Nicholas le Cheyne1

M, #9841, b. circa 1325

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Nicholas le Cheyne was born circa 1325 in Scotland.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 16 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p39209.htm#i392083

John Chisholm of Chisholm1

M, #9842, b. circa 1375

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: John Chisholm of Chisholm was born circa 1375 in Scotland.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p39209.htm#i392086

Archibald Campbell 2nd of Cawdor1

M, #9843, b. circa 1525, d. December 1551

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Isobel Grant of Freuchie b. c 1500

  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p21180.htm#i211795
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10924.htm#i109236
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p18872.htm#i188718

Sir John Campbell 1st of Calder1

M, #9844, b. circa 1490, d. 1 May 1546

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Sir John Campbell 1st of Calder was born circa 1490 in Scotland.1
  • Marriage*: He married Muriel Calder, daughter of John Calder of Calder, circa 1510 in Scotland.1
  • Death*: Sir John Campbell 1st of Calder died on 1 May 1546 in Scotland.1
  • Biography*: Sir John Campbell (c. 1490 - 1 May 1546) was a Scottish nobleman and the eponymous ancestor of the Campbells of Cawdor.

    John was the third son of the Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll and Elizabeth, a daughter of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Lennox. He married the daughter and heiress of Sir John Calder of Calder, in 1510, whom his father had kidnapped. He died on 1 May 1546, his wife Muriel surviving him dying in 1575.

    Family
    By his wife, Muriel, daughter of John Calder of Calder and Isabella Rose, their children were:
    Archibald Campbell, died in December 1551.
    Katherine Campbell, died on 1 October 1578.
    John Campbell, Bishop of the Isles, died in 1585.
    Janet Campbell
    Donald Campbell
    Marjory Campbell
    Duncan Campbell, died in 1572
    William Campbell
    Isabell Campbell
    Alexander Campbell
    Ann Campbell.2

Family: Muriel Calder b. c 1490, d. c 1575

  • Last Edited: 16 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10924.htm#i109236
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/…).

Muriel Calder1

F, #9845, b. circa 1490, d. circa 1575

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Muriel Calder was born circa 1490 in Calder, Nairnshire, Scotland.1
  • Marriage*: She married Sir John Campbell 1st of Calder, son of Archibald Campbell 2nd Earl of Argyll and Lady Elizabeth Stewart, circa 1510 in Scotland.1
  • Married Name: As of circa 1510,her married name was Campbell.1
  • Death*: Muriel Calder died circa 1575 in Scotland.2
  • Biography*: The substantial tower that stands at the heart of Cawdor Castle was built by the Calders in about 1454. The Calders inter-married with other local families such as the powerful chiefs of Clan Rose, Barons of Kilravock. The Calder's ascendency however came to an end when Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll and chief of Clan Campbell was, along with Hugh Rose of Kilravock, appointed guardian to the infant Muriel Calder who was the female heir to the Calder family.

    Campbell was determined to remove the child to Inveraray so that she could be educated as part of his family. However, he was opposed by Murial's uncles, Alexander and Hugh Calder, who pursued the child and her Campbell escort into Strathnairn. The girl was safely delivered to Inverary but not without considerable loss of life: Campbell of Inverliver who led the kidnapping lost all six of his sons in the fighting as the Calders gave chase to recover the girl.

    Murial was the last of the Calder chief's family in the direct line. She was brought up as a Campbell and married Sir John Campbell, son of the Earl of Argyll. Murial died in about 1575 but her descendant, John Campbell of Cawdor, was raised to the peerage as Lord Cawdor in 1796, and his son was created the first Earl Cawdor in 1827. The present Earl Cawdor still lives in Cawdor Castle, seat of his Calder ancestors.

    The name of Calder did not disappear and the Calders of Asswanly received lands near Elgin in 1440. In 1686 this family obtained a baronetcy of Nova Scotia. The most notable member of this branch of the clan was Robert Calder who saw substantial service in the Napoleonic Wars.3

Family: Sir John Campbell 1st of Calder b. c 1490, d. 1 May 1546

  • Last Edited: 13 Sep 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10924.htm#i109236
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p21180.htm#i211793
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clan_Calder

John Calder of Calder1

M, #9846, b. circa 1475

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: John Calder of Calder was born circa 1475 in Calder, Nairnshire, Scotland.1
  • Biography*: He was representative of the old Thanes of Cawdor. He was also known as John Cawdor.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p21180.htm#i211793

Isobel Grant of Freuchie1

F, #9847, b. circa 1500

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Archibald Campbell 2nd of Cawdor b. c 1525, d. Dec 1551

  • Last Edited: 16 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p18872.htm#i188718

Alexander Innes1

M, #9848, b. circa 1450

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Alexander Innes was born circa 1450 in Scotland.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 30 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p40505.htm#i405046

Ordgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon1

M, #9849, b. circa 920, d. 971

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Ordgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon was born circa 920 in England.1
  • Death*: He died in 971 in Devonshire, England.1
  • Biography*: Ordgar (died 971) was Ealdorman of Devon in England. He was a great West Country landowner and apparently a close advisor[1] of his son-in-law Edgar the Peaceful, king of England. His daughter Ælfthryth was King Edgar's third wife and was mother of King Æthelred the Unready (c.968-1016). Ordgar was created an Ealdorman by King Edgar in 964. He founded Tavistock Abbey in 961.

    Biography

    Historical sources
    Little is known about Ordgar other than what survives in three historical sources:
    His name appears as a witness on charters of King Edgar between 962 and 970.
    Digressions in William of Malmesbury's Gesta pontificum Anglorum
    More substantial references in Geoffrey Gaimar's L'Estoire des Engles regarding the love affairs and marriages of his daughter Ælfthryth.

    Gaimar's account
    According to Gaimar, Ordgar was the son of an ealdorman, and owned land in every parish from Exeter in Devon to Frome in Somerset. He married an unknown lady of royal birth, by whom he had a daughter Ælfthryth. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography draws a conclusion that Ordgar was "clearly a figure of some importance" to have secured such a match. King Edgar determined on marrying Ælfthryth and to this end he sent Æthelwald, Ealdorman of East Anglia as his agent to woo her. On arrival Æthelwald found her in company with her father Ordgar, whom she completely controlled by her personality, playing at chess, which they had learned from the Danes. Æthelwald instead took Ælfthryth for his own wife and married her in about 956.

    Æthelwald died in 962, and Dunstan suspected that he was murdered by his wife Ælfthryth who thereafter, according to Dunstan, seduced King Edgar and murdered his son Prince Edward the Martyr in order to pave the way for the crowning of her son Æthelred as king. It is however certain that, under whatever actual circumstances, Ælfthryth became King Edgar's third wife in 964 and in the same year her father Ordgar was created Ealdorman. The ODNB supposes that Ordgar from the time of his daughter's royal marriage until 970 was one of Edgar's closest advisors, by virtue of his being named as witness on almost all charters issued by King Edgar during the period.

    Tavistock Abbey
    Tavistock Abbey was founded in 961 by Ordgar and completed by his son Ordwulf in 981, when the charter of confirmation was granted by King Ethelred the Unready. It was endowed with lands in Devon, Dorset and Cornwall, and became one of the richest abbeys in the west of England.

    Death and burial
    Ordgar died in 971. According to William of Malmesbury, he was buried with his son at Tavistock, but according to Florence of Worcester, he was buried at Exeter.2






Family:

  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10243.htm#i102427
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordgar,_Ealdorman_of_Devon.

Walter de Salisbury1

M, #9850, b. circa 1075, d. 1147

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Sybil de Chaworth b. c 1075

  • Last Edited: 16 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p457.htm#i4567

Sybil de Chaworth1

F, #9851, b. circa 1075

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Walter de Salisbury b. c 1075, d. 1147

  • Last Edited: 16 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p457.htm#i4567
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p40632.htm#i406318

Patrick de Chaworth1

M, #9852, b. circa 1050

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Patrick de Chaworth was born circa 1050 in England.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 16 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p40632.htm#i406318

Yolande (?) of Dreux, Dutchess of Burgundy1

F, #9853, b. 1212, d. 1248

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Yolande (?) of Dreux, Dutchess of Burgundy was born in 1212 in Dreux, France*.1
  • Marriage*: She married Hugh IV (?) Duke of Burgundy, son of Odo III (?) Duke of Burgundy and Alice de Vergy duchess consort of Burgundy, circa 1223 in France*.1
  • Death*: Yolande (?) of Dreux, Dutchess of Burgundy died in 1248 in France*.1
  • Biography*: Yolande of Dreux (1212–1248) was the first wife of Hugh IV of Burgundy (9 March 1213 – 27 October 1271) who was duke of Burgundy between 1218 and 1271. She was the daughter of Count Robert III "Gasteblé" of Dreux and of Braine, and his wife Alianor de St. Valéry.

    Yolande's children with Hugh IV of Burgundy included:
    Margaret, Lady of Molinot (1229–1277), who married 1st (after 1239) William III (d. 1256), lord of Mont St Jean and 2nd Guy VI (d. 1263), viscount of Limoges
    Odo, count of Nevers and Auxerre (1230–1266)
    John (1231–1268), who married Agnes and had Beatrice of Burgundy, heiress of Bourbon
    Alice (1233–1273), who married Henry III, Duke of Brabant
    Robert II, Duke of Burgundy (1248–1306.)1

Family: Hugh IV (?) Duke of Burgundy b. 9 Mar 1213, d. 27 Oct 1272

  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yolande_of_Dreux,_Duchess_of_Burgundy.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_III,_Count_of_Dreux.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p372.htm#i3717

Robert III (?) Count of Dreux & Braine1,2

M, #9854, b. 1185, d. 3 March 1234

Robert III of Dreux

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Robert III (?) Count of Dreux & Braine was born in 1185 in Dreux, France*.1,2
  • Marriage*: He married Alianore de St. Valery Dame de St. Valery in 1210 in France*.1,2
  • Death*: Robert III (?) Count of Dreux & Braine died on 3 March 1234 in Braine, France*.1,2
  • Biography*: Robert III of Dreux (1185–1234), Count of Dreux and Braine, was the son of Robert II, Count of Dreux, and Yolanda de Coucy. He was given the byname Gasteblé (lit. wheat-spoiler) when he destroyed a field of wheat while hunting in his youth.

    Along with his brother Peter, Duke of Brittany he fought with future Louis VIII of France in 1212 at Nantes and was captured there during a sortie. Exchanged after the Battle of Bouvines for William Longsword, Earl of Salisbury, he fought in the Albigensian Crusade, besieging Avignon in 1226. He was a supporter of Blanche of Castile during her regency after the death of Louis VIII in 1226.

    In 1210 he married Alianor de St. Valéry (1192–15 Nov 1250) and they had several children:
    Yolande of Dreux (1212–1248), who married Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy
    John I (1215–1249), later Count of Dreux.
    Robert (1217–1264), Viscount of Châteaudun.
    Peter (1220–1250), a cleric.1
  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_III,_Count_of_Dreux.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p372.htm#i3717
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II,_Count_of_Dreux.
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p452.htm

Alianore de St. Valery Dame de St. Valery1,2

F, #9855, b. 1192, d. 1234

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 17 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_III,_Count_of_Dreux.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p372.htm#i3717

Robert II (?) Count of Dreux & Braine1,2

M, #9856, b. 1154, d. 28 December 1218

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Robert II (?) Count of Dreux & Braine was born in 1154 in Dreux, France*.1
  • Marriage*: He married Yolande de Coucy in 1184 in France*.1,2
  • Death*: Robert II (?) Count of Dreux & Braine died on 28 December 1218 in France*.1,2
  • Biography*: Robert II of Dreux (1154 – 28 December 1218), Count of Dreux and Braine, was the eldest surviving son of Robert I, Count of Dreux, and Agnes de Baudemont, countess of Braine, and a grandson of King Louis VI of France.

    He participated in the Third Crusade, at the Siege of Acre and the Battle of Arsuf. He took part in the war in Normandy against the Angevin Kings between 1193 and 1204. Count Robert had seized the castle of Nonancourt from Richard I of England while he was imprisoned in Germany in late 1193. The count also participated in the Albigensian Crusade in 1210. In 1214 he fought alongside King Philip Augustus at the Battle of Bouvines.

    Marriages and Children
    His first marriage with Mahaut of Burgundy (1150–1192) in 1178 ended with separation in 1181 and produced no children. The excuse for the annulment was consanguinity. Mahaut and Robert were both great-great grandchildren of William I, Count of Burgundy and his wife Etiennete and they were both Capetian descendants of Robert II of France.

    His second marriage to Yolande de Coucy (1164–1222) produced several children:

    Robert III (c. 1185–1234), Count of Dreux and Braine.
    Peter (c. 1190–1250), Duke of Brittany.
    Henry of Dreux (c. 1193–1240), Archbishop of Reims.
    John of Dreux (c. 1198–1239), Count of Vienne and Mâcon.
    Philippa of Dreux (1192–1242), who married Henry II of Bar.
    Alix of Dreux, married Walter IV of Vienne, Lord of Salins, then married Renard II of Choiseul.
    Agnes of Dreux (1195-1258), married Stephen III of Auxonne.
    Yolande of Dreux, married Raoul II of Lusignan.

    And according to Father Richard Augustine Hay a priest that lived with the Sinclair family and whose stepfather was a Sinclair in his book The Genealogie of the Saintclaires of Rosslyn he and Yolande had a daughter named Eleanor who married Robert de Saint Clair Sur Epte and that they were the most likely ancestors of the Sinclair family and he is supported by a member of the Sinclair family Roland William St Clair in his book Saint-Clairs of the Isles.

