Stephen (?) King of Hungary

M, #3667, b. circa 1000

Saint Stephen I
King of the Hungarians, King of the Pannonians or King of Hungary

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Stephen (?) King of Hungary was born circa 1000 in Hungary.
  • Biography*: Stephen I, also Saint Stephen (Hungarian: Szent István király; Latin: Sanctus Stephanus; Slovak: Štefan I. or Štefan Ve?ký; c. 975 – 15 August 1038) was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001, and the first King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038. The year of his birth is uncertain, but many details of his life suggest that he was born in or after 975 in Esztergom. At his birth, he was given the pagan name Vajk. The date of his baptism is unknown. He was the only son of Grand Prince Géza and his wife, Sarolt, who was descended from the prominent family of the gyulas. Although both of his parents were baptized, Stephen was the first member of his family to become a devout Christian. He married Gisela of Bavaria, a scion of the imperial Ottonian dynasty.

    After succeeding his father in 997, Stephen had to fight for the throne against his relative, Koppány, who was supported by large numbers of pagan warriors. He defeated Koppány mainly with the assistance of foreign knights, including Vecelin, Hont and Pázmány, but also with help from native lords. He was crowned on 25 December 1000 or 1 January 1001 with a crown sent by Pope Sylvester II. In a series of wars against semi-independent tribes and chieftains—including the Black Hungarians and his uncle, Gyula the Younger—he unified the Carpathian Basin. He protected the independence of his kingdom by forcing the invading troops of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor to withdraw from Hungary in 1030.

    Stephen established at least one archbishopric, six bishoprics and three Benedictine monasteries; thus the Church in Hungary developed independently of the archbishops of the Holy Roman Empire. He ensured the spread of Christianity with severe punishments for ignoring Christian customs. His system of local administration was based on counties organized around fortresses and administered by royal officials. Hungary, which enjoyed a lasting period of peace during his reign, became a preferred route for pilgrims and merchants traveling between Western Europe and the Holy Land or Constantinople.

    He survived all of his children. He died on 15 August 1038 and was buried in his new basilica, built in Székesfehérvár and dedicated to the Holy Virgin. His death caused civil wars which lasted for decades. He was canonized, together with his son, Emeric, and Bishop Gerard of Csanád, in 1083. Stephen is a popular saint in Hungary and the neighboring territories. In Hungary, his feast day (celebrated on 20 August) is also a public holiday commemorating the foundation of the state.1
  • Last Edited: 3 Nov 2014

Agatha Salian1

F, #3668, b. circa 1025, d. circa 1093

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 1 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10216.htm#i102154
  2. [S283] Nigel Tranter, David the Prince.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102187
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10216.htm#i102154
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102188
  5. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102188
  6. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cristina,_daughter_of_Edward_the_Exile.

Edmund II Ironside (?) King of England1

M, #3669, b. between 988 and 993, d. 30 November 1016

Edmund II, King of England

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Edmund II Ironside (?) King of England was born between 988 and 993 in England.1
  • Marriage*: He married Ealdgyth (?) in August 1015 in Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England.3
  • Death*: Edmund II Ironside (?) King of England died on 30 November 1016 in Oxford, Oxfordshire, England; murdered.1
  • Burial*: He was buried after 30 November 1016 in Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Somerset, England.1
  • Biography*: He succeeded to the title of King Edmund II of England on 23 April 1016.

    He was crowned King of England in April 1016 at St. Paul's Cathedral, The City, London, England.1

    He fought in the Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, where he was defeated by Cnut. Due to King Ethelred having been so inept, Cnut was accepted as King by a large section of the country after Ethelred's death. Cnut ruled most of the country North of the Thames whilst Edmund was accepted in the South.

    Cnut laid siege to London and wished to control it with his fleet but his ships could not pass London Bridge, so he had a cutting made on the South side of the bridge and passed his ships around it. Edmund marched on London through the woods at Tottenham and a fierce battle ensued. Cnut withdrew and fought Edmund at Ashington (Assandun) in Essex but this time Edmund was beaten. Cnut was wise and knew that Edmund was popular so he met him on an island in the Severn near Deerhurst and it was agreed that Edmund should rule Wessex and Canute would rule the land North of the Thames, including London.

    Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (Old English: Eadmund II Isen-Healf; c. 989 – 30 November 1016) was King of England from 23 April to 18 October 1016 and of Wessex from 23 April to 30 November 1016. His cognomen "Ironside" is not recorded until 1057, but may have been contemporary. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, it was given to him "because of his valour" in resisting the Danish invasion led by Cnut the Great. He fought five battles against the Danes, ending in defeat against Cnut on 18 October at the Battle of Assandun, after which they agreed to divide the kingdom, Edmund taking Wessex and Cnut the rest of the country. Edmund died shortly afterwards on 30 November, and Cnut became the king of all England.

