Bruce and John Comyn as joint Guardians, but they could not see past their personal differences. As a nephew and supporter of King John, and as someone with a serious claim to the Scottish throne, Comyn was Bruce's enemy. In 1299, William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews, was appointed as a third, neutral Guardian to try to maintain order between Bruce and Comyn. The following year, Bruce finally resigned as joint Guardian and was replaced by Sir Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus.

    In May 1301, Umfraville, Comyn and Lamberton also resigned as joint Guardians and were replaced by Sir John de Soules as sole Guardian. Soules was appointed largely because he was part of neither the Bruce nor the Comyn camps and was a patriot. He was an active Guardian and made renewed efforts to have King John returned to the Scottish throne.

    In July, King Edward I launched his sixth campaign into Scotland. Though he captured the castles of Bothwell and Turnberry, he did little to damage the Scots' fighting ability and, in January 1302, agreed to a nine-month truce. It was around this time that Robert the Bruce submitted to Edward, along with other nobles, even though he had been on the side of the patriots until then.

    There were rumours that John Balliol would return as to regain the Scottish throne. Soules, who had probably been appointed by John, supported his return, as did most other nobles. But it was no more than a rumor and nothing came of it.

    However, though recently pledged to support King Edward, it is interesting to note that Robert the Bruce sent a letter to the monks at Melrose Abbey in March 1302 which effectively weakened his usefulness to the English king. Apologizing for having called the monks' tenants to service in his army when there had been no national call-up, Bruce pledged that, henceforth, he would "never again" require the monks to serve unless it was to "the common army of the whole realm", for national defense. Bruce also married his second wife that year, Elizabeth de Burgh, the daughter of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster. By Elizabeth he had four children: David II, John (died in childhood), Matilda (who married Thomas Isaac and died at Aberdeen 20 July 1353), and Margaret (who married William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherland in 1345).

    In 1303, Edward invaded again, reaching Edinburgh, before marching to Perth. Edward stayed in Perth until July, then proceeded via Dundee, Brechin and Montrose, to Aberdeen, where he arrived in August. From there, he marched through Moray to Badenoch, before re-tracing his path back south to Dunfermline. With the country now under submission, all the leading Scots, except for William Wallace, surrendered to Edward in February 1304. John Comyn, who was by now Guardian, submitted to Edward.

    The laws and liberties of Scotland were to be as they had been in the days of Alexander III, and any that needed alteration would be with the assent of King Edward and the advice of the Scots nobles.

    On 11 June 1304, with both of them having witnessed the heroic efforts of their countrymen during King Edward's siege of Stirling Castle, Bruce and William Lamberton made a pact that bound them, each to the other, in “friendship and alliance against all men.” If one should break the secret pact, he would forfeit to the other the sum of ten thousand pounds. The pact is often interpreted as a sign of their deep patriotism despite both having already surrendered to the English.

    With Scotland defenseless, Edward set about destroying her as a realm. Homage was again obtained under force from the nobles and the burghs, and a parliament was held to elect those who would meet later in the year with the English parliament to establish rules for the governance of Scotland. For all the apparent participation by Scots in the government, however, the English held the real power. The Earl of Richmond, Edward's nephew, was to head up the subordinate government of Scotland.

    While all this took place, William Wallace was finally captured near Glasgow and was hanged, drawn and quartered in London on 23 August 1305.

    In September 1305, Edward ordered Robert Bruce to put his castle at Kildrummy, "in the keeping of such a man as he himself will be willing to answer for," suggesting that King Edward suspected Robert was not entirely trustworthy and may have been plotting behind his back. However, an identical phrase appears in an agreement between Edward and his lieutenant and life-long friend, Aymer de Valence. Even more sign of Edward's distrust occurred when on 10 October 1305, Edward revoked his gift of Gilbert de Umfraville's lands to Bruce that he had made only six months before.

    Robert Bruce as Earl of Carrick and now 7th Lord of Annandale, held huge estates and property in Scotland and a barony and some minor properties in England and had a strong claim to the Scottish throne. He also had a large family to protect. If he claimed the throne, he would throw the country into yet another series of wars, and if he failed, he would be sacrificing everyone and everything he knew.

    The killing of Comyn in Dumfries
    Bruce, like all his family, had a complete belief in his right to the throne. However his actions of supporting alternately the English and Scottish armies had led to a great deal of distrust towards Bruce among the “Community of the Realm of Scotland”. His ambition was further thwarted by the person of John Comyn. Comyn had been much more resolute in his opposition to the English; he was the most powerful noble in Scotland and was related to many more powerful nobles both within Scotland and England including relatives that held the earldoms of Buchan, Mar, Ross, Fife, Angus, Dunbar and Strathearn. Lordships of Kilbride, Kirkintilloch, Lenzie, Bedrule, Scraesburgh and sheriffdoms in Banff, Dingwall, Wigtown and Aberdeen. He also had a powerful claim to the Scottish throne through his descent from Donald III on his father's side and David I on his mother's side. Comyn was the nephew of John Balliol.

    According to Barbour and Fordoun, in the late summer of 1305 in a secret agreement sworn, signed and sealed, John Comyn agreed to forfeit his claim to the Scottish throne in favour of Robert Bruce upon receipt of the Bruce lands in Scotland should an uprising occur led by Bruce.

    Whether the details of the agreement with Comyn are correct or not, King Edward moved to arrest Bruce while Bruce was still at the English court. Fortunately for Bruce, his friend, and Edward's son-in-law, Ralph de Monthermer learnt of Edward's intention and warned Bruce by sending him twelve pence and a pair of spurs. Bruce took the hint, and he and a squire fled the English court during the night. They made their way quickly for Scotland and the fateful meeting with Comyn at Dumfries.

    According to Barbour, Comyn betrayed his agreement with Bruce to King Edward I, and when Bruce arranged a meeting for 10 February 1306 with Comyn in the Church of Greyfriars in Dumfries and accused him of treachery, they came to blows. Bruce killed Comyn in Dumfries before the high altar of the church of the monastery. The Scotichronicon says that on being told that Comyn had survived the attack and was being treated, two of Bruce's supporters, Roger de Kirkpatrick uttering the words "I mak siccar ("I make sure") and John Lindsay, went back into the church and finished Bruce's work. Barbour however tells no such story. Bruce was subsequently excommunicated as a result, less for the murder than for its location. Regardless, for Bruce the die was cast at the moment in Greyfriars and so began his campaign by force for the independence of Scotland. Swords were drawn by supporters of both sides, the burial ground of the Monastery becoming the battlefield. Bruce and his party then attacked Dumfries Castle. The English garrison surrendered and for the third time in the day Bruce and his supporters were victorious.