    Tomb
    Count Robert's tomb bore the following inscription, in Medieval Latin hexameters with internal rhyme:
    Stirpe satus r?gum, pius et cust?dia l?gum,
    Brann? R?bertus comes h?c requiescit opertus,
    Et jacet Agn?tis situs ad vest?gia m?tris.

    Of which the translation is: "Born from the race of kings, and a devoted guardian of the laws, Robert, Count of Braine, here rests covered, and lies buried by the remains of his mother Agnes."

    It is also dated Anno Graci? M. CC. XVIII. die innocentum, that is, "In the Year of Grace 1218, on the Feast of the Holy Innocents."1




Family: Yolande de Coucy b. c 1160

  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II,_Count_of_Dreux.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p452.htm
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10311.htm#i103110

Yolande de Coucy1,2

F, #9857, b. circa 1160

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Robert II (?) Count of Dreux & Braine b. 1154, d. 28 Dec 1218

  • Last Edited: 17 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II,_Count_of_Dreux.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p452.htm
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p372.htm#i3717

Bertha von Hohenstaufen-Schwaben1

F, #9858, b. circa 1125, d. 1195

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Matthias I (?) Duke of Lorraine b. 1119, d. 13 May 1176

  • Last Edited: 17 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11427.htm#i114266

Simon I (?) Duke of Haute-Lorraine1

M, #9859, b. 1085, d. 14 January 1139

Simon I, Duke of Lorraine

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Simon I (?) Duke of Haute-Lorraine was born in 1085 in Lorraine, France*.1
  • Death*: He died on 14 January 1139 in France*.1
  • Biography*: Simon I (1076 – 13 April 1138) was the duke of Lorraine from 1115 to his death, the eldest son and successor of Thierry II and Hedwige of Formbach.

    Continuing the policy of friendship with the Holy Roman Emperor, he accompanied the Emperor Henry V to the Diet of Worms of 1122, where the Investiture Controversy was resolved.

    He had stormy relations with the episcopates of his realm: fighting with Stephen of Bar, bishop of Metz, and Adalberon, archbishop of Trier, both allies of the count of Bar, whose claim to Lorraine against Simon's father had been quashed by Henry V's father Henry IV. Though Adalberon excommunicated him, Pope Innocent II lifted it. He was a friend of Bernard of Clairvaux and he built many abbeys in his duchy, including that of Sturzelbronn in 1135. There was he interred after his original burial in Saint-Dié.

    Children of Simon and Adelaide

    Simon I of Lorraine married Adelaide, daughter of Henry III of Leuven. Their children were:
    Matthias, his successor in Lorraine
    Robert, lord of Floranges (near Thionville)
    Agatha of Lorraine, married Reginald III, Count of Burgundy (Renaud III), the first Free Count
    Hedwige, married Frederick III, Count of Toul
    Bertha, married Margrave Hermann III of Baden
    Mathilde, married Gottfried I, Count of Sponheim
    Baldwin
    John.3

Family:

  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p4244.htm#i42439
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p4245.htm#i42442
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_I,_Duke_of_Lorraine.

Hedwig (?) of Formbach1

F, #9860, b. circa 1060, d. between 1085 and 1090

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Thierry II (?) Duke of Lorraine b. 1060, d. 23 Jan 1115

  • Last Edited: 17 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p4245.htm#i42442
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodoric_II,_Duke_of_Lorraine.

Frederick (?) Count of Formbech1

M, #9861, b. circa 1035

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Frederick (?) Count of Formbech was born circa 1035 in Germany*.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodoric_II,_Duke_of_Lorraine.

Phillip von Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia1,2

M, #9862, b. 1176, d. 21 June 1208

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Phillip von Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia was born in 1176 in near Pavia, Italy*.1,5
  • Marriage*: He married Irene (?) of Constantinople, daughter of Isaak II Angelus (?) Emperor of Constantinople, on 25 May 1197.5
  • Death*: Phillip von Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia died on 21 June 1208 in Bamberg, Germany*.1
  • Biography*: Philip of Swabia (February/March 1177 – 21 June 1208) was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208. In the long-time struggle for the German throne upon the death of Emperor Henry VI between the Hohenstaufen and Welf dynasties, he was the first German king to be assassinated.

    Early life
    Philip was born in or near Pavia in the Imperial Kingdom of Italy, the fifth and youngest son of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his second wife Beatrice, daughter of Count Renaud III of Burgundy, and thereby younger brother of Emperor Henry VI. Philip's great uncle Conrad III was the first scion of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty to be elected King of the Romans in 1138, already against the fierce resistance by the rivalling House of Welf. During the time of Philip's birth, his father Emperor Frederick was able to settle the longstanding conflict with Pope Alexander III and the Italian cities of the Lombard League by concluding the Treaty of Venice. The newborn was probably named after Frederick's valued ally and confidant Archbishop Philip of Cologne.

    Young Philip initially prepared for an ecclesiastical career, he entered the clergy of Adelberg Abbey and in April 1189 was made provost at the collegiate church of Aachen Cathedral, while his father left Germany for the Third Crusade and drowned in the Göksu (Saleph) River in Anatolia the next year, succeeded by Henry VI. In 1190 or 1191 Philip was elected Prince-bishop of Würzburg, though without being consecrated. His brother Henry had expanded the Hohenstaufen domains by marrying Queen Constance of Sicily in 1186, suspiciously eyed by the Roman Curia. Having accompanied his brother Henry to Italy in 1191, Philip forsook his ecclesiastical calling, and, travelling again to Italy, was appointed Margrave of Tuscany in 1195 and received an extensive grant of lands. In his retinue in Italy was the Minnesinger Bernger von Horheim.

    On 26 December 1194, Queen Constance finally gave birth to a son, the later Emperor Frederick II. To secure his succession, his father Henry had the two-year-old elected King of the Romans before he prepared for the Crusade of 1197. To improve relationships with the Byzantine Empire, Henry betrothed Philip to Irene Angelina, a daughter of Emperor Isaac II and the widow of Roger III of Sicily, a lady who was described by Walther von der Vogelweide as "the rose without a thorn, the dove without guile". In early 1195, Philip was made Duke of Tuscany and received the disputed Matildine lands. His rule there earned him the enmity of Pope Celestine III. In 1196 his brother Conrad died and he succeeded him as Duke of Swabia. His marriage to Irene took place in 1197 near Augsburg.

    Struggle for the throne
    Philip enjoyed his brother's confidence to a very great extent, and appears to have been designated as guardian of Henry's minor son Frederick II, in case of his father's early death. In September 1197 he had set out to fetch Frederick from Apulia for his coronation as German king. While staying in Montefiascone, he heard of the emperor's sudden death in Messina and returned at once to Germany. He appears to have desired to protect the interests of his nephew and to quell the disorder which arose on Henry's death, but was overtaken by events.

    Meanwhile, a number of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire hostile to the ruling Hohentaufen dynasty under the leadership of Prince-Archbishop Adolph of Cologne took the occasion to elect a German anti-king in the person of the Welf Otto of Brunswick, the second surviving son of the former Saxon duke Henry the Lion and a nephew of King Richard I of England. The hostility to the kingship of a child was growing, and after Philip had been chosen as defender of the empire during Frederick's minority he finally consented to his own election. He was elected German king at Mühlhausen in Thuringia on 8 March 1198 (Laetare Sunday), backed by Duke Leopold VI of Austria, Duke Ottokar I of Bohemia, Duke Berthold V of Zähringen, and Landgrave Hermann I of Thuringia, however, in the absence of the Archbishops of Cologne, Mainz and Trier. His rival Otto was not elected king until June 9 by the Cologne archbishop, the Bishop of Paderborn, Bishop Thietmar of Minden, and three Prince-Provosts; he was crowned by Archbishop Adolph of Cologne on July 12 at the traditional place in Aachen, which had to be captured before against the resistance of loyal Hohenstaufen liensmen, though without receiving the Imperial Regalia, which were in the safe keeping of Philip.

    Philip hesitated to assert himself, but at least he received the support of further German princes, forged an alliance with King Philip II of France and was crowned by Archbishop Aymon of Tarentaise at Mainz on 8 September of the same year. Nevertheless, he knew that he had to settle the conflict with Otto and his supporters. A first attempt to mediate by the Mainz archbishop Conrad of Wittelsbach in 1199 was rejected by the Welf. Both sides strived for the coronation as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III. The pope himself acted tactically, trying to wrest the affirmation of the sovereignty of his Papal States and the Kingdom of Sicily from the candidates. Several ecclesiastical and secular princes loyal to Philip reacted with a protestation in 1199, whereby they rejected any papal exertion of influence on the Imperial line of succession.

    In the war that followed, Philip, who drew his principal support from his Swabian home territories, met with considerable success. In 1199 he received further accessions to his party and carried the war into his opponent's Saxon territory, although unable to obtain the support of the papacy, and only feebly assisted by his ally King Philip II of France. The following year was less favourable to his arms; and in March 1201 Innocent took the decisive step of declaring the Hohenstaufen "persecutors of the church", placing Philip and his associates under the ban. The pope began to work energetically in favour of Otto, who beforehand had solemnly renounced any intentions to affiliate the Sicilian kingdom with the Holy Roman Empire.

    Consolidation
    The papal support had little effect, however, and the Welfs as well as the Hohenstaufens had to assert their position by both threatening and bribing, by the display of splendour, and dynastic marriage politics. In 1199 Philip and Irene Angelina lavishly celebrated Christmas in Magdeburg–close to Otto's residence in Brunswick–in the presence of the Ascanian duke Bernard of Saxony and numerous Saxon and Thuringian nobles. The festival was rendered in an eloborated poem by Walther von der Vogelweide in order to spread the reputation of King Philip as a capable ruler. Again in Magdeburg Cathedral, Philip celebrated the elevation of Saint Cunigunde of Luxembourg on 9 September 1201.

    Also in 1201, Philip was visited by his cousin Boniface of Montferrat, the leader of the Fourth Crusade. Although Boniface's exact reasons for meeting with Philip are unknown, while at Philip's court he also met Alexius Angelus, Philip's brother-in-law.Some historians have suggested that it was here that Alexius convinced Boniface, and later the Venetians, to divert the Crusade to Constantinople and restore Isaac II to the throne, as he had recently been deposed by Alexius III, Alexius and Irene's uncle.

    The two succeeding years were still more unfavourable to Philip. The P?emyslid ruler Ottokar I, though he had received the hereditary Bohemian regality, divorced his wife Adelaide of Meissen and was declared deposed by Philip. Another former ally, Landgrave Hermann of Thuringia, drove him from northern Germany, thus compelling him to seek by abject concessions, but without success, reconciliation with Innocent. The reconciliation with Ottokar and the submission to Philip by Hermann of Thuringia after the 1204 siege of Weißensee, rendered by the chronicler Arnold of Lübeck, marks the turning-point of his fortunes. Philip was soon joined by Archbishop Adolph of Cologne, though against the will of the Cologne citizens, by Duke Henry of Brabant and even by Otto's brother Count Palatine Henry V. Archbishop Adolph, who received a sum of 5000 marks, and Duke Henry, who was vested with Maastricht and Duisburg, signed a written statement of support in November 1204.

    To emphasize the new alliance with his long-time enemy Adolph of Cologne, Philip on 6 January 1205 was crowned again with great ceremony by the Archbishop at Aachen Cathedral. On 27 July 1206, he defeated a Cologne army loyal to Otto in Wassenberg, whereby both kings for the first time held secret talks, however without result. It was not until 1207 that Philip's entry into Cologne practically brought the war to a close. Pope Innocent noticed the worsening of Otto's prospects and a month or two later Philip was loosed from the papal ban. In March 1208 it seemed probable that a treaty was concluded by which a nephew of the pope was to marry one of Philip's daughters and to receive the disputed dukedom of Tuscany.

    Assassination
    Philip was preparing to crush the last flicker of the Welf rebellion in Brunswick-Lüneburg, when he proceeded to Bamberg, in order to participate as a guest at the wedding of his niece Countess Beatrice II of Burgundy with Duke Otto of Merania on 21 June 1208. After the ceremony, Philip retired in his rooms, where he was assaulted and murdered by the Bavarian count palatine Otto VIII. The pregnant queen Irene Angelina fled to Hohenstaufen Castle where she miscarried and died shortly afterwards. Otto of Wittelsbach escaped the Hohenstaufen henchmen.

    The motives for the murder have not been conclusively established. Allegedly the Wittelsbach scion, already known for his unstable character, had fallen into a rage when he learned of the dissolution of his betrothal to Gertrude of Silesia by her father, the Piast duke Henry I the Bearded. Duke Henry was apparently informed of the Wittelsbach's cruel tendencies and in an act of concern for his young daughter decided to terminate the marriage agreement. Otto proceeded to blame Philip for another spurned marriage alliance (the first being to one of Philip's own daughter, Beatrice or Kunigunde, who was betrothed to Wenceslaus I of Bohemia in 1207) and swore revenge on the German King, culminating in the murder at Bamberg. An alleged conspiracy by the Andechs dukes of Merania, King Philip II of France and Duke Henry of Brabant in favour of King Otto could never be proved.