    Family
    Edmund was a signatory to charters from 993. He was the third of the six sons of King Æthelred the Unready and his first wife, Ælfgifu, who was probably the daughter of Earl Thored of Northumbria. His elder brothers were Æthelstan and Egbert (died c. 1005), and younger ones, Eadred, Eadwig and Edgar. He had four sisters, Eadgyth (or Edith), Ælfgifu, Wulfhilda, and the Abbess of Wherwell Abbey. His mother died around 1000, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy, who had two sons, Edward the Confessor and Alfred and a daughter Goda.

    Æthelstan probably did not approve of the increasing influence of ealdorman Eadric Streona from 1007, and he seems to have formed a friendship with Sigeferth and Morcar, two of the leading thegns of the Five Boroughs of the East Midlands. Æthelstan and Edmund were close, and they probably felt threatened by Emma's ambitions for her sons. The Life of Edward the Confessor, written fifty years later, claimed that when Emma was pregnant with him, all Englishmen promised that if the child was a boy they would accept him as king.

    When Sweyn Forkbeard seized the throne at the end of 1013 and Æthelred fled to France, the brothers do not appear to have followed him, but stayed in England. Æthelstan died in June 1014 and left his brother estates and a sword which had belonged to king Offa of Mercia. His will also reflected the close relationship between the brothers and the nobility of the east midlands.

    Struggle for power
    Sweyn died in February 1014, and the Five Boroughs accepted his son Cnut, who married a kinswoman of Sigeferth and Morcar, as king. However, Æthelred returned to England and launched a surprise attack which defeated the Vikings and forced Cnut to flee England. In 1015 Sigeferth and Morcar came to an assembly in Oxford, probably hoping for a royal pardon, but they were murdered by Eadric Streona. King Æthelred then ordered that Sigeferth's widow, Ealdgyth, be seized and brought to Malmesbury Abbey, but Edmund seized and married her in defiance of his father, probably to consolidate his power base in the east midlands. He then received the submission of the people of the Five Boroughs. At the same time, Cnut launched a new invasion of England. In late 1015 Edmund raised an army, possibly assisted by his wife's and mother's links with the midlands and the north, but the Mercians under Eadric Streona joined the West Saxons in submitting to Cnut. In early 1016 the army assembled by Edmund dispersed when Æthelred did not appear to lead it, probably due to illness. Edmund then raised a new army and in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria ravaged Eadric Streona's Mercian territories, but when Cnut occupied Northumbria Uhtred submitted to him, only to be killed by Cnut. Edmund went to London.

    King of England
    Æthelred died on 23 April 1016, and the citizens and councillors in London chose Edmund as king and probably crowned him. He then mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London, Edmund headed for Wessex, where the people submitted to him and he gathered an army. He fought inconclusive battles against the Danes and their English supporters at Penselwood in Somerset and Sherston in Wiltshire. He then raised the siege of London and defeated the Danes near Brentford. They renewed the siege while Edmund went to Wessex to raise further troops, returning to again relieve London, defeat the Danes at Otford, and pursue Cnut into Kent. Eadric Streona now went over to Edmund, but at the decisive Battle of Assandun on 18 October, Eadric and his men fled and Cnut decisively defeated Edmund. There may have been one further battle in the Forest of Dean, after which the two kings negotiated a peace dividing the country between them. Edmund received Wessex while Cnut took Mercia and probably Northumbria.

    Shortly afterwards, on 30 November 1016, King Edmund died, probably in London. Cnut was now able to seize control as king of England. Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset. His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries, any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed. The location of his body is unknown.

    Heirs
    Edmund had two children by Ealdgyth, Edward the Exile and Edmund. According to John of Worcester, Cnut sent them to the king of Sweden where he probably hoped they would be murdered, but the Swedish king instead forwarded them, together with his daughter, on to Kiev. It has more recently been alleged that the two sons were sent to Poland and subsequently from there to Hungary. The two boys eventually ended up in Hungary where Edmund died but Edward prospered. Edward "the Exile" returned to England in 1057 only to die within a few days of his arrival. His son Edgar the Ætheling was briefly proclaimed king after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, but later submitted to William the Conqueror. Edgar would live a long and eventful life; fighting in rebellion against William the Conqueror from 1067-1075; fighting alongside the Conqueror's son Robert of Normandy in campaigns in Sicily (1085-1087); and accompanying Robert on the First Crusade (1099-1103). He eventually died in England in 1126.