    Bruce hurried from Dumfries to Glasgow, where, kneeling before Bishop Robert Wishart he made confession of his violence and sacrilege and was granted absolution by the Bishop. The clergy throughout the land was adjured to rally to Bruce by Wishart. In spite of this, Bruce was excommunicated for this crime. Realizing that the 'die had been cast' and he had no alternative except to become king or a fugitive, Bruce asserted his claim to the Scottish crown.
    English records still in existence today tell a completely different story. They state that the Comyn murder was planned in an attempt to gain the throne of Scotland. For this reason King Edward of England wrote to the Pope and asked for his excommunication of Robert Bruce. No records have ever been found in England stating that King Edward had any knowledge of treachery by Robert Bruce before his acts against Comyn. They state that King Edward did not hear of the murder of John Comyn until several days past his death.

    Coronation at Scone – King Robert I Bruce crowned King of Scots; modern tableau at Edinburgh Castle
    Six weeks after Comyn was killed in Dumfries, Bruce was crowned King of Scots by Bishop William de Lamberton at Scone, near Perth on 25 March with all formality and solemnity. The royal robes and vestments which Robert Wishart had hidden from the English were brought out by the Bishop and set upon King Robert. The bishops of Moray and Glasgow were in attendance as well as the earls of Atholl, Menteith, Lennox, and Mar. The great banner of the kings of Scotland was planted behind his throne.

    Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan and wife of John Comyn, 3rd Earl of Buchan (a cousin of the murdered John Comyn), who claimed the right of her family, the MacDuff Earl of Fife, to crown the Scottish king for her brother, Donnchadh IV, Earl of Fife – who was not yet of age, and in English hands – arrived the next day, too late for the coronation, so a second coronation was held and once more the crown was placed on the brow of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, Lord of Annandale, King of the Scots.

    From Scone to Bannockburn
    In June 1306, he was defeated at the Battle of Methven and in August, he was surprised in Strathfillan, where he had taken refuge. His wife and daughters and other women of the party were sent to Kildrummy in August 1306 under the protection of Bruce's brother Neil Bruce and the Earl of Atholl and most of his remaining men. Bruce, with a small following of his most faithful men, including Sir James Douglas and Gilbert Hay, Bruce's brothers Thomas, Alexander and Edward, as well as Sir Neil Campbell and the Earl of Lennox fled.

    Edward I marched north again in the spring. On his way, he granted the Scottish estates of Bruce and his adherents to his own followers and had published a bill excommunicating Bruce. Bruce's queen, Elizabeth, his daughter Marjorie, his sisters Christina and Mary, and Isabella MacDuff were captured in a sanctuary at Tain, and sent to harsh imprisonment, which included Mary and Isabella being hung in a cage at Roxburgh and Berwick castles respectively for about four years, and Bruce's brother Neil was executed. But, on 7 July, King Edward I died, leaving Bruce opposed by his son, Edward II.

    It is still uncertain where Bruce spent the winter of 1306-07. Most likely he spent it in the Hebrides (possibly sheltered by Christina of Garmoran) although Ireland is a serious possibility, and Orkney (under Norwegian rule at the time) or Norway proper (where his sister was queen dowager) although unlikely are not impossible.

    Bruce and his followers returned to the Scottish mainland in February in two groups. One, led by Bruce and his brother Edward landed at Turnberry Castle and began a guerrilla war in south-west Scotland. The other, led by his brothers Thomas and Alexander, landed slightly further south in Loch Ryan; but they were soon captured and were executed.

    In April, Bruce won a small victory over the English at the Battle of Glen Trool, before defeating Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke at the Battle of Loudoun Hill. At the same time, James Douglas made his first foray for Bruce into south-western Scotland, attacking and burning his own castle in Douglasdale. Leaving his brother Edward in command in Galloway, Bruce travelled north, capturing Inverlochy and Urquhart Castles, burning Inverness Castle and Nairn to the ground, then unsuccessfully threatening Elgin.

    Transferring operations to Aberdeenshire in late 1307, he threatened Banff before falling seriously ill, probably owing to the hardships of the lengthy campaign. Recovering, leaving John Comyn, 3rd Earl of Buchan unsubdued at his rear, Bruce returned west to take Balvenie and Duffus Castles, then Tarradale Castle on the Black Isle. Looping back via the hinterlands of Inverness and a second failed attempt to take Elgin, Bruce finally achieved his landmark defeat of Comyn at the Battle of Inverurie in May 1308, then overran Buchan and defeated the English garrison at Aberdeen. The Harrying of Buchan in 1308 was ordered by Bruce to make sure all Clan Comyn support was extinguished. Buchan had a very large population because it was the agricultural capital of northern Scotland and much of its population was loyal to the Clan Comyn even after the defeat of the Earl of Buchan. Most of the Comyn castles in Moray, Aberdeen and Buchan were destroyed and their inhabitants killed. Bruce ordered similar harryings in Argyle and Kintyre, in the territories of Clan MacDougall. With these acts, Bruce had successfully destroyed the power of Clan Comyn, which had controlled much of northern and southwestern Scotland for over a hundred and fifty years.

    He then crossed to Argyll and defeated the MacDougalls (allies of the Comyns) at the Battle of Pass of Brander and took Dunstaffnage Castle, the last major stronghold of the Comyns.

    In March 1309, he held his first Parliament at St. Andrews, and by August, he controlled all of Scotland north of the River Tay. The following year, the clergy of Scotland recognized Bruce as king at a general council. The support given to him by the church in spite of his excommunication was of great political importance.

    The next three years saw the capture and reduction of one English-held castle or outpost after another: Linlithgow in 1310, Dumbarton in 1311, and Perth, by Bruce himself, in January 1312. Bruce also made raids into northern England and, landing at Ramsey in the Isle of Man, then laid siege to Castle Rushen in Castletown capturing it on 21 June 1313 to deny the island's strategic importance to the English. In the spring of 1314, Edward Bruce laid siege to Stirling Castle, whose governor, Philip de Mowbray, agreed to capitulate if not relieved before 24 June 1314. In March 1314, James Douglas captured Roxburgh, and Randolph captured Edinburgh Castle. In May, Bruce again raided England and subdued the Isle of Man.

    The eight years of exhausting but deliberate refusal to meet the English on even ground have caused many to consider Bruce as one of the great guerrilla leaders of any age. This represented a transformation for one raised as a feudal knight.