    Posthumous reputation
    Philip was first buried at Bamberg Cathedral; one of the attempts of an interpretation of the Bamberg Horseman, erected a few years after Philip's death, identifies the statue as an impersonation of the murdered king. He was the first ruling king to be assassinated since the era of the Merovingian dynasty, and the only German monarch ever to be killed beside the Habsburg king Albert I, who was slain by his nephew a hundred years later.

    After Philip's death, Otto IV quickly prevailed against the remaining Hohenstaufen supporters, was acknowledged as German monarch at an Imperial Diet in Frankfurt in November 1208 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III the next year. To make clear that he had not participated in Philip's assassination, he administered the Imperial ban to Otto of Wittelsbach and his alleged accomplices. Count Palatine Otto was killed as vogelfrei by the Imperial marshal Henry of Kalden in March 1209. However, Emperor Otto soon entered into conflict with Pope Innocent III, when he tried to conquer the Kingdom of Sicily in 1210. Upon his excommunication, the German princes turned to the Hohenstaufen heir Frederick II, who on Christmas 1213 had Philip's mortal remains re-interred in Speyer Cathedral.

    Philip was described as a brave and handsome man, and contemporary writers, among whom was Arnold of Lübeck and Walther von der Vogelweide, praise his mildness and generosity.

    Family

    Philip of Swabia married Princess Irene Angelina, daughter of Emperor Isaac II Angelos on 25 May 1197. Their four daughters were:
    Beatrice of Hohenstaufen (1198–1212), married Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor
    Cunigunde of Hohenstaufen (1200–1248), married King Wenceslaus I, King of Bohemia
    Marie of Hohenstaufen (1201–1235), married Henry II, Duke of Brabant
    Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203–1235), married King Ferdinand III of Castile.1




Family: Irene (?) of Constantinople b. c 1172, d. 27 Aug 1208

  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_of_Swabia
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11427.htm#i114270
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10464.htm#i104640
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beatrice_I,_Countess_of_Burgundy.
  5. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11427.htm#i114271

Irene (?) of Constantinople1

F, #9863, b. circa 1172, d. 27 August 1208

Irene Angelina

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  • Birth*: Irene (?) of Constantinople was born circa 1172 in Constantinople, Byzantine Empire.1
  • Marriage*: She married Phillip von Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia, son of Frederick I 'Barbarossa' von Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperor and Beatrice I (?) Countess of Burgundy, on 25 May 1197.1
  • Death*: Irene (?) of Constantinople died on 27 August 1208.1
  • Biography*: Irene Angelina c. 1181 – 27 August 1208), was a Byzantine princess member of the Angelos dynasty and by her two marriages Queen of Sicily in 1193 and Queen of Germany from 1198 to 1208.

    She was the second daughter of Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelos and his first wife, an unknown Palaiologina? who became nun with the name Irene.

    Life
    Irene was born in Constantinople, her father Isaac II inaugurated his reign with a decisive victory over the Norman invaders on the Balkans in the 1185 Battle of Demetritzes. In 1193 he and King Tancred of Sicily arranged Irene's marriage with Tancred's eldest son, Roger. Roger was declared co-king, but died on 24 December 1193, shortly before his father's death on 20 February 1194. Sicily was claimed by Tancred's aunt Constance and her husband, Emperor Henry VI. After he had conquered the Sicilian kingdom, Irene was captured on 29 December 1194 and was married on 25 May 1197 to Henry's younger brother, Duke Philip of Swabia. In Germany, she was renamed Maria.

    After the Emperor had died on September 28, Philip was elected King of the Romans in Mühlhausen on 8 March 1198. Queen Irene's father, who had been deposed in 1195, urged her to get Philip's support for his reinstatement; her brother, Alexius, subsequently spent some time at Philip's court during the preparations for the Fourth Crusade. She thus had an early influence on the eventual diversion of the Crusade to Constantinople in 1204. Rivalled by the Welf scion Otto IV, Philip was able to stable his rule over the German kingdom. On 21 June 1208, he was killed by the Bavarian Count Palatine Otto VIII of Wittelsbach, leaving Irene widowed a second time.

    After the murder of her husband, Irene - who was pregnant at the time - retired to Hohenstaufen Castle. There, two months later on 27 August, she gave birth to another daughter (called Beatrix Posthuma). Both mother and child died shortly afterwards. She was buried in the family mausoleum in the Staufen proprietary monastery of Lorch Abbey, along with her daughter and sons. Her grave was destroyed and cannot be reconstructed.

    Issue
    Philip and Irene had seven children, two sons (Reinald and Frederick) who died in infancy and four daughters:
    Beatrix (April/June 1198 – 11 August 1212), married her father's rival Emperor Otto IV in 1212 and died three weeks later without issue.
    Maria (3 April 1201 – 29 March 1235), married Duke Henry, Hereditary Prince of Brabant (later Duke Henry II), by whom she had issue.
    Kunigunde (February/March 1202 – 13 September 1248), married King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, by whom she had issue.
    Elisabeth (March/May 1205 – 5 November 1235), married King Ferdinand III of Castile, by whom she had issue.

    Legacy
    In his poem on King Philip's Magdeburg Christmas celebrations, the minnesinger Walther von der Vogelweide described Irene as rose ane dorn, ein tube sunder gallen (Middle High German for "rose without a thorn, a dove without gall").3

Family: Phillip von Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia b. 1176, d. 21 Jun 1208

  • Last Edited: 20 Apr 2017

Frederick I 'Barbarossa' von Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperor1

M, #9864, b. 1123, d. 10 June 1190

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

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  • Birth*: Frederick I 'Barbarossa' von Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperor was born in 1123 in Germany*.1
  • Marriage*: He married Beatrice I (?) Countess of Burgundy on 9 June 1156 in Wurtzburg, Germany*.3
  • Death*: Frederick I 'Barbarossa' von Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperor died on 10 June 1190 in near Silifke Castle, Turkey*.1,4
  • Biography*: Frederick I (German: Friedrich; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152. He became King of Italy in 1155 and was crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155. Two years later, the term sacrum ("holy") first appeared in a document in connection with his Empire. He was later formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means "red beard" in Italian; in German, he was known as Kaiser Rotbart, which has the same meaning.

    Before his imperial election, Frederick was by inheritance Duke of Swabia (1147–1152, as Frederick III). He was the son of Duke Frederick II of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and Judith, daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, from the rival House of Welf. Frederick therefore descended from the two leading families in Germany, making him an acceptable choice for the Empire's prince-electors.

    Historians consider him among the Holy Roman Empire's greatest medieval emperors. He combined qualities that made him appear almost superhuman to his contemporaries: his longevity, his ambition, his extraordinary skills at organization, his battlefield acumen and his political perspicuity. Among his contributions to Central European society and culture include the reestablishment of the Corpus Juris Civilis, or the Roman rule of law, which counterbalanced the papal power that dominated the German states since the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy.

    Life and reign
    Early years
    Frederick was born in 1122. In 1147 he became Duke of the southern German region of Swabia (Herzog von Schwaben), and shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied by his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade. The expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king. When Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both asserted afterwards that Conrad had, in full possession of his mental powers, handed the royal insignia to Frederick and indicated that Frederick, rather than Conrad's own six-year-old son, the future Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, succeed him as king. Frederick energetically pursued the crown and at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 the kingdom's princely electors designated him as the next German king. He was crowned King of the Romans at Aachen several days later, on 9 March 1152. Frederick's father was from the Hohenstaufen family, and his mother was from the Welf family, the two most powerful families in Germany. The Hohenstaufens were often called Ghibellines, which derives from the Italianized name for Waiblingen castle, the family seat in Swabia; the Welfs, in a similar Italianization, were called Guelfs.

    The reigns of Henry IV and Henry V left the status of the German empire in disarray, its power waning under the weight of the Investiture controversy. For a quarter of a century following the death of Henry V in 1125, the German monarchy was largely a nominal title with no real power. The king was chosen by the princes, was given no resources outside those of his own duchy, and he was prevented from exercising any real authority or leadership in the realm. The royal title was furthermore passed from one family to another to preclude the development of any dynastic interest in the German crown. When Frederick I of Hohenstaufen was chosen as king in 1152, royal power had been in effective abeyance for over twenty-five years, and to a considerable degree for more than eighty years. The only real claim to wealth lay in the rich cities of northern Italy, which were still within the nominal control of the German king. The Salian line had died out with the death of Henry V in 1125. The German princes refused to give the crown to his nephew, the duke of Swabia, for fear he would try to regain the imperial power held by Henry V. Instead, they chose Lothair III (1125–1137), who found himself embroiled in a long-running dispute with the Hohenstaufens, and who married into the Welfs. One of the Hohenstaufens gained the throne as Conrad III of Germany (1137–1152). When Frederick Barbarossa succeeded his uncle in 1152, there seemed to be excellent prospects for ending the feud, since he was a Welf on his mother's side. The Welf duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, would not be appeased, however, remaining an implacable enemy of the Hohenstaufen monarchy. Barbarossa had the duchies of Swabia and Franconia, the force of his own personality, and very little else to construct an empire.

    The Germany that Frederick tried to unite was a patchwork of more than 1600 individual states, each with its own prince. A few of these, such as Bavaria and Saxony, were large. Many were too small to pinpoint on a map. The titles afforded to the German king were "Caesar", "Augustus", and "Emperor of the Romans". By the time Frederick would assume these, they were little more than propaganda slogans with little other meaning. Frederick was a pragmatist who dealt with the princes by finding a mutual self-interest. Unlike Henry II of England, Frederick did not attempt to end medieval feudalism, but rather tried to restore it, though this was beyond his ability. The great players in the German civil war had been the Pope, Emperor, Ghibellines, and the Guelfs, but none of these had emerged as the winner.

    Rise to power
    Eager to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Great, the new king saw clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy. Issuing a general order for peace, he made lavish concessions to the nobles. Abroad, Frederick intervened in the Danish civil war between Svend III and Valdemar I of Denmark and began negotiations with the Eastern Roman Emperor, Manuel I Comnenus. It was probably about this time that the king obtained papal assent for the annulment of his childless marriage with Adelheid of Vohburg, on the grounds of consanguinity (his great-great-grandfather was a brother of Adela's great-great-great-grandmother, making them fourth cousins, once removed). He then made a vain effort to obtain a bride from the court of Constantinople. On his accession Frederick had communicated the news of his election to Pope Eugene III, but had neglected to ask for the papal confirmation. In March 1153, Frederick concluded the treaty of Constance with the Pope, whereby he promised, in return for his coronation, to defend the papacy, to make no peace with king Roger II of Sicily or other enemies of the Church without the consent of Eugene, and to help Eugene regain control of the city of Rome.

    First Italian Campaign: 1154–55
    Frederick undertook six expeditions into Italy. In the first, beginning in October 1154, his plan was to launch a campaign against the Normans under King William I of Sicily. He marched down and almost immediately encountered resistance to his authority. Obtaining the submission of Milan, he successfully besieged Tortona in early 1155, razing it to the ground. He moved on to Pavia, where he received the Iron Crown and the title of King of Italy. Moving through Bologna and Tuscany, he was soon approaching the city of Rome. There, Pope Adrian IV was struggling with the forces of the republican city commune led by Arnold of Brescia, a student of Abelard. As a sign of good faith, Frederick dismissed the ambassadors from the revived Roman Senate, and Imperial forces suppressed the republicans. Arnold was captured and hanged for treason and rebellion. Despite his unorthodox teaching concerning theology, Arnold was not charged with heresy.

    As Frederick approached the gates of Rome, the Pope advanced to meet him. At the royal tent the king received him, and after kissing the pope's feet, Frederick expected to receive the traditional kiss of peace. Frederick had declined to hold the Pope's stirrup while leading him to the tent, however, so Adrian refused to give the kiss until this protocol had been complied with. Frederick hesitated, and Adrian IV withdrew; after a day's negotiation, Frederick agreed to perform the required ritual, reportedly muttering, "Pro Petro, non Adriano -- For Peter, not for Adrian." Rome was still in an uproar over the fate of Arnold of Brescia, so rather than marching through the streets of Rome, Frederick and Adrian retired to the Vatican.

    The next day, 18 June 1155, Adrian IV crowned Frederick I Holy Roman Emperor at St Peter's Basilica, amidst the acclamations of the German army. The Romans began to riot, and Frederick spent his coronation day putting down the revolt, resulting in the deaths of over 1,000 Romans and many more thousands injured. The next day, Frederick, Adrian, and the German army travelled to Tivoli. From there, a combination of the unhealthy Italian summer and the effects of his year-long absence from Germany meant he was forced to put off his planned campaign against the Normans of Sicily. On their way northwards, they attacked Spoleto and encountered the ambassadors of Manuel I Comnenus, who showered Frederick with costly gifts. At Verona, Frederick declared his fury with the rebellious Milanese before finally returning to Germany.

    Disorder was again rampant in Germany, especially in Bavaria, but general peace was restored by Frederick's vigorous, but conciliatory, measures. The duchy of Bavaria was transferred from Henry II Jasomirgott, margrave of Austria, to Frederick's formidable younger cousin Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, of the House of Guelph, whose father had previously held both duchies. Henry II Jasomirgott was named Duke of Austria in compensation for his loss of Bavaria. As part of his general policy of concessions of formal power to the German princes and ending the civil wars within the kingdom, Frederick further appeased Henry by issuing him with the Privilegium Minus, granting him unprecedented entitlements as Duke of Austria. This was a large concession on the part of Frederick, who realized that Henry the Lion had to be accommodated, even to the point of sharing some power with him. Frederick could not afford to make an outright enemy of Henry.