    Reputation
    In the view of M. K. Lawson, the intensity of Edmund's struggle against the Danes in 1016 is only matched by Alfred the Great's in 871, and contrasts with Æthelred's failure. Edmund's success in raising one army after another suggests that there was little wrong with the organs of government under competent leadership. He was "probably a highly determined, skilled and indeed inspiring leader of men". Cnut visited his tomb on the anniversary of his death and laid a cloak decorated with peacocks on it to assist in his salvation, peacocks symbolising resurrection.

    In culture
    Edmund Ironside is an Elizabethan play about him, which some critics believe to be a very early work by William Shakespeare.
    Edmund is played by John Horn in the 1970 television movie The Ceremony of Innocence.
    Edmund is one of the main characters in Justin Hill's novel Shieldwall (2011), first in the Conquest Trilogy.1,4

Family: Ealdgyth (?) b. c 992

  • Last Edited: 9 Nov 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102185
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10218.htm#i102175
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102187
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102186
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Ironside
  5. [S283] Nigel Tranter, David the Prince.
  6. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102187
  7. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Exile

Edward Atheling (?) Heir to Throne of England

M, #3670, b. circa 1016, d. 1057

Edward the Exile

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Edward was born circa 1016 in England.1,2
  • Marriage*: He married Agatha Salian in 1035 in Hungary.1,2
  • Burial*: Edward Atheling (?) Heir to Throne of England was buried in 1057 in Old St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Greater London, England.2
  • Death*: He died in 1057 in London, Greater London, England.2
  • Biography*: Edward 'Atheling' also went by the nick-name of Edward 'the Outlaw'.

    Edward the Exile (1016 – late August 1057), also called Edward Ætheling, was the son of King Edmund Ironside and of Ealdgyth. He spent most of his life in exile following the defeat of his father by Canute the Great.

    Exile
    After the Danish conquest of England in 1016, Canute had Edward, said to be only a few months old, and his brother, Edmund, sent to the Swedish court of Olof Skötkonung (who was either Canute's half-brother or stepbrother), supposedly with instructions to have the children murdered. Instead, the two boys were secretly sent either to Kiev, where Olof's daughter Ingigerd was the Queen, or to Poland, where Canute's uncle Boles?aw I Chrobry was duke. Later Edward made his way to Hungary, probably in the retinue of Ingigerd's son-in-law, András in 1046, whom he supported in his successful bid for the Hungarian throne.

    Return
    On hearing the news of his being alive, Edward the Confessor recalled him to England in 1056 and made him his heir. Edward offered the last chance of an undisputed succession within the Saxon royal house. News of Edward's existence came at a time when the old Anglo-Saxon Monarchy, restored after a long period of Danish domination, was heading for catastrophe. The Confessor, personally devout but politically weak and without children, was unable to make an effective stand against the steady advance of the powerful and ambitious sons of Godwin, Earl of Wessex. From across the Channel William, Duke of Normandy, also had an eye on the succession. Edward the Exile appeared at just the right time. Approved by both king and by the Witan, the Council of the Realm, he offered a way out of the impasse, a counter both to the Godwinsons and to William, and one with a legitimacy that could not be readily challenged.

    Edward, who had been in the custody of Henry III, the Holy Roman Emperor, finally came back to England at the end of August 1057. But he died within two days of his arrival. The exact cause of Edward's death remains unclear, but he had many powerful enemies, and there is a strong possibility that he was murdered, although by whom is not known with any certainty. It is known, though, that his access to the king was blocked soon after his arrival in England for some unexplained reason, at a time when the Godwinsons, in the person of Harold, were once again in the ascendant. This turn of events left the throne of England to be disputed by Earl Harold and Duke William, ultimately leading to the Norman Conquest of England.

    Family
    Edward's wife was named Agatha, whose origins are disputed. Their children were Edgar Ætheling, Saint Margaret of Scotland and Cristina. Edgar was nominated as heir apparent, but was too young to count for much, and was eventually swept aside by Harold Godwinson. Edward's grandchild Edith of Scotland, also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England, continuing the Anglo-Saxon line into the post-Conquest English monarchy.2,3

Family: Agatha Salian b. c 1025, d. c 1093

  • Last Edited: 7 Mar 2015

Citations

  1. [S283] Nigel Tranter, David the Prince.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102187
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Exile
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cristina,_daughter_of_Edward_the_Exile.
  5. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10216.htm#i102154

Edgar (?) Prince of England

M, #3671, b. circa 1040

Edgar II Ætheling

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Edgar was born circa 1040 in Hungary.1,2
  • Biography*: Edgar (the) Ætheling (also spelt Æþeling, Aetheling, Atheling or Etheling) or Edgar II (c. 1051 – c. 1126) was the last male member of the royal house of Cerdic of Wessex (see House of Wessex family tree). He was proclaimed, but never crowned, King of England in 1066.