    The Battle of Bannockburn - 1314
    Bruce secured Scottish independence from England militarily — if not diplomatically — at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. An English army led by Edward II in person trying to relieve the siege of Stirling Castle was decisively defeated in an atypical set-piece battle.

    After Bannockburn - further confrontation with England then the Irish conflict.

    Bruce campaign in Ireland
    Freed from English threats, Scotland's armies could now invade northern England. Bruce also drove back a subsequent English expedition north of the border and launched raids into Yorkshire and Lancashire.

    Buoyed by his military successes, Bruce's forces also invaded Ireland in 1315, purportedly to free the country from English rule (having received a reply to offers of assistance from Donal O'Neil, king of Tyrone), and to open a second front in the continuing wars with England. The Irish even crowned Edward Bruce as High King of Ireland in 1316. Robert later went there with another army to assist his brother.

    To go with the invasion, Bruce popularized an ideological vision of a "Pan-Gaelic Greater Scotia" with his lineage ruling over both Ireland and Scotland. This propaganda campaign was aided by two factors. The first was his marriage alliance from 1302 with the de Burgh family of the Earldom of Ulster in Ireland; second, Bruce himself on his mother's side of Carrick, was descended from Gaelic royalty in Scotland as well as Ireland. Bruce's Irish ancestors included Eva of Leinster (d.1188), whose ancestors included Brian Boru of Munster and the kings of Leinster. Thus, lineally and geopolitically, Bruce attempted to support his anticipated notion of a pan-Gaelic alliance between Scottish-Irish Gaelic populations, under his kingship.

    This is revealed by a letter he sent to the Irish chiefs, where he calls the Scots and Irish collectively nostra nacio (our nation), stressing the common language, customs and heritage of the two peoples:
    Whereas we and you and our people and your people, free since ancient times, share the same national ancestry and are urged to come together more eagerly and joyfully in friendship by a common language and by common custom, we have sent you our beloved kinsman, the bearers of this letter, to negotiate with you in our name about permanently strengthening and maintaining inviolate the special friendship between us and you, so that with God's will our nation (nostra nacio) may be able to recover her ancient liberty.

    The diplomacy worked to a certain extent, at least in Ulster, where the Scots had some support. The Irish chief, Donal O'Neil, for instance, later justified his support for the Scots to Pope John XXII by saying "the Kings of Lesser Scotia all trace their blood to our Greater Scotia and retain to some degree our language and customs."

    The Bruce campaign to Ireland was characterized by some initial military success. However, the Scots failed to win over the non-Ulster chiefs, or to make any other significant gains in the south of the island, where people couldn't see the difference between English and Scottish occupation. Eventually it was defeated when Edward Bruce was killed at the Battle of Faughart. The Irish Annals of the period described the defeat of the Bruces by the English as one of the greatest things ever done for the Irish nation due to the fact it brought an end to the famine and pillaging brought on the Irish by both the Scots and the English.

    Diplomacy
    Robert Bruce's reign also witnessed some diplomatic achievements. The Declaration of Arbroath of 1320 strengthened his position, particularly vis-à-vis the Papacy. Pope John XXII eventually lifted Bruce's excommunication. In May 1328 King Edward III of England signed the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, which recognized Scotland as an independent kingdom, and Bruce as its king.

    Death
    King Robert is buried in Dunfermline Abbey.
    Robert died on 7 June 1329, at the Manor of Cardross, near Dumbarton He had suffered for some years from what some contemporary accounts describe as an "unclean ailment". The traditional view is that this was leprosy, but this was not mentioned in contemporary accounts, and is now disputed with syphilis, psoriasis, motor neurone disease and a series of strokes all proposed as possible alternatives.

    His body lies buried in Dunfermline Abbey but before he died Robert requested that his heart should be removed and then carried in battle 'against God's foes.'

    "I will that as soone as I am trespassed out of this worlde that ye take my harte owte of my body, and embawme it, and take of my treasoure as ye shall thynke sufficient for that enterprise, both for your selfe and suche company as ye wyll take with you, and present my hart to the holy Sepulchre where as our Lorde laye, seyng my body can nat come there."

    This gesture was to make up for his failure to go on crusade during his lifetime and atone for his sins, not least the sacrilegious murder of John Comyn in the Greyfriars church, Dumfries. Sir James Douglas was allotted the task. Bruce's preserved heart was placed in a silver casket, which Douglas then carried on a chain around his neck. When a projected international crusade failed to materialize, Douglas and company sailed to Spain where Alfonso XI of Castile was mounting a campaign against the Moorish kingdom of Granada. Douglas was killed in battle during the siege of Teba in August 1330 while fulfilling his promise. It is said his body and the casket containing the embalmed heart were found together upon the field. They were both conveyed back to Scotland by Sir William Keith of Galston. In accordance with Bruce's written request, the heart was buried at Melrose Abbey, in Roxburghshire. In 1920, it is claimed the heart was discovered by archaeologists and was reburied, but the location was not marked. In 1996, a casket was unearthed during construction work. Scientific study by AOC archaeologists in Edinburgh, demonstrated that it did indeed contain human tissue and it was of appropriate age. It was reburied in Melrose Abbey in 1998, pursuant to the dying wishes of the King.

    Discovery of the Bruce's tomb
    The tower of the rebuilt eastern end of the Abbey bears the sculpted words KING ROBERT THE BRUCE
    On 17 February 1818, workmen breaking ground on the new parish church to be built on the site of the eastern choir of Dunfermline Abbey uncovered a tomb before the site of the former abbey high altar. The tomb was protected by two large stones - a headstone and a larger stone six feet (182cm) in length. When these stones were removed, the workmen found inside the remains of an oak coffin the complete skeleton of an individual entirely enclosed in two layers of thin lead, with a shroud of cloth of gold over it. The individual’s sternum had been split open from top to bottom and around the skull there was a crude lead crown. In the debris around the grave, fragments of black and white marble were found, which were linked to Robert the Bruce’s recorded purchase of a marble sarcophagus.

    Robert the Bruce’s remains were removed from the coffin and the deteriorating lead shroud and inspected by James Gregory and Alexander Monro, Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh. The bones were measured and drawn, then a plaster cast was taken of the skull by artist William Scoular. The king’s skeleton was measured to be 5 feet 11 inches (180 cm). It has been estimated that Bruce may have stood at around 6 feet 1 inch (186 cm) tall as a young man, which by medieval standards was impressive. At this height he would have stood almost as tall as Edward I ( 6 feet 2 inches; 188 cm). Robert the Bruce’s remains were ceremonially re-interred in Dunfermline Abbey on 5 November 1819 in a new lead coffin, into which was poured 1,500 lbs of molten pitch to preserve the remains, before the coffin was sealed.