    On 9 June 1156 at Würzburg, Frederick married Beatrice of Burgundy, daughter and heiress of Renaud III, thus adding to his possessions the sizeable realm of the County of Burgundy. In an attempt to create comity, Emperor Frederick proclaimed the Peace of the Land, written between 1152 and 1157, which enacted punishments for a variety of crimes, as well as systems for adjudicating many disputes. He also declared himself the sole Augustus of the Roman world, ceasing to recognise Manuel I at Constantinople.

    Second, Third and Fourth Italian Campaigns: 1158–1174

    The retreat of Frederick in 1155 forced Pope Adrian IV to come to terms with King William I of Sicily, granting to William I territories that Frederick viewed as his dominion. This aggrieved Frederick, and he was further displeased when Papal Legates chose to interpret a letter from Adrian to Frederick in a manner that seemed to imply that the imperial crown was a gift from the Papacy and that in fact the Empire itself was a fief of the Papacy. Disgusted with the pope, and still wishing to crush the Normans in the south of Italy, in June 1158, Frederick set out upon his second Italian expedition, accompanied by Henry the Lion and his Saxon troops. This expedition resulted in the revolt and capture of Milan, the Diet of Roncaglia that saw the establishment of imperial officers and ecclesiastical reforms in the cities of northern Italy, and the beginning of the long struggle with Pope Alexander III.

    The death of Pope Adrian IV in 1159 led to the election of two rival popes, Alexander III and the antipope Victor IV, and both sought Frederick's support. Frederick, busy with the siege of Crema, appeared unsupportive of Alexander III, and after the sacking of Crema demanded that Alexander appear before the emperor at Pavia and to accept the imperial decree. Alexander refused, and Frederick recognised Victor IV as the legitimate pope in 1160. In response, Alexander III excommunicated both Frederick I and Victor IV. Frederick attempted to convoke a joint council with King Louis VII of France in 1162 to decide the issue of who should be pope. Louis neared the meeting site, but when he became aware that Frederick had stacked the votes for Alexander, Louis decided not to attend the council. As a result, the issue was not resolved at that time.

    The political result of the struggle with Pope Alexander was an alliance formed between the Norman state of Sicily and Pope Alexander III against Frederick. In the meantime, Frederick had to deal with another rebellion at Milan, in which the city surrendered on 6 March 1162; much of it was destroyed three weeks later on the emperor's orders. The fate of Milan led to the submission of Brescia, Placentia, and many other northern Italian cities. Returning to Germany towards the close of 1162, Frederick prevented the escalation of conflicts between Henry the Lion from Saxony and a number of neighbouring princes who were growing weary of Henry's power, influence, and territorial gains. He also severely punished the citizens of Mainz for their rebellion against Archbishop Arnold. In Frederick's third visit to Italy in 1163, his plans for the conquest of Sicily were ruined by the formation of a powerful league against him, brought together mainly by opposition to imperial taxes.

    In 1164 Frederick took what are believed to be the relics of the "Biblical Magi" (the Wise Men or Three Kings) from the Basilica di Sant'Eustorgio in Milan and gave them as a gift (or as loot) to the Archbishop of Cologne, Rainald of Dassel. The relics had great religious significance and could be counted upon to draw pilgrims from all over Christendom. Today they are kept in the Shrine of the Three Kings in the Cologne cathedral. After the death of the antipope Victor IV, Frederick supported antipope Paschal III, but he was soon driven from Rome, leading to the return of Pope Alexander III in 1165.

    In the meantime Frederick was focused on restoring peace in the Rhineland, where he organized a magnificent celebration of the canonization of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) at Aachen, under the authority of the antipope Paschal III. Concerned over rumours that Alexander III was about to enter into an alliance with the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I, in October 1166 Frederick embarked on his fourth Italian campaign, hoping as well to secure the claim of Paschal III and the coronation of his wife Beatrice as Holy Roman Empress. This time, Henry the Lion refused to join Frederick on his Italian trip, tending instead to his own disputes with neighbors and his continuing expansion into Slavic territories in northeastern Germany. In 1167 Frederick began besieging Ancona, which had acknowledged the authority of Manuel I; at the same time, his forces achieved a great victory over the Romans at the Battle of Monte Porzio. Heartened by this victory, Frederick lifted the siege of Ancona and hurried to Rome, where he had his wife crowned empress and also received a second coronation from Paschal III. Unfortunately, his campaign was halted by the sudden outbreak of an epidemic (malaria or the plague), which threatened to destroy the Imperial army and drove the emperor as a fugitive to Germany, where he remained for the ensuing six years. During this period, Frederick decided conflicting claims to various bishoprics, asserted imperial authority over Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary, initiated friendly relations with Manuel I, and tried to come to a better understanding with Henry II of England and Louis VII of France. Many Swabian counts, including his cousin the young Duke of Swabia, Frederick IV, died in 1167, so he was able to organize a new mighty territory in the Duchy of Swabia under his reign in this time. Consequently, his younger son Frederick V became the new Duke of Swabia in 1167, while his eldest son Henry was crowned King of the Romans in 1169, alongside his father who also retained the title.

    Later years
    Increasing anti-German sentiment swept through Lombardy, culminating in the restoration of Milan in 1169. In 1174 Frederick made his fifth expedition to Italy. (It was probably during this time that the famous Tafelgüterverzeichnis, a record of the royal estates, was made.) He was opposed by the pro-papal Lombard League (now joined by Venice, Sicily, and Constantinople), which had previously formed to stand against him. The cities of northern Italy had become exceedingly wealthy through trade, representing a marked turning point in the transition from medieval feudalism. While continental feudalism had remained strong socially and economically, it was in deep political decline by the time of Frederick Barbarossa. When the northern Italian cities inflicted a defeat on Frederick at Alessandria in 1175, the European world was shocked. With the refusal of Henry the Lion to bring help to Italy, the campaign was a complete failure. Frederick suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Legnano near Milan, on 29 May 1176, where he was wounded and for some time was believed to be dead. This battle marked the turning point in Frederick's claim to empire. He had no choice other than to begin negotiations for peace with Alexander III and the Lombard League. In the Peace of Anagni in 1176, Frederick recognized Alexander III as pope, and in the Peace of Venice in 1177, Frederick and Alexander III were formally reconciled.

    The scene was similar to that which had occurred between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor at Canossa a century earlier. The conflict was the same as that resolved in the Concordat of Worms: Did the Holy Roman Emperor have the power to name the pope and bishops? The Investiture controversy from previous centuries had been brought to a tendentious peace with the Concordat of Worms and affirmed in the First Council of the Lateran. Now it had recurred, in a slightly different form. Frederick had to humble himself before Alexander III at Venice. The emperor acknowledged the pope's sovereignty over the Papal States, and in return Alexander acknowledged the emperor's overlordship of the Imperial Church. Also in the Peace of Venice, a truce was made with the Lombard cities, which took effect in August 1178. The grounds for a permanent peace were not established until 1183, however, in the Peace of Constance, when Frederick conceded their right to freely elect town magistrates. By this move, Frederick recovered his nominal domination over Italy, which became his chief means of applying pressure on the papacy.

    In a move to consolidate his reign after the disastrous expedition into Italy, Frederick was formally crowned King of Burgundy at Arles on 30 June 1178. Although traditionally the German kings had automatically inherited the royal crown of Arles since the time of Conrad II, Frederick felt the need to be crowned by the Archbishop of Arles, regardless of his laying claim to the title from 1152.

    Frederick did not forgive Henry the Lion for refusing to come to his aid in 1176. By 1180, Henry had successfully established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony, Bavaria, and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia by a court of bishops and princes in 1180, declared that imperial law overruled traditional German law, and had Henry stripped of his lands and declared an outlaw. He then invaded Saxony with an imperial army to force his cousin to surrender. Henry's allies deserted him, and he finally had to submit in November 1181. Henry spent three years in exile at the court of his father-in-law Henry II of England in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany. He finished his days in Germany, as the much-diminished Duke of Brunswick. Frederick's desire for revenge was sated. Henry the Lion lived a relatively quiet life, sponsoring arts and architecture. Frederick's victory over Henry did not gain him as much in the German feudalistic system as it would have in the English feudalistic system. While in England the pledge of fealty went in a direct line from overlords to those under them, the Germans pledged oaths only to the direct overlord, so that in Henry's case, those below him in the feudal chain owed nothing to Frederick. Thus, despite the diminished stature of Henry the Lion, Frederick did not gain his allegiances.

    Frederick was faced with the reality of disorder among the German states, where continuous civil wars were waged between pretenders and the ambitious who wanted the crown for themselves. Italian unity under German rule was more myth than truth. Despite proclamations of German hegemony, the pope was the most powerful force in Italy. When Frederick returned to Germany after his defeat in northern Italy, he was a bitter and exhausted man. The German princes, far from being subordinated to royal control, were intensifying their hold on wealth and power in Germany and entrenching their positions. There began to be a generalized social desire to "create greater Germany" by conquering the Slavs to the east.

    Although the Italian city states had achieved a measure of independence from Frederick as a result of his failed fifth expedition into Italy, the emperor had not given up on his Italian dominions. In 1184, he held a massive celebration when his two eldest sons were knighted, and thousands of knights were invited from all over Germany. While payments upon the knighting of a son were part of the expectations of an overlord in England and France, only a "gift" was given in Germany for such an occasion. Frederick's monetary gain from this celebration is said to have been modest. Later in 1184, Frederick again moved into Italy, this time joining forces with the local rural nobility to reduce the power of the Tuscan cities. In 1186, he engineered the marriage of his son Henry to Constance of Sicily, heiress to the Kingdom of Sicily, over the objections of Pope Urban III.

    Third Crusade and death
    Pope Urban III died shortly after, and was succeeded by Gregory VIII, who was more concerned with troubling reports from the Holy Land than with a power struggle with Barbarossa. After making his peace with the new pope, Frederick vowed to take up the cross at the Diet of Mainz in 1188. Frederick embarked on the Third Crusade (1189–92), a massive expedition in conjunction with the French, led by King Philip Augustus, and the English, under King Richard the Lionheart. Frederick organized a grand army of 100,000 men (including 20,000 knights) and set out on the overland route to the Holy Land; Some historians believe that this is an exaggeration, however, and that the true figure might be closer to 15,000 men, including 3,000 knights.

    The Crusaders passed through Hungary, Serbia, and Bulgaria before entering Byzantine territory and arriving at Constantinople in the autumn of 1189. Matters were complicated by a secret alliance between the Emperor of Constantinople and Saladin, warning of which was supplied by a note from Sibylla, ex-Queen of Jerusalem. While in Hungary, Barbarossa personally asked the Hungarian Prince Géza, brother of King Béla III of Hungary, to join the Crusade. The king agreed, and a Hungarian army of 2,000 men led by Géza escorted the German emperor's forces. The armies coming from western Europe pushed on through Anatolia, where they were victorious in taking Aksehir and defeating the Turks in the Battle of Iconium, and entered Cilician Armenia. The approach of the immense German army greatly concerned Saladin and the other Muslim leaders, who began to rally troops of their own to confront Barbarossa's forces.

    On 10 June 1190, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa drowned near Silifke Castle in the Saleph river. Accounts of the event are conflicting. Some historians believe he may have had a heart attack that complicated matters. Some of Frederick's men put him in a barrel of vinegar to preserve his body.

    Frederick's death plunged his army into chaos. Leaderless, panicking, and attacked on all sides by Turks, many Germans deserted, were killed, or committed suicide. Only 5,000 soldiers, a small fraction of the original force, arrived in Acre. Barbarossa's son, Frederick VI of Swabia, carried on with the remnants of the German army, along with the Hungarian army under the command of Prince Géza, with the aim of burying the emperor in Jerusalem, but efforts to conserve his body in vinegar failed. Hence, his flesh was interred in the Church of St Peter in Antioch, his bones in the cathedral of Tyre, and his heart and inner organs in Tarsus.

    The unexpected demise of Frederick left the Crusader army under the command of the rivals Philip II and Richard, who had traveled to Palestine separately by sea, and ultimately led to its dissolution. Richard continued to the East where he defeated Saladin in many battles, winning significant territories along the shores of Palestine, but ultimately failed to win the war by conquering Jerusalem itself before he was forced to return to his own territories in north-western Europe, known as the Angevin Empire. He returned home after he signed the Treaty of Ramla agreeing that Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control while allowing unarmed Christian pilgrims and traders to visit the city. The treaty also reduced the Latin Kingdom to a geopolitical coastal strip extending from Tyre to Jaffa.

    Frederick and the Justinian code
    The increase in wealth of the trading cities of northern Italy led to a revival in the study of the Justinian Code, a Latin legal system that had become extinct centuries earlier. Legal scholars renewed its application. It is speculated that Pope Gregory VII personally encouraged the Justinian rule of law and had a copy of it. The historian Norman Cantor described Corpus Iuris Civilis (Justinian Body of Civil Law) as "the greatest legal code ever devised". It envisaged the law of the state as a reflection of natural moral law (as seen by the men of the Justinian system), the principle of rationality in the universe. By the time Frederick assumed the throne, this legal system was well established on both sides of the Alps. He was the first to utilize the availability of the new professional class of lawyers. The Civil Law allowed Frederick to use these lawyers to administer his kingdom in a logical and consistent manner. It also provided a framework to legitimize his claim to the right to rule both Germany and northern Italy. In the old days of Henry V and Henry VI, the claim of divine right of kings had been severely undermined by the Investiture controversy. The Church had won that argument in the common man's mind. There was no divine right for the German king to also control the church by naming both bishops and popes. The institution of the Justinian code was used, perhaps unscrupulously, by Frederick to lay claim to divine powers.