    Family and early life
    Edgar was born in Hungary, where his father Edward the Exile, son of King Edmund II Ironside, had spent most of his life, having been sent into exile after Edmund's death and the conquest of England by the Danish king Cnut the Great in 1016. His mother was Agatha, who was described as a relative of the German Emperor, but whose exact identity is unknown. He was his parents' only son but had two sisters, Margaret and Cristina.

    In 1057 the childless king of England, Edmund Ironside's half-brother Edward the Confessor, who had only recently become aware that his nephew was still alive, summoned Edward back to England with his family to take up his place at court as heir to the throne. The returning exile died in uncertain circumstances shortly after his arrival in England. Edgar, at only six years old, was left as the only surviving male member of the royal dynasty apart from the king. However, the latter made no recorded effort to entrench his grand-nephew's position as heir to a throne which was being eyed by a range of powerful potential contenders including England's leading aristocrat Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex and the foreign rulers William, Duke of Normandy, Sweyn II Estrithson, King of Denmark and Harald Hardrada, King of Norway.

    The succession struggle
    When King Edward died in January 1066, Edgar was still in his early teens, too young to be an effective military leader. This had not previously been an insurmountable obstacle: the earlier kings of England Eadwig, Edgar the Peaceful and Edward the Martyr had all come to the throne at a similar age, while Æthelred the Unready had been significantly younger at his accession. However, the avaricious ambitions which had been aroused across north-western Europe by Edward the Confessor's lack of an heir prior to 1057, and by the king's failure thereafter to prepare the way for Edgar to succeed him, removed any prospect of a peaceful hereditary succession. War was clearly inevitable and Edgar was in no position to fight it, while he was without powerful adult relatives to champion his cause. Accordingly, the Witenagemot elected Harold Godwinson, the man best-placed to defend the country against the competing foreign claimants, to succeed Edward.

    Following Harold's death at the Battle of Hastings against the invading Normans in October, the Witanagemot assembled in London and elected Edgar king. The new regime thus established was dominated by the most powerful surviving members of the English ruling class, Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury, Ealdred, Archbishop of York, and the brothers Edwin, Earl of Mercia, and Morcar, Earl of Northumbria. The commitment of these men to Edgar's cause, men who had so recently passed over his claim to the throne without apparent demur, must have been doubtful from the start. The strength of their resolve to continue the struggle against William of Normandy was questionable and the military response they organised to the continuing Norman advance was ineffectual. When William crossed the Thames at Wallingford he was met by Stigand, who now abandoned Edgar and submitted to the invader. As the Normans closed in on London, Edgar's key supporters in the city began negotiating with William. In early December the remaining members of the Witan in London met and resolved to take the young uncrowned king out to meet William to submit to him at Berkhamsted, quietly setting aside Edgar's election.

    Exile and war against the Normans
    William kept Edgar in his custody and took him, along with other English leaders, to his court in Normandy in 1067, before returning with them to England. Edgar may have been involved in the abortive rebellion of the Earls Edwin and Morcar in 1068; in any case, in that year he fled with his mother and sisters to the court of King Malcolm III Canmore of Scotland. Malcolm married Edgar's sister Margaret and agreed to support Edgar in his attempt to reclaim the English throne. When a major rebellion broke out in Northumbria at the beginning of 1069, Edgar returned to England with other rebels who had fled to Scotland, to become the leader, or at least the figurehead, of the revolt. However, after early successes the rebels were defeated by William at York and Edgar again sought refuge with Malcolm. In late summer that year the arrival of a fleet sent by King Sweyn of Denmark triggered a fresh wave of English uprisings in various parts of the country. Edgar and the other exiles sailed to the Humber, where they linked up with Northumbrian rebels and the Danes. Their combined forces overwhelmed the Normans at York and took control of Northumbria, but a small seaborne raid which Edgar led into the Kingdom of Lindsey ended in disaster and he escaped with only a handful of followers to rejoin the main army. Late in the year William fought his way into Northumbria and occupied York, buying off the Danes and devastating the surrounding country. Early in 1070 he moved against Edgar and other English leaders who had taken refuge with their remaining followers in a marshy region, perhaps Holderness, and put them to flight. Edgar returned to Scotland.