    Professor Sue Black and her team of forensic anthropologists from Dundee recreated his face from the cast made of his skull.2,3

Family 1: Isabel (?) of Mar b. 1270

Family 2: Elizabeth de Burgh b. c 1280

Family 3:

  • Last Edited: 25 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10209.htm#i102089
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Robert_I_of_Scotland
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10531.htm#i105305

Alisdair Carrach MacDonald of Keppoch1,2

M, #3408, b. circa 1365, d. 1440

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Alisdair was born circa 1365 in Scotland.1
  • Death*: Alisdair died in 1440 in Scotland.1
  • Biography*: Alasdair was the progenitor of the Macdonalds of Keppoch.

    Alastair Carragh MacDonald (Alexander the Strong) (d. c.1440) was a son of John of Islay, Lord of the Isles and Margaret Stewart, daughter of King Robert II of Scotland and Elizabeth Mure.[1] He is the eponymous ancestor of Clan MacDonald of Keppoch.

    The MacDonalds of Keppoch are descended from Alistair Carrach Macdonald who was a younger son of Good John of Islay, Lord of the Isles, 6th chief of Clan Donald and his second wife Margaret Stewart, daughter of King Robert II of Scotland.

    For his involvement in the 1431 insurrection of Donald Balloch, Alistair Carrach had a large portion of his lands removed and transferred to the Chief of the Clan Mackintosh.

    In 1497, some of the Clan MacLaren stole cattle from the Braes of Lochaber from the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch. The MacDonalds followed them and overtook them at a place called Glenurchy where a battle took place. The MacDonalds won and recovered their cattle. However, the MacLarens then looked for assistance from Dugel Stuart of Appin. Another battle then took place where the MacLarens were now joined by the Stuarts against the MacDonalds. During the battle Dugel, the chief of Clan Stuart and the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch chief were both killed.1,4
  • Last Edited: 29 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 474.
  3. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, pages 60, 479.
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clan_MacDonald_of_Keppoch

John Mor MacDonald The Tanister1

M, #3409, b. circa 1365, d. 1419

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: John was born circa 1365 in Scotland.2
  • Marriage*: He married Margery Bisset, daughter of John Bisset Lord of the Glynns and Sabia O'Neill, circa 1407 in Scotland.5,6
  • Death*: John died in 1419 in Scotland.2,3,6
  • Biography*: John Mor was the progenitor of the Earls of Antrim and Clan Iain Vor of Dunyveg and the Glens.

    John Mór Tanister (Scottish Gaelic: Eòin Mòr Tànaiste or Iain MacDhòmhnaill, died 1427) was the second son of John Macdonald (John of Islay, Lord of the Isles) and Princess Margaret Stewart of Scotland, daughter of King Robert II. He is the founder of Clan MacDonald of Dunnyveg.

    He was granted 120 merklands in Kintyre, with the castles of Dunaverty, Skipness and Airds and 60 merklands on Islay with the castle of Dunyvaig upon his father's death. Not being satisfied with his inheritance, he led a revolt against his brother Dómhnall Íle as John was recognized as the heir-apparent (tànaiste). The rebellion started in 1387 and went on into the 1390s, and John obtained the support of the powerful Clan MacLean kindred. However, John and the MacLeans were eventually forced to submit to Dómhnall, and by 1395 John Mór had been forced to flee into Ireland. There he entered the service of King Richard II of England in Antrim and later King Henry IV.

    Through his marriage with Margaret Bisset, a daughter of the MacEoin Bisset, Lord of the Glens, according to MacDonald shanachies he received as the dowry the Glens and Rathlin Island in Ireland, then becoming known as Lord of Dunnyvaig and the Glens. In fact this is a later invention, for the MacEoin Bissets continued to hold the Glens of Antrim until at least as late as 1522, when the last known died in battle.

    He led the reserve at the battle of Harlaw just north of Inverurie in Aberdeenshire on 24 July 1411 and later fought with Robert Stewart, Regent Albany who had forayed into Argyll to force his brother Dómhnall Íle to surrender.

    John Mor was attacked and killed by James Campbell after a scheduled meeting at Ard-du, Islay in 1427.

    Family
    By his wife, Margaret, daughter of MacEoin Bisset, Lord of The Glens, they had:
    Donald Balloch MacDonald d. 1476, married Johanna, daughter of Conn O'Neill of Edenduffcarrick.
    He is also the father of Ranald Bane MacDonald, by a daughter of the Finnon (the Green Abbot) or by his wife Margaret.2,7
  • Last Edited: 29 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Mor_Tanister
  2. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p1553.htm#i15530
  4. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 60.
  5. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p1553.htm#i15528
  6. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 473.
  7. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_M%C3%B3r_Tanister

Donald of Isla Lord of the Isles1

M, #3410, b. circa 1362, d. 1423

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Donald was born circa 1362 in Scotland.2
  • Marriage*: He married Lady Mary Leslie circa 1380 in Scotland.2,4
  • Burial*: His body was interred in 1423 in Isle of Iona, Scotland.2,4
  • Death*: Donald died in 1423 in Castle of Ardtornish, Movern, Scotland.2,5,4
  • Biography*: Donald, or properly, Dómhnall Íle (died 1423), was the son and successor of John of Islay, Lord of the Isles and chief of Clan Donald. The Lordship of the Isles was based in and around the Scottish west-coast island of Islay, but under Domhnall's father had come to include many of the other islands off the west coast of Scotland, as well as Morvern, Garmoran, Lochaber, Kintyre and Knapdale on the mainland.

    Domhnall was the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland and first cousin of King Robert III; he took pride in his royal blood, even adopting the royal tressure to surround his coat of arms.

    While it is customary to portray the Lords of the Isles as divorced from the mainstream of Scottish political life, and as representatives of a brand of lordship distinct from the rest of Scotland, this view obscures the fact that Domhnall was only one of many magnates who held large lordships with little interference from the crown in late 14th and early 15th century Scotland.[1] The Douglas kindred of southern Scotland and the Albany Stewarts had similar roles as Domhnall.

    Early rule
    Domhnall spent some of his first years as Lord of the Isles suppressing a revolt by his brother John Mór. John was Domhnall's younger brother, and resented his meagre inheritance. Although he was recognised as heir-apparent (tànaiste), he only received patches of land in Kintyre and Islay. The rebellion started in 1387 and went on into the 1390s, and John obtained the support of the MacLean kindred. However, John and the MacLeans were eventually forced to submit to Domhnall, and by 1395 John Mór had been forced into Ireland. There he entered the service of King Richard II of England and later established a MacDonald lordship in Antrim.