    In Germany, Frederick was a political realist, taking what he could and leaving the rest. In Italy, he tended to be a romantic reactionary, reveling in the antiquarian spirit of the age, exemplified by a revival of classical studies and Roman law. It was through the use of the restored Justinian code that Frederick came to view himself as a new Roman emperor. Roman law gave a rational purpose for the existence of Frederick and his imperial ambitions. It was a counterweight to the claims of the Church to have authority because of divine revelation. The Church was opposed to Frederick for ideological reasons, not the least of which was the humanist nature found in the revival of the old Roman legal system. When Pepin the Short sought to become king of the Franks in the 8th century, the church needed military protection, so Pepin found it convenient to make an ally of the pope. Frederick, however, desired to put the pope aside and claim the crown of old Rome simply because he was in the likeness of the greatest emperors of the pre-Christian era. Pope Adrian IV was naturally opposed to this view and undertook a vigorous propaganda campaign designed to diminish Frederick and his ambition. To a large extent, this was successful.

    Charismatic leader
    Historians have compared Frederick to Henry II of England. Both were considered the greatest and most charismatic leaders of their age. Each possessed a rare combination of qualities that made him appear superhuman to his contemporaries: longevity, boundless ambition, extraordinary organizing skill, and greatness on the battlefield. Both were handsome and proficient in courtly skills, without appearing effeminate or affected. Both came to the throne in the prime of manhood. Each had an element of learning, without being considered impractical intellectuals but rather more inclined to practicality. Each found himself in the possession of new legal institutions that were put to creative use in governing. Both Henry and Frederick were viewed to be sufficiently and formally devout to the teachings of the Church, w[ithout being moved to the extremes of spirituality seen in the great saints of the 12th century. In making final decisions, each relied solely upon his own judgment,[78] and both were interested in gathering as much power as they could.

    In keeping with this view of Frederick, his uncle, Otto of Freising, wrote an account of Frederick's reign entitled Gesta Friderici I imperatoris (Deeds of the Emperor Frederick). Otto died after finishing the first two books, leaving the last two to Rahewin, his provost. The text is in places heavily dependent on classical precedent. For example, Rahewin's physical description of Frederick reproduces word-for-word (except for details of hair and beard) a description of another monarch written nearly eight hundred years earlier by Sidonius Apollinaris:

    His character is such that not even those envious of his power can belittle its praise. His person is well-proportioned. He is shorter than very tall men, but taller and more noble than men of medium height. His hair is golden, curling a little above his forehead ... His eyes are sharp and piercing, his beard reddish [barba subrufa], his lips delicate ... His whole face is bright and cheerful. His teeth are even and snow-white in color ... Modesty rather than anger causes him to blush frequently. His shoulders are rather broad, and he is strongly built ...
    Frederick's charisma led to a fantastic juggling act that, over a quarter of a century, restored the imperial authority in the German states. His formidable enemies defeated him on almost every side, yet in the end he emerged triumphant. When Frederick came to the throne, the prospects for the revival of German imperial power were extremely thin. The great German princes had increased their power and land holdings. The king had been left with only the traditional family domains and a vestige of power over the bishops and abbeys. The backwash of the Investiture controversy had left the German states in continuous turmoil. Rival states were in perpetual war. These conditions allowed Frederick to be both warrior and occasional peace-maker, both to his advantage.

    Legend
    Frederick is the subject of many legends, including that of a sleeping hero, like the much older British Celtic legends of Arthur or Bran the Blessed. Legend says he is not dead, but asleep with his knights in a cave in the Kyffhäuser mountain in Thuringia or Mount Untersberg in Bavaria, Germany, and that when the ravens cease to fly around the mountain he will awake and restore Germany to its ancient greatness. According to the story, his red beard has grown through the table at which he sits. His eyes are half closed in sleep, but now and then he raises his hand and sends a boy out to see if the ravens have stopped flying. A similar story, set in Sicily, was earlier attested about his grandson, Frederick II. To garner political support the German Empire built atop the Kyffhäuser the Kyffhäuser Monument, which declared Kaiser Wilhelm I the reincarnation of Frederick; the 1896 dedication occurred on 18 June, the day of Frederick's coronation.

    In medieval Europe, the Golden Legend became refined by Jacopo da Voragine. This was a popularized interpretation of the Biblical end of the world. It consisted of three things: terrible natural disasters; the arrival of the Antichrist; the establishment of a good king to combat the anti-Christ. These millennial fables were common and freely traded by the populations on Continental Europe. End-time accounts had been around for thousands of years, but entered the Christian tradition with the writings of the Apostle Peter. German propaganda played into the exaggerated fables believed by the common people by characterizing Frederick Barbarossa and Frederick II as personification of the "good king".
    Frederick's uncle, Otto, bishop of Freising wrote a biography entitled The Deeds of Frederick Barbarosa, which is considered to be an accurate history of the king. Otto's other major work, The Two Cities was an exposition of the work of St. Augustine of Hippo of a similar title. The latter work was full of Augustinian negativity concerning the nature of the world and history. His work on Frederick is of opposite tone, being an optimistic portrayal of the glorious potentials of imperial authority. (See description supra.)

    Another legend states that when Barbarossa was in the process of seizing Milan in 1158, his wife, the Empress Beatrice, was taken captive by the enraged Milanese and forced to ride through the city on a donkey in a humiliating manner. Some sources of this legend indicate that Barbarossa implemented his revenge for this insult by forcing the magistrates of the city to remove a fig from the anus of a donkey using only their teeth. Another source states that Barbarossa took his wrath upon every able-bodied man in the city, and that it was not a fig they were forced to hold in their mouth, but excrement from the donkey. To add to this debasement, they were made to announce, "Ecco la fica", (meaning "behold the fig"), with the feces still in their mouths. It used to be said that the insulting gesture, (called fico), of holding one's fist with the thumb in between the middle and forefinger came by its origin from this event.

    Issue
    Frederick's first marriage, to Adelheid of Vohburg, did not produce any issue and was annulled.
    From his second marriage, to Beatrice of Burgundy, he had the following children:
    Beatrice (1162–1174). She was betrothed to King William II of Sicily but died before they could be married.
    Frederick V, Duke of Swabia (Pavia, 16 July 1164 – 28 November 1170).
    Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (Nijmegen, November 1165 – Messina, 28 September 1197).
    Conrad (Modigliana, February 1167 – Acre, 20 January 1191), later renamed Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia after the death of his older brother.
    Gisela (October/November 1168 – 1184).
    Otto I, Count of Burgundy (June/July 1170 – killed, Besançon, 13 January 1200).
    Conrad II, Duke of Swabia and Rothenburg (February/March 1172 – killed, Durlach, 15 August 1196).
    Renaud (October/November 1173 – in infancy).
    William (June/July 1176 – in infancy).
    Philip of Swabia (August 1177 – killed, Bamberg, 21 June 1208) King of Germany in 1198.
    Agnes (1181 – 8 October 1184). She was betrothed to King Emeric of Hungary but died before they could be married.4




Family: Beatrice I (?) Countess of Burgundy b. 1143, d. 15 Nov 1184

  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10464.htm#i104640
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_II,_Duke_of_Swabia.
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beatrice_I,_Countess_of_Burgundy.
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor.

Beatrice I (?) Countess of Burgundy1

F, #9865, b. 1143, d. 15 November 1184

Beatrice I
suo jure Countess of Burgundy

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Beatrice I (?) Countess of Burgundy was born in 1143 in Burgundy, France*.1
  • Marriage*: She married Frederick I 'Barbarossa' von Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperor, son of Friedrich II von Schwaben Duke of Swabia, on 9 June 1156 in Wurtzburg, Germany*.1
  • Death*: Beatrice I (?) Countess of Burgundy died on 15 November 1184 in Jouhe, France*.1
  • Biography*: Beatrice of Burgundy (1143 – 15 November 1184) was a Sovereign Duchess of Burgundy, and a Holy Roman Empress consort by marriage to Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor.

    Life
    Beatrice was the only surviving child of Renaud III, Count of Burgundy and Agatha of Lorraine. Orphaned as a child, she inherited the County of Burgundy and became one of the most desirable heiresses in France.

    Beatrice and Frederick were married on 9 June 1156 at Würzburg. She was 13 years of age; he was 33. By this marriage Frederick obtained control of the vast county of Burgundy.
    The poem Carmen de gestis Frederici I imperatoris in Lombardia, written about 1162, describes Beatrice upon her wedding day:
    "Venus did not have this virgin's beauty,
    Minerva did not have her brilliant mind
    And Juno did not have her wealth.
    There never was another except God's mother Mary
    And Beatrice is so happy she excels her."

    She then became the second wife of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, and as such Holy Roman Empress, at the age of about 12. The couple had 11 children, most of whom died young. Beatrice was active at the Hohenstaufen court, encouraging literary works and chivalric ideals. She accompanied her husband on his travels and campaigns across his kingdom, and he was known to be under Beatrice's influence. She was crowned Holy Roman Empress by Antipope Paschal III in Rome on 1 August 1167, and later as Queen of Burgundy at Vienne in August 1178.

    In 1184, Beatrice fell ill with an unknown illness at Jouhe and quickly died, aged about 40. She was buried in Speyer Cathedral, but her heart was buried in Jouhe's old Benedictine abbey.

    Issue
    She had the following children:
    Beatrice (b. 1162 – d. 1174). She was betrothed to King William II of Sicily but died of tuberculosis before they could be married.
    Frederick V, Duke of Swabia (b. Pavia, 16 July 1164 – d. 28 November 1170).
    Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (b. Nijmegen, November 1165 – d. Messina, 28 September 1197).
    Conrad (b. Modigliana, February 1167 – d. Acre, 20 January 1191), later renamed Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia after the death of his older brother.
    Daughter (Gisela?) (b. October/November 1168 – d. 1184), died young.
    Otto I, Count of Burgundy (b. June/July 1170 – killed, Besançon, 13 January 1200).
    Conrad II, Duke of Swabia and Rothenburg (b. February/Marc 1172 – killed, Durlach, 15 August 1196).
    Renaud (b. October/November 1173 – d. in infancy).
    William (b. June/July 1176 – d. in infancy).
    Philip of Swabia (b. August 1177 – killed, Bamberg, 21 June 1208) King of Germany in 1198.
    Agnes (b. 1181 – d. 8 October 1184). She was betrothed to King Emeric of Hungary but died before they could be married.

    In literature
    Beatrice is a character in Umberto Eco's novel Baudolino, whose (fictional) protagonist is deeply in love with her - a love never consummated except for a single kiss.1

  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beatrice_I,_Countess_of_Burgundy.

Friedrich II von Schwaben Duke of Swabia1

M, #9866, b. circa 1090, d. 6 April 1147

Frederick II the One-Eyed
Duke of Swabia

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Friedrich II von Schwaben Duke of Swabia was born circa 1090 in Germany*.1
  • Death*: He died on 6 April 1147 in Alzey, Germany*.1
  • Burial*: He was buried after 6 April 1147 in Benedictine Abbey, Walburg, Alsace, France*.1
  • Biography*: Frederick II (1090 – 6 April 1147), called the One-Eyed, was Duke of Swabia from 1105 until his death, the second from the Hohenstaufen dynasty. His younger brother Conrad was elected King of the Romans in 1138.

    Life
    Frederick II was the eldest son of Duke Frederick I of Swabia and his wife Agnes of Waiblingen, a daughter of the Salian emperor Henry IV. He succeeded his father in 1105 and together with his brother Conrad continued the extension and consolidation of the Hohenstaufen estates. Frederick had numerous castles erected along the Rhine river and in the Alsace region.

    The Hohenstaufen brothers supported King Henry V in the conflict with his father Emperor Henry IV; Frederick also accompanied him on his campaign against King Coloman of Hungary in 1108. In 1110 he and Henry V embarked on an expedition to Italy, where in Rome Henry enforced his coronation by Pope Paschal II. In turn, the emperor appointed Conrad Duke of Franconia and both brothers German regents when he left for his second Italian campaign in 1116. On the other hand, the rise of the Hohenstaufens began to upset rivalling princes like Archbishop Adalbert of Mainz, who loathed the supporters of Henry V.

    About 1120 Frederick married Judith, a daughter of Duke Henry IX of Bavaria and member of the powerful House of Welf. Their first son Frederick was born in 1122.

    Upon the death of Emperor Henry V in 1125, the Salian dynasty became extinct. Frederick II, Henry's nephew, stood for election as King of the Romans with the support of his younger brother Conrad and several princely houses. However, he lost in the tumultuous round of elections,[citation needed] led by Archbishop Adalbert of Mainz, to the Saxon duke Lothair II. Frederick at first rendered homage to the new king, however, he refused the feudal oath and insisted on the inheritance of the Salian family estates along the Middle Rhine.
    At the 1125 Hoftag diet in Regensburg, the king officially requested the surrender of the Salian possessions. After he imposed an Imperial ban on the Hohenstaufens, the conflict erupted between Frederick and his supporters, and Lothair: encouraged by Archbishop Adalbert and several princes, the king occupied Hohenstaufen lands in Upper Lorraine and Alsace. However, an attack by Welf forces on the Swabian core territory failed, like the siege of Nuremberg by Lothair in 1127. Frederick relieved the siege and moreover gained the support from his brother Conrad, who had just returned from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. During the fighting, Frederick lost an eye, whereafter he was no longer eligible as German king.