    He remained there until 1072, when William invaded Scotland and forced King Malcolm to submit to his overlordship. The terms of the agreement between them probably included the expulsion of Edgar. He therefore took up residence in Flanders, whose count, Robert the Frisian, was hostile to the Normans. However, in 1074 he was able to return to Scotland. Shortly after his arrival there he received an offer from Philip I, King of France, who was also at odds with William, of a castle and lands near the borders of Normandy from which he would be able to raid his enemies' homeland. He embarked with his followers for France, but a storm wrecked their ships on the English coast. Many of Edgar's men were hunted down by the Normans, but he managed to escape with the remainder to Scotland by land. Following this disaster, he was persuaded by Malcolm to make peace with William and return to England as his subject, abandoning any ambition of regaining his ancestral throne.

    The Italian venture
    Disappointed in the level of recompense and respect he received from William, in 1085 Edgar secured the king's permission to emigrate with a retinue of two hundred knights, to seek his fortune in the expanding Norman colony in southern Italy and Sicily. He set out in 1086. The Domesday Book, compiled that year, records only two estates in Hertfordshire with a total value of £10 p.a. as belonging to Edgar, both of them held from him by a tenant named Godwin. This is an extremely small allocation of property for a man of Edgar's standing and much less than was held by his sister Cristina, the income from whose estates was valued at £58. This is probably because Edgar had given up his English properties when he left for Italy, not meaning to return. In that case the recording of the Hertfordshire estates under his name is likely to be an anomaly, reflecting a situation which had recently ceased to apply. The venture in the Mediterranean was evidently not a success, since within a few years Edgar had in fact returned to England.

    Norman and Scottish dynastic strife
    After King William's death in 1087 Edgar supported William's eldest son Robert Curthose, who succeeded him as Duke of Normandy, against his second son, William Rufus, who received the throne of England as William II. According to the historian Orderic Vitalis, Edgar was one of Robert's three principal advisors at this time. The war waged by Robert and his allies to overthrow William ended in defeat in 1091. As part of the resulting settlement between the brothers, Edgar was deprived of lands which he had been granted by Robert. These were presumably former possessions of William and his supporters in Normandy, confiscated by Robert and distributed to his own followers, including Edgar, but restored to their previous owners by the terms of the peace agreement. The disgruntled Edgar travelled once again to Scotland, where Malcolm was preparing for war with William. When William marched north and the two armies confronted one another the kings opted to talk rather than fight. The negotiations were conducted by Edgar on behalf of Malcolm and the newly reconciled Robert Curthose on behalf of William. The resulting agreement included a reconciliation between William and Edgar. However, within months Robert left England, unhappy with William's failure to fulfil the pact between them, and Edgar went with him to Normandy.

    Having returned to England, in 1093 Edgar went to Scotland again on a diplomatic mission for William to negotiate with Malcolm, who was dissatisfied with the Norman failure to implement in full the terms of the 1091 treaty. This dispute led to war and within the year Malcolm had invaded England and been killed along with his designated heir Edward, eldest of his sons by Margaret, in the Battle of Alnwick. Malcolm's successor, his brother Donald Bán, drove out the English and French retainers who had risen high in Malcolm's service and had thus aroused the jealousy of the existing Scottish aristocracy. This purge brought him into conflict with the Anglo-Norman monarchy, whose influence in Scotland it had diminished. William helped Malcolm's eldest son Duncan, who had spent many years as a hostage at William I's court and remained there when set at liberty by William II, to overthrow his uncle, but Donald soon regained the throne and Duncan was killed. In 1097 another effort to restore the Anglo-Norman interest through sponsorship of Malcolm's sons was launched and Edgar made yet another journey to Scotland, this time in command of an invading army. Donald was ousted and Edgar installed his nephew and namesake, Malcolm and Margaret's son Edgar, on the Scottish throne.

    The First Crusade
    Orderic tells us that Edgar was the commander of an English fleet which operated off the coast of the region of Syria in support of the First Crusade, whose crews eventually burned their dilapidated ships and joined the advance by land to Jerusalem. This is rendered doubtful by the fact that this fleet is known to have arrived off the Syrian coast by March 1098: since Edgar invaded Scotland late in 1097, he could not have made the voyage in the time available. It may be though that he travelled overland to the Mediterranean and joined the fleet en route; this is the view taken by Runciman. William of Malmesbury recorded that Edgar made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1102, and it may be that Orderic's report is the product of confusion, conflating the expedition of the English fleet with Edgar's later journey. Some modern historians have suggested that at some point during these years Edgar served in the Varangian Guard of the Byzantine Empire, a unit which was at this time composed primarily of English emigrants, but this is unsupported by evidence. William of Malmesbury stated that on his way back from Jerusalem Edgar was given rich gifts by both the Byzantine and German emperors, each of whom offered him an honoured place at court, but that he insisted on returning home instead.