    Conflict with the Stewarts
    Suppression of the revolt enabled Domhnall to turn his attention northwards and eastwards. Most of the area to the north and east of the Lordship, that is Skye, Ross, Badenoch and Urquhart, was under the control of Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, famously known as the "Wolf of Badenoch". The Stewarts had been building up their power in the central Highlands and north of Scotland since the death of John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray in 1346. Alexander had acquired control of the lordship of Badenoch, the earldom of Buchan and the Justiciarship of Scotia. He had been appointed "Lieutenant of the North", giving him the flexibility to exercise total control over most of Scotland north of the mounth. Alexander was at once the de facto ruler of northern Scotland as well as the means by which the crown itself exercised control.

    However, there had been complaints over the activities of his caterans (war bands). More importantly, Alexander's position had become threatening not only to the crown, but also to the Euphemia I, Countess of Ross, her son Alexander and the titular Dunbar Earl of Moray. Late in 1388, soon after becoming Guardian of the Kingdom, Robert Stewart, Earl of Fife (created Duke of Albany in 1398) deprived Alexander of the Justiciarship. The assault of Alexander's position continued into the 1390s. Domhnall and his brother Alexander of Lochaber were in a perfect position to benefit. In 1394, the latter entered a 17-year agreement with the Earl of Moray, taking over Alexander Stewart's role as "protector" of the wealthy comital and episcopal lands in the Moray lowlands. The MacDonalds were in possession of Urquhart by the end of 1395, and had given control of the Duart Castle to Maclean of Duart.

    The Guardian soon turned his hostility against Domhnall and his family. Alexander of Lochaber had been using his role as "protector" to further his own lordship, including granting episcopal lands to his military followers. In 1398, Robert Stewart (now Duke of Albany) was called upon to take action, but the well-prepared expedition in the end came to nothing. Lochaber continued his activities, and in a raid of 1402 burned the burgh of Elgin along with the manses of the canons belonging to Elgin Cathedral. For this he was excommunicated by William Spynie, bishop of Moray. Later in the year Alexander visited Spynie to seek forgiveness.

    Ross claims
    Domhnall himself was causing still further concern when in the same year, following the death of Alexander Leslie, Earl of Ross, Domhnall pressed the claims of Mariota, Alexander Leslie's sister and Domhnall's wife, to the possession of Ross. Domhnall attempted to gain control of the earldom. Sometime after 1405 but before 1411, Domhnall gained control of Dingwall Castle, the chief seat of the earldom. In the year after the death of the nominal king, Robert III, Domhnall sent emissaries England, to make contact with the heir of the Scottish throne, the captive James Stewart. King Henry IV of England sent his own emissaries to Domhnall in the following year to negotiate an alliance against Albany.

    With control over the principal seat of the earldom of Ross and support of the exiled heir to the Scottish throne, in 1411 Domhnall felt strong enough to march against Albany's main northern ally, Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar. At the Battle of Harlaw, Domhnall failed to inflict a decisive victory, and withdrew back to the western highlands. In the aftermath, Albany was able to retake Dingwall and seize control of Easter Ross. In 1415, the heir of Alexander Leslie, Euphemia II, resigned the earldom to Albany. Domhnall prepared for war and proclaimed himself "Lord of Ross". Although Albany appointed his own son John Stewart to the earldom, Domhnall's wife continued to regard herself as the rightful Countess.

    Domhnall died in 1423 on Islay. He was succeeded by his son Alexander.

    Marriage and children
    He married Mary Leslie, Countess of Ross
    Alexander Macdonald, 10th Earl of Ross who died on 7 May 1449
    Angus Macdonald[disambiguation needed]
    Anna Macdonald who married Duncan Maclagmayn.5

Family: Lady Mary Leslie b. c 1367

  • Last Edited: 28 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S577] Norman H. MacDonald, The Clan Ranald of Knoydart & Glengarry, page 19.
  2. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  3. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 60.
  4. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 72.
  5. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domhnall_of_Islay,_Lord_of_the_Isles.

Lady Mary Leslie1

F, #3411, b. circa 1367

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Donald of Isla Lord of the Isles b. c 1362, d. 1423

  • Last Edited: 28 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 287.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euphemia_I,_Countess_of_Ross.
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Leslie
  4. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  5. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 72.

Alexander of Isla Lord of the Isles

M, #3412, b. circa 1385, d. 8 May 1448

Alexander de Yle
(Alasdair MacDomhnaill)
Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Alexander was born circa 1385 in Scotland.1,2
  • Marriage*: He married Elizabeth Seton circa 1420 in Scotland.1,3,4
  • Death*: Alexander died on 8 May 1448 in Castle of Dingwall, Scotland.1,5
  • Biography*: Alexander was Earl of Ross as well as Lord of the Isles.

    Alexander of Islay or Alexander MacDonald (died 1449; Scottish Gaelic: Alasdair MacDomhnaill, Dòmhnallach or MacDhòmhnaill) was a medieval Scottish nobleman, who succeeded his father Domhnall of Islay as Lord of the Isles (1423–1449) and rose to the rank of Earl of Ross (1437–49). His lively career, especially before he attained the earldom of Ross, led Hugh MacDonald, the 17th century author of History of the MacDonalds, to commemorate him as "a man born to much trouble all his lifetime". Alexander allied himself with King James I of Scotland against the power of the Albany Stewarts in 1425 but, once the Albany Stewarts were out of the way, Alexander quickly found himself at odds with the new king. War with King James would initially prove Alexander's undoing, and would see the King's power in Scotland greatly increased, but at the Battle of Inverlochy Alexander's army prevailed against the forces of the King. Alexander died in 1449, having greatly extended his family's landed wealth and power. He was buried, not in the Isles of his ancestors, but at Fortrose Cathedral in his mainland Earldom of Ross.

    Biography
    Alexander, the Albany Stewarts and King James
    Alexander inherited his father Domhnall's alliance with King James I of Scotland against the power of the Albany Stewarts, who by the time James returned to Scotland from English captivity in 1424 ruled more of Scotland than King James could. By 1425 James had decided to destroy the Albany Stewarts once and for all. In May of this year, Alexander attended the Stirling parliament, and sat on the jury of 21 knights and peers which ordered the execution of Murdoch (Muireadhach), Duke of Albany, along with his son Alexander and his ally Donnchadh, Earl of Lennox.