    In December 1127 Conrad declared himself King of the Romans, while the next year Duke Frederick II occupied the Salian city of Speyer. The attempt of Duke Henry X of Bavaria to capture his brother-in-law Frederick during the negotiations failed. However, afterwards the supporters of Lothair won a number of victories both in Germany and in Italy. Speyer (1129), Nuremberg (1130) and Ulm (1134) were captured; moreover Frederick's consort Judith of Bavaria died in 1130. His second wife, Agnes of Saarbrücken, was a niece of his old enemy Adalbert of Mainz; Frederick married her about 1132.

    After Lothair was crowned emperor in 1133, Frederick saw himself stuck between the Saxon and Bavarian forces. He eventually submitted to him in the spring of 1135 at Bamberg. Both were finally reconciled and Emperor Lothair renounced further attacks against the Hohenstaufens. After Lothair's death in 1137 and the following election of Conrad as King of the Romans, Frederick supported his brother in the struggle with the Welfs. According to Otto of Freising, Frederick was "so faithful a knight to his sovereign and so helpful a friend to his uncle that by valor he supported the tottering honor of the realm, fighting manfully against its foes..."

    Duke Frederick II died in 1147 at Alzey. He was buried at the Benedictine abbey of Walburg in Alsace. His son Frederick succeeded him as Swabian duke and was elected German king (as Frederick Barbarossa) in 1152.

    Marriage and children
    With Judith of Bavaria (1103- 22 February 1131), daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria:
    Frederick III Barbarossa (1122–1190), duke of Swabia and Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick I
    Bertha (Judith)[1] (1123–1195), married Matthias I, Duke of Lorraine
    With Agnes of Saarbrücken (d. c.?1147), daughter of Frederick, Count of Saarbrücken:
    Conrad of Hohenstaufen (also spelled Konrad) (1134/1136-1195), Count Palatine of the Rhine
    Jutta (1135–1191), married Louis II, Landgrave of Thuringia.1
  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_II,_Duke_of_Swabia.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11425.htm#i114247

Friedrich I Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia1

M, #9867, b. before 1053, d. 1105

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Friedrich I Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia was born before 1053 in Swabia, Germany*.1,2
  • Marriage*: He married Agnes von Waiblingen Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, daughter of Heinrich IV (?) Holy Roman Emperor, before 1090 in Germany*.1
  • Death*: Friedrich I Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia died in 1105 in Germany*.1
  • Biography*: Frederick I (c. 1050 – before 21 July 1105) was Duke of Swabia from 1079 to his death, the first ruler from the House of Hohenstaufen (Staufer).

    Life
    He was the son of Frederick of Büren (c.1020–1053), Count in the Riesgau and Swabian Count Palatine, with Hildegard of Egisheim-Dagsburg (d. 1094/95), a niece of Pope Leo IX and founder of the Abbey of Saint Faith in Schlettstadt, Alsace. When Frederick succeeded his father, he had Hohenstaufen Castle erected on the eponymous mountain in the Swabian Jura range, which became the ancestral seat of the dynasty. He also founded a Benedictine abbey at the site of former Lorch Castle about 1100. By his mother he ruled over large Alsatian estates around Schlettstadt and Hagenau.

    When during the Investiture Controversy the Swabian duke Rudolf of Rheinfelden was elected anti-king to King Henry IV of Germany, Frederick remained a loyal supporter of the ruling Salian dynasty. In turn Henry vested him with the Swabian ducal dignity in 1079 and also gave him the hand of his seven-year-old daughter Agnes of Waiblingen. Contested by Rudolf's son Berthold of Rheinfelden and Berthold of Zähringen, Frederick only ruled over the northern parts of the Swabian duchy down to Ulm and the Danube River. Finally in 1098, he and Berthold of Zähringen reached a compromise, whereby his rival confined himself to the title of a "Duke of Zähringen".

    In the last years of his reign, Frederick was able to expand the Hohenstaufen territories northwards, when he assumed the office of a Vogt (reeve) of Weissenburg Abbey and the Bishopric of Speyer in Rhenish Franconia.

    Marriage and issue
    About 1086/87, Frederick married Agnes, daughter of Emperor Henry IV.[1] They had several sons and daughters, amongst whom were:
    Frederick II (1090–1147), succeeded as Duke of Swabia in 1105, father of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa
    Conrad III, King of Germany (1093–1152), elected King of the Romans in 1138
    Berta of Boll (d. before 1142), married Adalbert of Ravenstein, Count of Elchingen, their daughter Liutgard married Conrad, Margrave of Meissen
    Heilika, who married Frederick III of Pettendorf-Lengenfeld-Hopfenche, their daughter Heilika of Pettendorf-Lengenfeld married Otto IV, Count of Wittelsbach
    Gertrud, married Hermann III of Stahleck, Count Palatine of the Rhine
    After Frederick's death, Agnes secondly married the Babenberg margrave Leopold III of Austria in 1106. Both are buried in Klosterneuburg Monastery.2
  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11425.htm#i114247
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_I,_Duke_of_Swabia.

Frederick (?) of Buren1

M, #9868, b. circa 1020, d. 1053

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Frederick (?) of Buren was born circa 1020 in Germany*.1
  • Death*: He died in 1053 in Germany*.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 20 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_I,_Duke_of_Swabia.

Heinrich IV (?) Holy Roman Emperor1

M, #9869, b. 11 November 1050, d. 7 August 1106

Henry IV
Holy Roman Emperor

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  • Birth*: Heinrich IV (?) Holy Roman Emperor was born on 11 November 1050 in Goslar, Neidersachen, Germany*.1
  • Death*: He died on 7 August 1106 in Liege, Belgium*, at age 55.1
  • Biography*: Henry IV (German: Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) ascended to King of the Germans in 1056. From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was also referred to as the King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor. He was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century. His reign was marked by the Investiture Controversy with the Papacy. Several civil wars over his throne took place in both Italy and Germany. He died of illness, soon after defeating his son's army near Visé, in Lorraine, France.

    Biography
    In 1056 at Aachen, Henry IV was enthroned as the King of the Germans by Pope Victor II, while his mother, Agnes of Poitou, became regent. In 1062 the young king was kidnapped as a result of the Coup of Kaiserswerth, a conspiracy of German nobles led by Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne. Henry, who was at Kaiserwerth, was persuaded to board a boat on the Rhine; it was immediately unmoored and the king jumped into the river, but he was rescued by one of the conspirators and carried to Cologne. Agnes retired to a convent, and the government was placed in the hands of Anno. His first action was to back Pope Alexander II against the antipope Honorius II, whom Agnes had initially recognized but subsequently left without support. Anno's rule proved unpopular.

    The education and training of Henry were supervised by Anno, who was called his magister, while Adalbert of Hamburg, archbishop of Bremen, was styled Henry's patronus. Henry's education seems to have been neglected, and his willful and headstrong nature developed under the conditions of these early years. The malleable Adalbert of Hamburg soon became the confidante of the ruthless Henry. Eventually, during an absence of Anno from Germany, Henry managed to obtain control of his civil duties, leaving Anno with only an ecclesiastical role.

    First years of rule and the Saxon Wars
    Henry's entire reign was marked by apparent efforts to consolidate Imperial power. In reality, however, he carefully worked to maintain the loyalty of the nobility and the support of the pope. In 1066, he expelled from the Crown Council Adalbert of Hamburg, who had profited from his position for personal enrichment. Henry also adopted urgent military measures against the Slav pagans, who had recently invaded Germany and besieged Hamburg.

    In June 1066 Henry married Bertha of Savoy/Turin, daughter of Otto, Count of Savoy, to whom he had been betrothed in 1055. In the same year, at the request of the Pope, he assembled an army to fight the Italo-Normans of southern Italy. Henry's troops had reached Augsburg when he received news that Godfrey of Tuscany, husband of the powerful Matilda of Canossa, marchioness of Tuscany, had already attacked the Normans. Therefore, the expedition was halted. In 1068, driven by his impetuous character and his infidelities, Henry attempted to divorce Bertha. His peroration at a council in Mainz was rejected, however, by the Papal legate Pier Damiani, or Peter Damian, who hinted that any further insistence towards divorce would lead the new pope, Alexander II, to deny his coronation. Henry obeyed and his wife returned to Court. Henry believed that the Papal opposition was less about his marriage than about overthrowing lay power within the Empire, in favour of an ecclesiastical hierarchy.

    In the late 1060s, Henry demonstrated his determination to reduce any opposition and to enlarge the empire's boundaries. He led expeditions against the Lutici and the margrave of a district east of Saxony; soon afterwards he had to quell the rebellions of Rudolf of Swabia and Berthold of Carinthia. Much more serious was Henry's struggle with Otto of Nordheim, duke of Bavaria. This prince, who occupied an influential position in Germany and was one of the protagonists of Henry's early kidnapping, was accused in 1070 by a certain Egino of being privy to a plot to murder the king. It was decided that a trial by combat should take place at Goslar, but when Otto's demand for safe conduct to and from the place of meeting was refused, he declined to appear. He was declared deposed in Bavaria, and his Saxon estates were plundered. However, he obtained sufficient support to carry on a struggle with the king in Saxony and Thuringia until 1071, when he submitted at Halberstadt. Henry aroused the hostility of the Thuringians by supporting Siegfried, archbishop of Mainz, in his efforts to exact tithes from them. More formidable still was the enmity of the Saxons, who had several causes of complaint against the king—he was the son of one enemy, Henry III, and the friend of another, Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen.

    Investiture Controversy

    The momentum for a reform of the church had its clear beginning during the reign of Henry's father, in the short but effective pontificate of Leo IX, whom Henry III had nominated. Since that time, the reforming initiative had been carried on by men like Cardinal Bishop Humbert of Moyenmoutier and St. Peter Damian. After the death of Cardinal Humbert, who had called for a return to the old canonical principles of free election of the papacy and the emancipation of the Church from the control of the secular power, the leadership of the reform movement passed to younger men, of whom the Tuscan monk Hildebrand, a follower of Humbert, stood foremost. Hildebrand ascended the papacy in 1073 as Gregory VII. While Henry adhered to Papal decrees in religious matters to secure the Church's support for his expeditions in Saxony and Thuringia, Gregory saw the opportunity to press the Church's agenda.

    The tension between Empire and Church culminated in the councils of 1074–75, which constituted a substantial attempt to undo Henry III's policies. Among other measures, they denied secular rulers the right to place members of the clergy in office; this had dramatic effects in Germany, where bishops were often powerful feudatories. By this ruling, they freed themselves from imperial authority. In addition to restoring all privileges lost by the ecclesiasticals, the council's decision deprived the imperial crown of almost half its lands. This weakened national unity, especially in peripheral areas such as the Kingdom of Italy.

    Suddenly hostile to Gregory, Henry did not relent from his positions: after defeating Otto of Nordheim, he continued to interfere in Italian and German episcopal life, naming bishops at his will and declaring papal provisions illegitimate. In 1075, Gregory excommunicated some members of the Imperial Court and threatened to do the same to Henry himself. Furthermore, in a synod held in February of that year, Gregory clearly established the supreme power of the Catholic Church, with the Empire subjected to it. Henry replied with a counter-synod of his own.

    The beginning of the conflict known as the Investiture Controversy can be assigned to Christmas night of 1075: Gregory was kidnapped and imprisoned by Cencio I Frangipane, a Roman noble, while officiating at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. Later freed by Roman people, Gregory accused Henry of having been behind the attempt. In the same year, the king had defeated a rebellion of Saxons in the First Battle of Langensalza and was therefore free to accept the challenge.

    At Worms, on 24 January 1076, a synod of bishops and princes summoned by Henry declared Gregory VII deposed. Hildebrand replied by excommunicating the king and all the bishops named by him on 22 February 1076. In October of that year a diet of the German princes in Tribur attempted to find a settlement for the conflict, conceding Henry a year to repent from his actions, before the ratification of the excommunication that the pope was to sign in Swabia some months later. Henry did not repent, and, counting on the hostility showed by the Lombard clergy against Gregory, he decided to move to Italy. He left Speyer in December 1076, spent Christmas in Besançon and, together with his wife and his son, he crossed the Alps with help of the Bishop of Turin and reached Pavia. Gregory, on his way to the diet of Augsburg and hearing that Henry was approaching, took refuge in the castle of Canossa (near Reggio Emilia), belonging to Matilda. Henry's troops were nearby.

    Henry's intent, however, was apparently to perform the penance required to lift his excommunication and ensure his continued rule. The choice of an Italian location for the act of repentance, instead of Augsburg, was not accidental: it aimed to consolidate the Imperial power in an area partly hostile to the Pope; to lead in person the prosecution of events; and to oppose the pact signed by German feudataries and the Pope in Tribur with the strong German party that had deposed Henry at Worms, through the concrete presence of his army.
    Henry stood in the snow outside the gates of the castle of Canossa for three days, from 25 January to 27 January 1077, begging the pope to rescind the sentence (popularly portrayed as without shoes, taking no food or shelter, and wearing a hairshirt - see Walk of Canossa). The Pope lifted the excommunication, imposing a vow to comply with certain conditions, which Henry soon violated.