    Later life
    Back in Europe, Edgar again took the side of Robert Curthose in the internal struggles of the Norman dynasty, this time against Robert's youngest brother who was now Henry I, King of England. He was taken prisoner in the final defeat at the Battle of Tinchebray in 1106, which resulted in Robert being imprisoned for the rest of his life. Edgar was more fortunate: having been taken back to England he was pardoned and released by King Henry. His niece Edith (renamed Matilda), daughter of Malcolm III and Margaret, had married Henry in 1100. Edgar is believed to have travelled to Scotland once more late in life, perhaps around the year 1120. He lived to see the tragic death at sea in November 1120 of William Adeling, the son of his niece Edith and heir to Henry I. Edgar was still alive in 1125 according to William of Malmesbury who was writing at the time. The general consensus is that Edgar died shortly after 1125. The location of his grave is not known.

    There is no evidence that Edgar had married or produced children apart from two curious references to an "Edgar Adeling" found in the Magnus Rotulus Pipae Northumberland (Pipe rolls) for the years 1158 and 1167. Historian Edward Freeman writing in The History of the Norman Conquest says that either this was the same Edgar and aged at least 110 years (an exceedingly unlikely thing) or it was a son of his or it was some other person known by the title "Ætheling". Nevertheless, as far as anyone knows, the death of Edgar extinguished the male line of the original royal family of England.3
  • Last Edited: 7 Oct 2014

Cristina (?) Princess of England1

F, #3672, b. circa 1040, d. before 1100

Cristina

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Cristina was born circa 1040 in Hungary.2,3
  • Death*: She died before 1100 in England.1
  • Biography*: Cristina, daughter of Edward the Exile and Agatha, was the sister of Edgar Ætheling and Saint Margaret of Scotland, born in the 1040s. Cristina's nieces Edith and Mary were sent to Romsey Abbey, near Southampton, in 1086 when she was abbess.

    Life
    She came to the Kingdom of England with her family in 1057, from Hungary. Along with her siblings, she went into exile in the Kingdom of Scotland, at the court of Malcolm III, her future brother-in-law.

    At some time before 1086, she returned to England, and entered the nunnery at Romsey Abbey, where she tutored her nieces Edith and Mary. Edith gave testimony to a conclave of bishops summoned by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury to determine whether Edith could lawfully marry Henry I of England. During that enquiry she stated that she had never taken holy vows, insisting that her parents had sent her and her sister to England for educational purposes, and that her aunt Cristina had veiled her to protect her "from the lust of the Normans." Edith claimed she had pulled the veil off and stamped on it, and that Cristina had beaten and scolded her for it. Upon her marriage to Henry, Edith changed her name to Matilda in honor of her godmother.

    Cristina's land-holdings in Ulverley, Warwickshire and Gloucestershire are recorded in the Domesday Book. The date of her death is not known, but she does not appear to have given evidence to the conclave, suggesting she died some time before 1100. Additional evidence of her death includes the transfer before 1093 of her nieces to Wilton Abbey for further education and the appointment of Eadgyth as the next abbess of Romsey Abbey.1
  • Last Edited: 1 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cristina,_daughter_of_Edward_the_Exile.
  2. [S283] Nigel Tranter, David the Prince.
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Exile

Catherine MacLellan

F, #3673, b. 10 June 1816

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Martin Cameron b. b 1815

  • Last Edited: 14 Nov 2015

Citations

  1. [S1] J. L. MacDougall, History of Inveness County, page 357.
  2. [S1] J. L. MacDougall, History of Inveness County.
  3. [S842] March 31, 1901 Canada Federal Census, 101 Newbury Street, Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, USA.
  4. [S1] J. L. MacDougall, History of Inveness County, page 411.
  5. [S770] Nova Scotia Historical Vital Statistics, online https://www.novascotiagenealogy.com/, Death Registration of Mary McFarlane
    Year of registration 1939
    Book 180
    Page 107.

Martin Cameron

M, #3674, b. circa 1720

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Marriage*: He married (?) McIsaac.1
  • Birth*: Martin was born circa 1720 in Lochaber, Inverness-shire, Scotland.1
  • Biography*: Martin was a relative of the Camerons of South River, Antigonish. After his marriage he became a Catholic and moved to Barra.1

Family: (?) McIsaac b. c 1720

  • Last Edited: 9 Mar 2015

Citations

  1. [S1] J. L. MacDougall, History of Inveness County.

(?) McIsaac

F, #3675, b. circa 1720

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Martin Cameron b. c 1720

  • Last Edited: 14 Dec 2012

Citations

  1. [S1] J. L. MacDougall, History of Inveness County.