    However, the destruction of the Albany Stewarts removed the main reason for the co-operation between the King and the Lord of the Isles. It is possible that, as Michael Brown believes, James acknowledged Alexander's control of the earldom of Ross as a reward for his support against Albany, as in 1426 Alexander used the style "Master of the Earldom of Ross". However, Richard Oram takes a different view, and sees Alexander's adoption of this title and occupation of much of the earldom as a provocation towards James, since it had passed to him after the death of John Stewart, Earl of Buchan and Ross in 1424, and James was legally entitled the hold the earldom. Alexander's use of this title, if it were provocation, would have been compounded in the king's mind by the fact that Alexander's uncle John Mór MacDonald was harbouring and protecting James Mór (or James the Fat), the son of Duke Murdoch, while James Mór was claiming James' throne.

    Captivity
    At any rate, the king had certainly adopted a more hostile attitude towards Alexander. In 1428, James travelled into the north of Scotland both to assert his authority in Ross and to bring order to the north. James requested a meeting with Alexander, and in August Alexander travelled in good faith to meet James at Inverness, where James was holding court. James however, in an act typical of his kingship, imprisoned Alexander, his mother Mariota (by whose lineage Alexander claimed Ross) and around fifty of his followers, including his uncle and heir-designate John Mór, in the tower of Inverness Castle. Included among the other prisoners were Alexander's most important Ross allies; men such as Aonghas Dubh MacAoidh, the chief of the MacKays of Strathnaver, a man who was reputed to have a warband 4000 strong; a prisoner also was Aonghas' son Niall Óg, the husband of the daughter of the head of the Foulis Munro kindred of Easter Ross, one of Ross' most important families. The head of the Munros himself, George Munro, may also have been arrested, but if he was he was quickly released. William Leslie and John de Ross of Balnagown, two important landowners and kinsmen of Mariota, were also imprisoned, as were the heads of the Wester Ross Lochalsh MacMhathain (Matheson) and the Kintail MacChoinnich (MacKenzie) kindreds. Most of these men, including John Mór, seem to have been released within a short time, although James took a few back to the south with him.

    According to Michael Brown and the 17th century History of the MacDonalds, James attempted to do a deal with John Mór, probably offering him the Lordship of the Isles, to which he was heir and for which he had revolted against his brother Domhnall decades before. John however refused to negotiate until Alexander was released. Furthermore, King James' plans met disaster when his messenger James Campbell attempted to arrest "Johannis de Insulis" and killed him in the attempt. King James tried to distance himself from the killing, and had Campbell hanged. Before the end of 1428. Alexander was released on a promise of good behaviour.

    War against the King
    Almost as soon as he was released, Alexander was at war with the king. Domhnall Ballach ("the Freckled"), son of his uncle John Mór, may have been seeking revenge for his father's death, and if this was the case, he was supported by his other uncle Alasdair Carrach ("the Curly"), Lord of Lochaber. Together, these two men, the two most important nobles in the lordship, probably helped pressure Alexander into war. In Spring 1429, Alexander's forces advanced on Inverness. Although Maol Choluim Mac an Tóisich ("Malcolm MacKintosh"), head of Clan Chattan and custodian of the castle, managed to hold Alexander off, Alexander was still able to burn down the burgh. Alexander, meanwhile, was planning to support James Mór, son of Duke Murdoch, in his claim on the Scottish throne. James Mór had become a serious threat to King James, not merely because was he likely to have the support of Murdoch's former vassals in Lennox, Menteith and Fife, but also because he had obtained the backing of the King of England, who was angry that King James was ignoring his superior status and the terms of his release from captivity in England several years before. Now James Mór had the support of Alexander too.

    In the summer, King James raised a large army and after a swift march north through Atholl and Badenoch, the royal army encountered Alexander somewhere around the borders of Lochaber and Badenoch. Although according to Walter Bower Alexander had 10,000 men, when the royal standard was unfurled the Chattan and Cameron kindreds switched over to the King. In the following engagement Alexander was defeated. Although Alexander got away, the king capitalized on his victory by marching further north and seizing the castles of Urquhart and Dingwall. The king now sought Alexander's capture, and sent an expedition armed with artillery into the Hebrides. Alexander, who had probably fled to Islay, found himself in a very difficult position, and on 27 August 1429 surrendered to King James at Holyrood Abbey, near the burgh of Edinburgh. King James was persuaded by his magnates to give Alexander grace, and sent him to Tantallon Castle under the custody of William Douglas, 2nd Earl of Angus, King James' nephew.

    While he had Alexander in custody, King James delegated the northern campaign to Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, with more minor roles going to Maol Choluim Mac an Tóisich, Alexander Seton of Gordon, Hugh Fraser and Aonghas de Moravia. James would never again return to Ross or Moray. Mar was given support in his role as Lieutenant when Alan Stewart, the second son of Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl, was made Earl of Caithness in Spring 1430. The royal earldoms of Buchan and Ross, and the castle of Urquhart were put under Mar's control; by 1431 the lordship of Lochaber, held by Alasdair Carrach, was assigned to Mar's command; and by 1432 Mar had received papal dispensation to marry Margaret Seton, the mother of the heiresses to the earldom of Moray, which he would administer on their behalf. James, moreover, arranged a marriage between Lachlan Maclean, captain of the MacLeans of Duart, an important vassal kindred of the Lordship of the Isles, to Mar's daughter, bringing Mar's influence into the Lordship of the Isles itself. In 1431 Aonghas de Moravia was sent on a campaign against Aonghas Dubh MacAoidh in Strathnaver. However the main campaign was in Lochaber, where Mar hoped to make his status as Lord of Lochaber a reality. In both campaigns, however, the results were defeats for the king's forces. At the Battle of Inverlochy Mar's forces were met by both Domhnall Ballach and Alasdair Carrach of Lochaber; although Mar managed to make a long escape on foot back to Kildrummy Castle, the Earl of Caithness and 990 men were slain. In 1429, in Strathnaver, at the Battle of Drumnacoub, Aonghas Dubh MacAoidh (Angus MacKay), chief of Clan MacKay was also victorious over royal forces, this battle however was more of a family related feud. Both defeats were incurred before September 1431. James' first reaction was to raise taxes, taxes which were granted on 16 October, in order to deliver a counter-attack; but this revenue was insufficient and James had other problems to deal with. King James therefore arranged a reconciliation with Alexander, who was pardoned for past offences and released from captivity.