    Civil war and recovery
    Rudolf of Rheinfelden, a two-time brother-in-law of Henry, along with allied German aristocrats, took advantage of the momentary weakness of the king in what became known as the Great Saxon Revolt. Rudolf declared himself anti-king by a council of Saxon, Bavarian, and Carinthian princes in March 1077 in Forchheim. He promised to respect the electoral concept of the monarchy and declared his willingness to submit to the Pope, to which the Pope agreed.

    Despite these difficulties, Henry's situation in Germany improved in the following years. When Rudolf was crowned king at Mainz in May 1077 by one of the plotters, Siegfried I, Archbishop of Mainz, the population revolted and forced Rudolf, the archbishop, and other nobles to flee to Saxony. Positioned there, Rudolf was geographically and then militarily deprived of his territories by Henry; he was later stripped of Swabia as well. After the indecisive battles of Mellrichstadt (7 August 1078)[6] and Flarchheim (27 January 1080),[7] Gregory flip-flopped to support the revolt and launched a second anathema (excommunication) against Henry in March 1080, thereby supporting the anti-king Rudolf. However, the ample evidence that Gregory's actions were rooted in hate for the Emperor-elect instead of theology had an unfavourable personal impact on the Pope's reputation and authority, leading much of Germany to return to Henry's cause.

    On 14 October 1080 the armies of the two rival kings met at the White Elster river during the Battle of Elster, in the plain of Leipzig. Henry's forces again suffered a military defeat but won the battle with a strategic outcome: Rudolf was mortally wounded and died the next day at nearby Merseburg, and the rebellion against Henry lost much of its momentum.

    Soon after, another anti-king, Hermann of Salm, arose as figurehead, but he was fought successfully by Frederick of Swabia, Rudolf's Henry-appointed successor in Swabia who had married Henry's daughter Agnes of Germany. Henry convoked a synod of the highest German clergy in Bamberg and Brixen in June 1080. Here, Henry had Pope Gregory (whom he had dubbed "The False Monk") again deposed and replaced by the primate of Ravenna, Guibert (now known as the antipope Clement III, though who was in the right was unclear at the time).

    Second voyage to Italy
    Henry entered Pavia and was crowned as King of Italy, receiving the Iron Crown of Lombardy. He assigned a series of privileges to the Italian cities which had supported him, marched against the hated Matilda of Tuscany, declaring her deposed for lese majesty, and confiscated her possessions. Then he moved to Rome, which he besieged first in 1081: he was compelled to retire to Tuscany, however, where he granted privileges to various cities and obtained monetary assistance (360,000 gold pieces) from a new ally, the eastern emperor, Alexios I Komnenos, who aimed to thwart Norman aims against his empire.

    A second and equally unsuccessful attack on Rome was followed by a war of devastation in northern Italy with the adherents of Matilda. Towards the end of 1082 the king made a third attack on Rome, and after a siege of seven months, the Leonine City fell into his hands. A treaty was concluded with the Romans, who agreed that the quarrel between king and pope should be decided by a synod, and they secretly bound themselves to induce Gregory to crown Henry as emperor or to choose another pope. Gregory, however, shut up in Castel Sant'Angelo, would hear of no compromise; the synod was a failure, as Henry prevented the attendance of many of the pope's supporters, and the king, pursuant to his treaty with Alexios, marched against the Normans.

    The Romans soon fell away from their allegiance to the pope. Recalled to the city, Henry entered Rome in March 1084, after which Gregory was declared deposed and Antipope Clement III was elected by the Romans. On 31 March 1084 Henry was crowned emperor by Clement and received the patrician authority. His next step was to attack the fortresses still in the hands of Gregory. The pope was saved by the advance of Robert Guiscard, duke of Apulia, who left the siege of Durazzo and marched towards Rome: Henry left the city and Gregory was freed. Gregory soon died at Salerno, in 1085, but not before a last letter in which he exhorted the whole of Christianity to a crusade against the Emperor.

    Feeling secure of his success in Italy, Henry returned to Germany. He spent 1084 in a show of power there, where the reforming instances had still ground due to the predication of Otto of Ostia, advancing up to Magdeburg in Saxony. He also declared the Peace of God in all the Imperial territories to quench any sedition. On 8 March 1088 Otto of Ostia was elected pope as Urban II. With Norman support, he excommunicated Henry and Clement III, who was defined as "a beast sprung out from the earth to wage war against the Saints of God". He also formed a large coalition against the Holy Roman Empire, including, aside from the Normans, the Kievan Rus', the Lombard communes of Milan, Cremona, Lodi, and Piacenza, and Matilda of Canossa, who had remarried to Welf II of Bavaria, thereby creating a concentration of power too formidable to be neglected by the emperor.

    Internecine wars and death
    In 1088 Hermann of Salm died, and Egbert II, Margrave of Meissen, a long-time enemy of the Emperor, proclaimed himself the successor of the anti-king. Henry had him condemned by a Saxon diet and then a national one at Quedlinburg and Regensburg respectively, but he was defeated by Egbert when a relief army came to the margrave's rescue during the siege of Gleichen. Egbert was murdered two years later, in 1090, and his ineffectual insurrection and royal pretensions fell apart.

    Henry then launched his third punitive expedition in Italy. After some initial success against the lands of Canossa, his defeat in 1092 caused the rebellion of the Lombard communes. The insurrection extended when Matilda managed to turn against him his elder son, Conrad, who was crowned King of Italy at Monza in 1093. The Emperor therefore found himself cut off from Germany; he was unable to return until 1097. In Germany itself his power was still at its height. Matilda of Canossa had secretly transferred her property to the Church in 1089, before her marriage to Welf II of Bavaria (1072–1120). In 1095, a furious Welf left her and, together with his father, switched his allegiance to Henry IV, possibly in exchange for a promise of succeeding his father as duke of Bavaria. Henry reacted by deposing Conrad at the diet of Mainz in April 1098, designating his younger son Henry (future Henry V) as successor, under the oath swearing that he would never follow his brother's example.

    The situation in the Empire remained chaotic, worsened by the further excommunication against Henry launched by the new pope Paschal II, a follower of Gregory VII's reformation ideals, who was elected in August 1099. But this time the Emperor, meeting with some success in his efforts to restore order, could afford to ignore the papal ban. A successful campaign in Flanders was followed in 1103 by a diet at Mainz, where serious efforts were made to restore peace, and Henry IV himself promised to go on crusade. A further important constitutional move by the Hohenstaufen's was made in this year, in 1101, where a new peace mechanism for the entire empire, the Landfrieden, was issued, under Henry IV at Mainz. This plan was shattered in 1104, however, by the revolt of his son Henry, who, encouraged by the adherents of the pope, declared he owed no allegiance to his excommunicated father. Saxony and Thuringia were soon in arms; the bishops held mainly to the younger Henry, while the Emperor was supported by the towns. A desultory warfare was unfavourable to the Emperor, however, and he was taken as prisoner at an alleged reconciliation meeting at Koblenz. At a diet held in Mainz in December, Henry IV was forced to resign his crown, being subsequently imprisoned in the castle of Böckelheim. There he was also obliged to say that he had unjustly persecuted Gregory VII and illegally named Clement III as anti-pope.

    When these conditions became known in Germany, a strong dissent movement spread. In 1106 the loyal party set up a large army to fight Henry V and Paschal. Henry IV managed to escape to Cologne from his jail, finding considerable support in the lower Rhineland. He also entered into negotiations with England, France, and Denmark.

    Henry was able to defeat his son's army near Visé, in Lorraine, on 2 March 1106. He died soon afterwards, however, after nine days of illness, at the age of 56, while he was the guest of his friend Othbert, Bishop of Liège. He was buried by the bishop of Liège with suitable ceremony, but by command of the papal legate he was unearthed, taken to Speyer, and placed in the unconsecrated chapel of Saint, which was built on the side of the Imperial Cathedral. After being released from the sentence of excommunication, his remains were buried in Speyer cathedral in August 1111.

    Evaluation
    Henry IV in later life displayed much diplomatic ability. His abasement at Canossa can be regarded as a move of policy to strengthen his own position at the cost of a token humiliation to himself. He was always regarded as a friend of the lower orders, was capable of generosity and gratitude, and showed considerable military skill and great chivalry.

    Family and children
    Henry's wife Bertha died on 27 December 1087. She was also buried at the Speyer Cathedral. Their children were:
    Adelheid (1070 – bef. 4 June 1079).
    Henry (1/2 August 1071 – 2 August 1071).
    Agnes (summer 1072/early 1073 – 24 September 1143), married firstly Frederick I, Duke of Swabia and secondly Leopold III, Margrave of Austria.
    Conrad (12 February 1074 – 27 July 1101), later Roman-German King and King of Italy.
    Mathilde.
    Henry V (11 August 1081/86 – 23 May 1125), later Roman-German King and Holy Roman Emperor.
    In 1089 Henry married Eupraxia of Kiev (crowned Empress in 1088), a daughter of Vsevolod I, Prince of Kiev, and sister to Vladimir II Monomakh, prince of Kievan Rus.

    In fiction
    The title character in the tragedy Henry IV by Luigi Pirandello is a madman who believes himself to be Henry IV.3






  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10264.htm#i102632
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10258.htm#i102571
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV,_Holy_Roman_Emperor.

Heinrich III (?) Holy Roman Emperor1

M, #9870, b. 28 October 1017, d. 5 October 1056

Henry III
Henry with the symbols of rulership attending the consecration of the Stavelot monastery church on 5 June 1040, mid-11th century miniature

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Heinrich III (?) Holy Roman Emperor was born on 28 October 1017 in Germany*.1
  • Death*: He died on 5 October 1056 in Germany* at age 38.1
  • Biography*: Henry III (28 October 1016 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia. His father made him Duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI) in 1026, after the death of Duke Henry V.

    On Easter Day 1028, after his father was crowned Holy Roman Emperor, Henry was elected and crowned King of Germany in the cathedral of Aachen by Pilgrim, Archbishop of Cologne.

    After the death of Herman IV, Duke of Swabia in 1038, his father gave him that duchy, as well as the kingdom of Burgundy, which Conrad had inherited in 1033. Upon the death of his father on 4 June 1039, he became sole ruler of the kingdom and was crowned emperor by Pope Clement II in Rome (1046).

    Early life and reign
    Henry's first tutor was Bruno, Bishop of Augsburg. On Bruno's death in 1029, Egilbert, Bishop of Freising, was appointed to take his place. In 1033, at the age of sixteen, Henry came of age and Egilbert was compensated for his services. In 1035, Adalbero, Duke of Carinthia, was deposed by Conrad, but Egilbert convinced Henry to refuse this injustice and the princes of Germany, having legally elected Henry, would not recognise the deposition unless their king did also. Henry, in accordance with his promise to Egilbert, did not consent to his father's act and Conrad, stupefied, fell unconscious after many attempts to turn Henry. Upon recovering, Conrad knelt before his son and exacted the desired consent. Egilbert was penalised dearly by the emperor.

    In 1036, Henry was married to Gunhilda of Denmark, the daughter of Canute the Great, King of Denmark, England, and Norway, by his wife Emma of Normandy. Early on, Henry's father had arranged with Canute to have him rule over some parts of northern Germany (Kiel) and in turn to have their children married. The marriage took place in Nijmegen at the earliest legal age.

    In 1038, Henry was called to aid his father in Italy, and Gunhilda died on the Adriatic Coast during the return trip (from the same epidemic in which Herman IV of Swabia died). In 1039, his father also died, and Henry became sole ruler and imperator in spe.

    After Conrad's death

    First tour
    Henry spent his first year in power on a tour of his domains. He visited the Low Countries to receive the homage of Gothelo I, Duke of Upper and Lower Lorraine. In Cologne, he was joined by Herman II, Archbishop of Cologne, who accompanied him and his mother to Saxony, where he was to build the town of Goslar up from obscurity to stately imperial grandeur. He had an armed force when he entered Thuringia to meet with Eckard II, Margrave of Meissen, whose advice and counsel he desired on the recent successes of Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia in Poland.

    Only a Bohemian embassy bearing hostages appeased Henry and he disbanded his army and continued his tour. He passed through Bavaria, where, upon his departure, King Peter Urseolo of Hungary sent raiding parties into Swabia. There, at Ulm, he convened a Council of Princes at which he received his first recognition from Italy.

    He returned to Ingelheim and was recognised by a Burgundian embassy and Aribert, Archbishop of Milan, whom he had supported against his father. This peace with Aribert healed the only open wound in the Empire. Meanwhile, in 1039, while he was touring his dominions, Conrad, Adalbero's successor in Carinthia and Henry's cousin, died childless. Henry being his nearest kin automatically inherited that duchy as well. He was now a triple-duke (Bavaria, Swabia, and Carinthia) and triple-king (Germany, Burgundy, and Italy).

    Subjecting Bohemia
    Henry's first military campaign as sole ruler was in 1040 in Bohemia, where Bretislaus was still a threat, especially via raids by his Hungarian ally. At Stablo, after attending to the reform of some monasteries, Henry summoned his army. In July, he met with Eckhard at Goslar and joined together his whole force at Regensburg. He set out on 13 August, but he was ambushed and the expedition ended in disaster. Only by releasing many Bohemian hostages, including Bretislaus's son, did the Germans procure the release of many of their comrades and the establishment of a peace. Henry retreated hastily and with little fanfare, preferring to ignore his first great defeat. On his return to Germany, he appointed Suidger bishop of Bamberg, who would later be Pope Clement II.