Archibald Cameron

M, #3676, b. circa 1750

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Religion*: Archibald Cameron was Catholic.
  • Birth*: Archibald was born circa 1750 in Isle of Barra, Scotland.2
  • Marriage*: He married Mary Cameron before 1815 in Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada.2
  • Biography*: "Archy fought at Louisburg and after this memorable siege worked a short time in the Sydney Mines. Thence he went to Antigonish where he lived until he moved to Margaree."2

Family: Mary Cameron b. c 1800

  • Last Edited: 14 Dec 2012

Citations

  1. [S1] J. L. MacDougall, History of Inveness County.
  2. [S1] J. L. MacDougall, History of Inveness County, page 410-411.

Mary Cameron

F, #3677, b. circa 1800

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Archibald Cameron b. c 1750

  • Last Edited: 7 Oct 2012

Citations

  1. [S1] J. L. MacDougall, History of Inveness County, page 410-411.
  2. [S1] J. L. MacDougall, History of Inveness County.

Malcolm Joseph MacFarlane

M, #3678, b. 19 March 1915, d. before 30 May 2007

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 12 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records.
  2. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present.
  3. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Mrs. Angus M. MacFarlane, 116-1969-40-13.
  4. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records, page 56, line 13.
  5. [S429] Obituaries from The Halifax Chronicle Herald Newspaper, Obituary of Catherine Sarah MacFarlane.

John Dougald MacFarlane

M, #3679, b. 29 May 1917, d. 1973

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 24 Oct 2016

Citations

  1. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records, page 58, line 23.
  2. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present.
  3. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Mrs. Angus M. MacFarlane, 116-1969-40-13.
  4. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records.
  5. [S489] Donald James MacFarlane, St. Joseph's Church Cemetery, S. W. Margaree.

Catherine Sarah MacFarlane

F, #3680, b. 7 November 1919, d. 30 May 2007

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Catherine was born on 7 November 1919 in SW Margaree, Inverness, Nova Scotia, Canada.5,4,3
  • Death*: She died on 30 May 2007 in Inverness Consolidated Hospital, Inverness, Inverness, Nova Scotia, Canada, at age 87.3
  • Obituary: Her obituary reads:

    MacFARLANE, Catherine Sarah
    MacFARLANE, Catherine Sarah - 87, passed away peacefully on Wednesday, May 30, 2007, in Inverness Consolidated Memorial Hospital, Inverness. Born on November 7, 1919, in South West Margaree, she was the daughter of Angus MacFarlane and Mary Jane (Gillis) MacFarlane. She was a member of St. Joseph's Parish, South West Margaree. Catherine was the last surviving member of her immediate family. Catherine was predeceased by her parents and brothers, Malcolm and John. Catherine will be sadly missed by her cousins and friends. Visitation will be in Inverness Funeral Home on Tuesday, June 5, from 2-4 and 7-9 p.m. Funeral mass will be held on Wednesday at 10 a.m. in St. Joseph's Church, South West Margaree with Father Jim MacDonald officiating. Interment in the parish cemetery. Memorial donations may be made to St. Joseph's Parish Cemetery Fund, South West Margaree or to a charity of your choice. On-line condolences may be sent to: invernessfuneral@ns.aliantzinc.ca.3
  • Last Edited: 29 Oct 2016

Citations

  1. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present.
  2. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records.
  3. [S429] Obituaries from The Halifax Chronicle Herald Newspaper, Obituary of Catherine Sarah MacFarlane.
  4. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Mrs. Angus M. MacFarlane, 116-1969-40-13.
  5. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records, page 60, line 32.

Angus Allan Gillis

M, #3681, b. 5 March 1887, d. 1978

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Margaret Mary Gillis b. 5 May 1907, d. 1980

  • Last Edited: 27 Jun 2017

Citations

  1. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present.
  2. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records.
  3. [S841] March 31, 1901 Canada Federal Census, 101 Newbury Street, Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, USA.
  4. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records, page 18, line 23.
  5. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Mrs. Angus M. MacFarlane, 116-1969-40-13.
  6. [S489] Donald James MacFarlane, St. Joseph's Church Cemetery, S. W. Margaree, Row 4, plot 2.
  7. [S5] Marriage, Church Record, November 1884 to September 1935 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records, Page 108, line 2.
  8. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Hugh A. Gillis, August 13, 1959.
  9. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Mrs. Dougald J. MacFarlane (Catherine), 1950-vol. 98-41-10.

John Dan Gillis

M, #3682, b. 3 May 1891, d. after 1969

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 27 Jun 2017

Citations

  1. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present.
  2. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records.
  3. [S841] March 31, 1901 Canada Federal Census, 101 Newbury Street, Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, USA.
  4. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records, page 26, line 8.
  5. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Hugh A. Gillis, August 13, 1959.
  6. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Mrs. Angus M. MacFarlane, 116-1969-40-13.