    Alexander would never again be the king's enemy, and remained subdued for the next few years. Luck, however, was on Alexander's side. The earl of Mar was in either his fifties or sixties, and his son and heir Thomas had already died in 1430. When the earl himself died in 1435, James' settlement in the north collapsed. James was in Mar by June 1436, where he was taking control of the earldom. It was probably in this time that James finally acknowledged Alexander as earl of Ross, the only magnate who could now offer security in the north-eastern Highlands. Alexander not only received control of Dingwall, but Inverness too, which he would hold until at least 1447. Morever, the Ross earldom came with Kincardine in the Mearns, Kingedward in Buchan and Greenan in Ayrshire. By January 1437 Alexander was styling himself "Earl of Ross" in his charters, and this style was acknowledged in royal documents by 1439. Finally, by February 1439, Alexander had been appointed Justiciar of Scotia, an office which made Alexander the chief legal official in the Kingdom of Scotland.

    Having achieved the chief object of his career, Alexander spent the last decade of his life consolidating his position in Ross. His charters seem to indicate that he was chiefly based at the castles of Dingwall and Inverness, and rarely anywhere else. The large number of charters issued by Alexander at Inverness is probably explained by his role as Justiciar of Scotia. Alexander's move east led to less direct lordship in the west, his original political heartland. Alexander's bastard sons Uisdean (Hugh of Sleat) and Gilleasbaig ("Celestine") were given Sleat and Lochalsh respectively, Domhnall Ballach became more independent in Islay and Kintyre, Clan MacLeod kindred took greater control in Skye and Lewis, Clan MacLean greater control in Mull and Clan MacKintosh greater control in Lochaber.

    Marriage and children
    Alexander had two partners with whom he fathered offspring. The daughter of MacPhee produced a number of bastard sons, and secondly he married Elizabeth, the daughter of Alexander Seton, Lord Gordon and had:
    John of Islay, Earl of Ross, who succeeded Alexander at age fifteen.

    Other children include:
    Hugh MacDonald, Lord of Sleat
    Celestine MacDonald, Lord of Lochlash.

    Death
    Alexander MacDonald of Islay died at Dingwall in May 1449. He was buried in Fortrose Cathedral.1,3

Family 1: daughter MacPhee of Lochaber b. c 1400

Family 2:

  • Last Edited: 28 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 72.
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_of_Islay,_Earl_of_Ross.
  4. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 88.
  5. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 89.
  6. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 150.
  7. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Islay,_Earl_of_Ross.

Elizabeth Seton

F, #3413, b. circa 1408

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family 1: Angus Og MacDonald Lord of the Isles b. b 1296, d. 1329

Family 2: Alexander of Isla Lord of the Isles b. c 1385, d. 8 May 1448

  • Last Edited: 28 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Seton,_Lord_Gordon.
  2. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 48.
  3. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_of_Islay,_Earl_of_Ross.
  5. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 88.
  6. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10807.htm#i108062
  7. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Islay,_Earl_of_Ross.

Celestine of Lochalsh

M, #3415, b. circa 1420, d. 1476

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Celestine was born circa 1420 in Scotland.1
  • Death*: Celestine died in 1476.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 28 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 88.

Sir Alexander of Lochalsh

M, #3416, d. 1495

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Alexander was born.1
  • Death*: Alexander died in 1495.1
  • Last Edited: 14 Dec 2012

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Sir Donald Gallda (?)

M, #3417, d. 1519

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Donald was born in Scotland.1
  • Death*: Donald died in 1519.1
  • Last Edited: 14 Dec 2012

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

Margaret of Lochalsh

F, #3418, b. circa 1450

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Margaret was born circa 1450 in Scotland.1
  • Biography*: Margaret was heiress to Lochalsh.1
  • Last Edited: 14 Dec 2012

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.

John of Isla 4th Lord of the Isles, Earl of Ross1

M, #3419, b. circa 1430, d. 1503

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: John was born circa 1430 in Scotland.2
  • Marriage*: He married Elizabeth Livingstone circa 1450 in Scotland.2,1
  • Burial*: His body was interred in 1503 in Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland.2
  • Death*: John died in 1503 in a small lodging house, Dundee, Angus, Scotland.2
  • Biography*: John of Islay (or John MacDonald) (1434–1503) was a late medieval Scottish magnate. He was Earl of Ross and the 4th Lord of the Isles as well as being Mac Domhnaill, chief of Clan Donald. John would however prove to be the last of the Lords of the Isles, overmighty subjects of the Stewart Kings of Scotland and virtual kings in their own right in the Western Isles. His struggle for power with King James III of Scotland ended in humiliation, following which his illegitimate son Angus Óg rebelled against his rule. In a bitter civil war, John's fleet of galleys met those of Angus sometime in the early 1480s off the coast of Mull at the Battle of Bloody Bay, in which John's cause was defeated. After Bloody Bay he became an inconsequential figure; and Angus continued to dominate the affairs of Clan Donald up until his murder in 1490. In 1493 James IV brought the Lordship of the Isles to an end. John died unlamented in 1503, having witnessed the almost complete destruction of his family inheritance.

    Early life
    John was born to Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles, and Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Seton the lord of Gordon and Huntly. He succeeded to his father's territories in 1449 while a still a minor.

    Marriage and Land
    Early in his life he was forced to marry a woman he did not love for a promise that was never kept. John's marriage to Elizabeth had been determined by the usual calculations of profit and position, as were those of other important people of the time. There was one important difference with the alliance of John and Elizabeth: he came from a great landed family, she did not. Elizabeth was the daughter of Sir James Livingstone, a powerful politician during the minority of James II, but in a conservative, land-based society, a figure of no lasting significance. John, with a large and hungry following at his heels, rich as he was, always needed more land. Sir James' power was purely personal, and his daughter would not normally have been considered as a suitable match for the Lord of the Isles. It seems he was persuaded to marry her after certain unspecified promises from the king. After Livingstone fell from power in the early 1450s James refused to honour these promises. Instead of growing to love or at least respect Elizabeth, John came to loathe her.

    Rebellion against the King
    Soon after his disgrace Sir James took refuge with his son-in-law. John at once rose in revolt, taking the royal castles of Inverness, Urquhart and Ruthven, perhaps less to show his support for the Livingstones than to remind the king of his broken word.

    Treaties and Allies
    This revolt of the Lord of the Isles came at a dangerous time for the king, who was involved in a serious dispute with the eighth Earl of Douglas, the most powerful noble in southern Scotland. We can probably date to this time the famous bond between Ross and Douglas, men who were hardly natural allies. There is absolutely no evidence that Ross, Douglas or the Alexander Lindsay, 4th Earl of Crawford, the other party to the bond, planned to depose the king, though this has not prevented some historians from making such a claim. If this had been the intention James would presumably taken much more direct action, rather than simply invite Douglas to Stirling in February 1452 to discuss the matter, and Douglas would hardly have put himself in the power of the king, even with a safe conduct. As it was James tried to persuade the earl to break the bond and, when he refused, murdered him in a fit of royal anger. If the bond had been so treasonable, the arrest and trial of Douglas would have served his ends much more effectively than this crude crime of passion.

    John showed little concern for the fate of his ally, especially as James effectively turned a blind eye to the occupation of the northern castles. His relations with the crown continued to improve and he did nothing to prevent the final destruction of the house of Douglas in 1455, even obtaining title to some of their border estates. The sudden and unexpected death of James in 1460 brought an early change of direction. Soon after the accession of James III, John received a proposal that was to lead to his eventual ruin.

    Ardtornish and Westminster
    So far John had done rather well. He had defied the king and survived. He extended his power and influence from Inverness to the English border. Had he died at this point he might be well remembered in the annals of Clan Donald. But he now took a fatal step, the consequences of which were to betray the essential weakness of his character. In England the Yorkists under Edward IV had chased the Lancastrian Henry VI from the country. Henry took refuge in Scotland, where he was well received. Edward at once sent the exiled earl of Douglas, the brother of the man murdered at Stirling, on a diplomatic mission to the Isles. At his court in the castle of Ardtornish John agreed to send his plenipotentiaries to London. This was a dangerous move, for while John's predecessors had contacts with the English, they had never committed themselves too far. Moreover, the English had never made any real attempt to assist the Lordship when it was in difficulties with the crown of Scotland. It should have been perfectly clear that Edward was trying to create a diversion. Sadly for the Lord of the Isles, it was not.

    In February 1462 John's representatives concluded an agreement once referred to as the Treaty of Westminster-Ardtornish, that envisaged nothing less than the conquest and partition of Scotland. John agreed to pay homage to Edward in return for his help in obtaining all of Scotland north of the Forth. The treaty is a remarkably vague document considering the risks John was prepared to take. It says absolutely nothing about the nature, scale and timing of English support. But for Edward it was a brilliant diplomatic coup. He achieved maximum results at minimum expense, laying out only as much bait as necessary to create a political disturbance in northern Scotland.

    Even before the agreement was concluded the Islemen took to arms, advancing eastwards under the command of Angus Og, John's illegitimate son. Once again Inverness was captured and the people of the north instructed to deny the authority of James III. Beyond this we know nothing from the sparse contemporary sources, not even how this rebellion was brought under control. It most certainly had the effect Edward desired; for the Scottish government, faced with rebellion in the north, and fearful of attack in the south, dropped the politically embarrassing Lancastrian connection. John, presumably now aware how worthless the Westminster agreement truly was, backed down, declaring his seizure of the Inverness customs had been illegal. No further action was taken against him-for the present.

    Angus Óg and Bloody Bay
    In the mid 1470s Edward, preparing for a war with France, and anxious for good relations with Scotland, finally revealed the full terms of the Westminster treaty. John was summoned before parliament to answer for his treasons, and when he failed to appear was declared forfeit. With no allies, either at home or abroad, John had little choice but to make his peace with the king in the summer of 1476. Considering the full extent of his treason, far greater than that which had destroyed the Border Douglases, he was treated with comparative leniency. He lost the earldom of Ross-outwith the Isle of Skye-as well as Knapdale and Kintyre, but retained control of the Hebrides. The designation of Lord of the Isles, moreover, was from this point forward to be granted by the crown, rather than self-assumed.

    But John had lost much more than land: he lost prestige and standing among his own kin. The Lordship had always depended on territorial expansion to give life to its warrior values; but now that it was contracting all of the latent tensions came forth, finding expression in the person of Angus Óg. Angus, according to Hugh Macdonald, ejected John both from the leadership of the clan and from his own home, forcing him to seek shelter under an old boat, and precipitating a bitter civil war. John managed to raise an army of his own against his son, and his fleet of galleys met those of Angus sometime in the early 1480s-we cannot be more precise than that-off the coast of Mull to the north-west of the present town of Tobermory, an area ever afterwards to be known as Bloody Bay. The Battle of Bloody Bay was a complete victory for Angus[citation needed], who continued to dominate the affairs of Clan Donald up to his murder in 1490.

    Twilight
    What happened to John after Bloody Bay is uncertain; but he seems to have slipped quietly into temporary and obscure retirement. The Annals of the Four Masters record the murder of his son, John Oge, by Diarmait MacCairbre in 1490. With the death of Angus John re-emerged from the shadows, but by now he appears to have been firmly under the tutelage of his nephew, Alexander of Lochalsh. Alexander tried to re-establish control over the earldom of Ross, but was defeated by the Mackenzies, a leading local family, at the Battle of Park. In 1493 King James IV of Scotland finally brought the independent Lordship of the Isles to an end. John was taken to the Lowlands, destined to live out what was left of his life as a pensioner of the king, finally drifting out of history, apparently unlamented even by his own kin. He died not in Paisley in 1498 but Dundee in 1503. At his own request, he is said to have been laid to rest in the tomb of Robert II, his royal ancestor; however Robert was buried at Scone not Paisley, where the tomb of Robert III is located.

    In 1540 James V in suppressing further disorders in the west reserved the style Lord of the Isles to the Crown (so far as he could do so), where it remains to the present day, if meaning nothing more than the destruction of the ancient Norse-Gaelic lordship. The office itself has been extinct since the 15th century.

    Legacy
    It is difficult to know what to make of John of the Isles, the man who was destined to preside over the ruin of a great inheritance. He appears to have had an odd assortment of qualities, sometimes assertive and arrogant, other times weak and submissive. Hugh Macdonald, the seventeenth century historian of Clan Donald, says that he was; "a meek, modest man...and a scholar more fit to be a churchman than to command so many irregular tribes of people".

    His wife, Elizabeth Livingstone, accused him of trying to murder her while she was pregnant. He started his rule as a lion and ended as a sheep, having in the process alienated almost everyone, including the closest members of his family.2,1

Family 1: Elizabeth Livingstone b. c 1430

Family 2:

  • Last Edited: 28 Mar 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Islay,_Earl_of_Ross.
  2. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  3. [S923] F. S. A., Scot. Alexander MacKenzie, History of the MacDonalds and Lords of the Isles, page 88.
  4. [S822] Walter MacFarlane of that Ilk MacFarlane's Genealogical Collections Vol. I, page 60.

Elizabeth Livingstone

F, #3420, b. circa 1430

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 7 Dec 2014

Citations

  1. [S217] Ronald Williams, The Lords of the Isles.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Islay,_Earl_of_Ross.
  3. [S822] Walter MacFarlane of that Ilk MacFarlane's Genealogical Collections Vol. I, page 60.