Catherine Gillis

F, #3683, b. circa 1880, d. after 1969

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Catherine was born circa 1880.2,3
  • Death*: She died after 1969.3
  • Last Edited: 14 Dec 2012

Citations

  1. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present.
  2. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records, page 22, line 11.
  3. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Mrs. Angus M. MacFarlane, 116-1969-40-13.

Margaret Isabela Gillis

F, #3684, b. 17 August 1882, d. after 1969

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Lewis MacIsaac b. 4 Apr 1878, d. 1 Mar 1961

  • Last Edited: 27 Jun 2017

Citations

  1. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present.
  2. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records.
  3. [S701] Certificate, see memo marriage of 1862-1908, McIsaac-Gillis 1903 August 25.
  4. [S841] March 31, 1901 Canada Federal Census, 101 Newbury Street, Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, USA.
  5. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records, page 10, line 24.
  6. [S5] Marriage, Church Record, November 1884 to September 1935 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records, page 90, line 29.
  7. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Mrs. Angus M. MacFarlane, 116-1969-40-13.
  8. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Hugh A. Gillis, August 13, 1959.

Lewis MacIsaac

M, #3685, b. 4 April 1878, d. 1 March 1961

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Margaret Isabela Gillis b. 17 Aug 1882, d. a 1969

  • Last Edited: 21 Feb 2017

Citations

  1. [S701] Certificate, see memo marriage of 1862-1908, McIsaac-Gillis 1903 August 25.
  2. [S709] Diocese of Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada , Baptismal record of Lewis McIsaac, page 523.
  3. [S770] Nova Scotia Historical Vital Statistics, online https://www.novascotiagenealogy.com/, Death registraton of Lewis MacIsaac
    Registration year 1961
    Page 1992.
  4. [S1042] 1891 Canada Census, MacIsaac # 3685.
  5. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Mrs. Angus M. MacFarlane, 116-1969-40-13.
  6. [S5] Marriage, Church Record, November 1884 to September 1935 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records, page 90, line 29.
  7. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Hugh A. Gillis, August 13, 1959.

James Alex Gillis

M, #3686, b. 9 February 1889, d. between 1959 and 1969

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Last Edited: 27 Jun 2017

Citations

  1. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present.
  2. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records.
  3. [S841] March 31, 1901 Canada Federal Census, 101 Newbury Street, Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, USA.
  4. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records, page 22, line 11.
  5. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Mrs. Angus M. MacFarlane, 116-1969-40-13.
  6. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Hugh A. Gillis, August 13, 1959.

John Martin Gillis

M, #3687, b. 19 March 1893, d. before 1969

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

Please be patient until the page fully loads.

  • Last Edited: 13 Nov 2015

Citations

  1. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present.
  2. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records.
  3. [S841] March 31, 1901 Canada Federal Census, 101 Newbury Street, Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, USA.
  4. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records, page 28, line 18.

Margaret A. Gillis1

F, #3688, b. 11 March 1884, d. after 1969

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 15 Jan 2016

Citations

  1. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Hugh A. Gillis, August 13, 1959.
  2. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present.
  3. [S9] Births, Church Record, June 1977 to September 1944 St. Joseph's Church, Margaree, Records.
  4. [S841] March 31, 1901 Canada Federal Census, 101 Newbury Street, Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, USA.
  5. [S100] Obituaries from The Casket Newspaper, 1852 - present, Obituary of Mrs. Angus M. MacFarlane, 116-1969-40-13.

Allan MacLellan

M, #3689, b. circa 1800

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Mary Smith (Angus Gow) b. c 1800

  • Last Edited: 7 Oct 2012

Citations

  1. [S1] J. L. MacDougall, History of Inveness County.
  2. [S611] Alex Gillis, "Alex Gillis to Don MacFarlane," e-mail to Donald James MacFarlane, April 20, 2004.
  3. [S593] Allan J. Gillis, "Descendants of John MacFarlane."

Mary Smith (Angus Gow)

F, #3690, b. circa 1800

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Allan MacLellan b. c 1800

  • Last Edited: 13 Apr 2014

Citations

  1. [S667] Mabou Pioneers on line, online rootsweb.com, ID 18237.
  2. [S1] J. L. MacDougall, History of Inveness County.
  3. [S611] Alex Gillis, "Alex Gillis to Don MacFarlane," e-mail to Donald James MacFarlane, April 20, 2004.
  4. [S593] Allan J. Gillis, "Descendants of John MacFarlane."