    First Hungarian campaign
    In 1040, Peter of Hungary was overthrown by Samuel Aba and fled to Germany, where Henry received him well despite the enmity formerly between them. Bretislaus was thus deprived of an ally, and Henry renewed preparations for a campaign in Bohemia. On 15 August, he and Eckard set out once more, almost exactly a year after his last expedition. This time he was victorious, and Bretislaus signed a peace treaty at Regensburg.

    Henry spent Christmas 1041 at Strasbourg, where he received emissaries from Burgundy. He travelled there in the new year and dispensed justice as needed. On his return, he heard, at Basel, of the raids into Bavaria by the king of Hungary. He thus granted his own duchy of Bavaria to one Henry, a relative of the last independent duke. At Cologne, he called together all his great princes, including Eckard, and they unanimously declared war on Hungary. It wasn't until September 1042 that he set out, after having dispatched men to seek out Agnes de Poitou to be his new bride. The expedition into Hungary successfully subdued the west of that nation, but Aba fled to eastern fortresses, and Henry's installed candidate, an unknown cousin of his, was quickly removed when the emperor turned his back.

    After Christmas at Goslar, his intended capital, he entertained several embassies: Bretislaus came in person, a Kievan embassy was rejected because Henry was not seeking a Rus' bride, and the ambassadors of Casimir I of Poland were likewise rejected because the duke came not in person. Gisela, Henry's mother, died at this juncture, and Henry went to the French borders, probably near Ivois, to meet King Henry I of France, probably over his impending marriage to the princess of Aquitaine. Henry next turned to Hungary again, where he forced Aba to recognise the Danubian territory donated to Germany by Stephen I of Hungary pro causa amicitiae (for friendship's sake). These territories were ceded to Hungary after the defeat of Conrad II in 1030. This border remained the border between Hungary and Austria until 1920.

    After this victory, Henry, a pious man who dreamed of a Peace and Truce of God being respected over all his realms, declared from the pulpit in Konstanz in October 1043 a general indulgence or pardon, whereby he promised to forgive all injuries to himself and to forgo vengeance. He encouraged all his vassals to do likewise. This is known as the "Day of Indulgence" or "Day of Pardon".

    After marriage
    Henry was remarried at Ingelheim in 1043 to Agnes, daughter of duke William V of Aquitaine and Agnes of Burgundy. Agnes was then living at the court of her stepfather, Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou. This connection to the obstreperous vassal of the French king as well as her consanguinity—she and Henry being both descended from Henry the Fowler—caused some churchmen to oppose their union, but the marriage went as planned. Agnes was crowned at Mainz.

    Division of Lorraine
    After the coronation and the wedding, Henry wintered at Utrecht, where he proclaimed the same indulgence he had the year prior in Burgundy. Then, in April 1044, Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine (both Lower and Upper Lorraine) died. Henry did not wish to solidify the ducal power in any duchy, so instead of appointing Godfrey, Gothelo's eldest son and already acting duke in Upper Lorraine, as duke in the Lower duchy, he appointed Gothelo II, Godfrey's younger brother, thus raising the ire of the eldest son. Henry claimed that Gothelo's dying wish was to see the duchy split between the brothers, but Godfrey, having faithfully served Henry thus far, rebelled. Henry called the two brothers together at Nijmegen but failed to reconcile them. Nevertheless, he set out on the warpath against Hungary, which was experiencing internal duress.

    Second Hungarian campaign
    Henry entered Hungary on 6 July and met a large army with his small host. Disaffection rent the Magyar forces, however, and they crumbled at the German onslaught in the Battle of Ménf?. Peter was reinstalled as king at Székesfehérvár, a vassal of the Empire, and Henry could return home triumphant, the Hungarian people having readily submitted to his rule. Tribute was to be paid, and a fleeing Aba was captured by Peter and beheaded. Hungary appeared to have entered the German fold fully and with ease.

    Unrest in Lorraine
    Upon his return from the Hungarian expedition, Godfrey of Lorraine began seeking out allies, among them Henry of France, to support him in any possible act of overt insurrection. Seeing this, the emperor summoned Godfrey to Aachen for a trial by his peers of Lower Lorraine. He was condemned, and his duchy and county of Verdun (a royal fief) were seized. He immediately fled the scene and began arming for revolt. Henry wintered at Speyer, with civil war clearly in view on the horizon.

    In early 1045, Henry entered Lorraine with a local army and besieged and took Godfrey's castle of Bockelheim (near Kreuznach). He took a few other castles as well, but famine drove him out. Leaving behind enough men to guard the countryside against Godfrey's raids, he turned to Burgundy. Godfrey had done his best to foment rebellion there by creating conflicts between the imperialist faction, which supported union with the empire, and the nationalist faction, which supported an independent Burgundy. However, Louis, Count of Montbéliard, defeated Reginald I, Count of Burgundy (which was to become the Free County), and when Henry arrived, the latter was ready with Gerald, Count of Geneva, to do homage. Burgundy was thereafter united to Henry's crown.

    Height of power

    Royal seal of Henry
    Henry then discussed the Italian political scene with some Lombard magnates at Augsburg and went on to Goslar, where he gave the duchy of Swabia to Otto, Count Palatine of Lorraine. Henry also gave the margrave of Antwerp to Baldwin, the son of Baldwin V of Flanders. On his way to Hungary to spend Pentecost with King Peter, a floor collapsed in one of his halls and Bruno, Bishop of Würzburg, was killed. In Hungary, Peter gave over the golden lance, symbol of sovereignty in Hungary, to Henry and pledged an oath of fealty along with his nobles. Hungary was now pledged to Peter for life and peace was fully restored between the two kingdoms of Germany and Hungary. In July, even Godfrey submitted and was imprisoned in Gibichenstein, the German Tower.

    War in Lorraine
    Henry fell ill at Tribur in October, and Henry of Bavaria and Otto of Swabia chose as his successor Otto's nephew and successor in the palatinate, Henry I. Henry III recovered, but remained heirless. At the beginning of 1046, now at the height of his power but having divested himself of two of the great stem duchies, Henry's old advisor, Eckard of Meissen, died, leaving Meissen to Henry. Henry bestowed it on William, count of Orlamünde.

    Henry then moved to Lower Lorraine, where Gothelo II had just died and Dirk IV of Holland had seized Flushing. Henry personally led a river campaign against Count Dirk. Both count and Flushing fell to him. He gave the latter to Bernold, Bishop of Utrecht, and returned to Aachen to celebrate Pentecost and to decide on the fate of Lorraine. Henry pitied and restored Godfrey, but he gave the county of Verdun to the bishop of the city. This did not conciliate the duke. Henry gave the lower duchy to Frederick. He then appointed Adalbert archbishop of Bremen and summoned Widger, Archbishop of Ravenna, to a trial.

    The right of a German court to try an Italian bishop was very controversial and presaged the Investiture Controversy that characterised the reigns of Henry's son and grandson. Henry continued from there on to Saxony and held imperial courts at Quedlinburg, Merseburg (in June), and Meissen. At the first, he made his daughter Beatrice from his first marriage abbess, and at the second he ended the strife between the dux Bomeraniorum and Casimir of Poland. This is one of the earliest, or perhaps the earliest, recording of the name of Pomerania, whose duke, Zemuzil, brought gifts.

    Second trip to Italy
    After these events in northern Germany and a brief visit to Augsburg, he summoned the greatest magnates of the realm, clerical and lay, to meet and accompany him as he crossed the Brenner Pass into Italy, one of the most important of his many travels. His old ally, Aribert of Milan, had recently died, and the Milanese had chosen as candidate for his successor one Guido, in opposition to the candidate supported by the nobles. Meanwhile, in Rome, three popes—Benedict IX, Sylvester III, and Gregory VI—contested the pontifical honours.
    Benedict was a Tusculan who had previously renounced the throne, Sylvester was a Crescentian, and Gregory was a reformer but a simoniac. Henry marched first to Verona, thence to Pavia in October. He held a court and dispensed justice as he had in Burgundy years earlier. He moved on to Sutri and held a second court on 20 December 1046 where he deposed all the candidates for the Saint Peter's throne and left it temporarily vacant. He headed towards Rome and held a synod wherein he declared no Roman priest fit. Adalbert of Bremen refused the honour and Henry appointed Suidger of Bamberg, who was acclaimed duly by the people and clergy, we are told. He took the name Clement II.

    Imperial coronation
    On Christmas Day 1046, Clement was consecrated, and Henry and Agnes were crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Empress. The populace gave Henry the golden chain of the patriciate and made him patricius, giving the powers, seemingly, of the Crescentii family during the 10th century to nominate popes. Henry's first acts were to visit Frascati, capital of the counts of Tusculum, and to seize all the castles of the Crescentii. He and the pope then moved south, where his father had created the situation as it was then in his visit of 1038. Henry reversed many of Conrad's acts.

    At Capua, he was received by Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno, also Prince of Capua since 1038. However, Henry gave Capua back to the twice-deprived Prince Pandulf IV, a highly unpopular choice. Guaimar had been acclaimed as Duke of Apulia and Calabria by the Norman mercenaries under William Iron Arm and his brother Drogo of Hauteville.
    In return, Guaimar had recognised the conquests of the Normans and invested William as his vassal with the comital title. Henry made Drogo, William's successor in Apulia, a direct vassal of the imperial crown. He did likewise to Ranulf Drengot, the count of Aversa, who had been a vassal of Guaimar as Prince of Capua. Thus, Guaimar was deprived of his greatest vassals, his principality split in two, and his greatest enemy reinstated. Henry lost popularity amongst the Lombards with these decisions, and Benevento, though a papal vassal, would not admit him. He authorised Drogo to conquer it and headed north to reunion with Agnes at Ravenna. He arrived at Verona in May, and the Italian circuit was completed.

    Henry's appointments
    Upon his return to Germany, Henry filled many offices that had fallen vacant. First, he gave away his last personal duchy, making Welf duke of Carinthia. He made his Italian chancellor, Humphrey, archbishop of Ravenna. He filled several other sees, installing Guido in Piacenza, his chaplain Theodoric in Verdun, the provost Herman of Speyer in Strasbourg, and his German chancellor Theodoric in Constance. The important Lorrainer bishoprics of Metz and Trier received respectively Adalberon and Eberhard, a chaplain.
    The many vacancies of the Imperial episcopate now filled, Henry was at Metz in July 1047 when a stewing rebellion broke out seriously. Godfrey was now allied with Baldwin of Flanders, his son (the margrave of Antwerp), Dirk of Holland, and Herman, Count of Mons. Henry gathered an army and went north, where he gave Adalbert of Bremen lands once Godfrey's and oversaw the trial by combat of Thietmar, the brother of Bernard II, Duke of Saxony, accused of plotting to kill the king. Bernard, an enemy of Adalbert, was now clearly on Henry's bad side. Henry made peace with the new king of Hungary, Andrew I, and moved his campaign into the Netherlands. At Flushing, he was defeated by Dirk. The Hollanders sacked Charlemagne's palace at Nijmegen and burnt Verdun. Godfrey then made public penance and assisted in rebuilding Verdun.

    The rebels besieged Liège, defended stoutly by Bishop Wazo. Henry slowed his campaigning after the death of Henry of Bavaria and gave Upper Lorraine to one Adalbert and left. The pope had died in the meantime and Henry chose Poppo of Brixen, who took the name Damasus II. Henry gave Bavaria to one Cuno and, at Ulm in January 1048, Swabia to Otto of Schweinfurt, called the White. Henry met Henry of France, probably at Ivois again, in October and at Christmas, envoys from Rome came to seek a new pope, Damasus having died. Henry's most enduring papal selection was Bruno of Toul, who took office as Leo IX, and under whom the Church would be divided between East and West. Henry's final appointment of this long spate was a successor to Adalbert in Lorraine. For this, he appointed Gerard of Chatenoy, a relative of Adalbert and Henry himself.

    Peace in Lorraine
    The year of 1049 was a series of successes. Dirk of Holland was defeated and killed. Adalbert of Bremen managed a peace with Bernard of Saxony and negotiated a treaty with the missionary monarch Sweyn II of Denmark. With the assistance of Sweyn and Edward the Confessor of England, whose enemies Baldwin had harboured, Baldwin of Flanders was harassed by sea and unable to escape the onslaught of the imperial army. At Cologne, the pope excommunicated Godfrey, in revolt again, and Baldwin. The former abandoned his allies and was imprisoned by the emperor yet again. Baldwin too gave in under the pressure of Henry's ravages. Finally, war had ceased in the Low Countries and the Lorraines, and peace seemed to have taken hold.

    Final Outcome
    Final Hungarian campaigns
    In 1051, Henry undertook a third Hungarian campaign but suffered a major defeat. His troops fled the battlefield over a range of hills still called "Vértes" ("Armoured") because of all the discarded armour of German knights found there. Lower Lorraine gave him trouble again; Lambert, Count of Louvain, and Richildis, widow of Herman of Mons and new bride of Baldwin of Antwerp, were causing strife. Godfrey was released and given Lower Lorraine, to safeguard the unstable peace attained two years before.

    In 1052, he undertook a fourth campaign against Hungary, and besieged Pressburg (modern Bratislava) without success, as the Hungarians sank his supply ships on the Danube river. Henry was unable to continue his campaign immediately, and in fact never renewed it. Henry did send a Swabian army to assist Leo in Italy, but he recalled it quickly. At Christmas 1052, Cuno of Bavaria was summoned to Merseburg and deposed by a small council of princes for his conflicting with Gebhard III, Bishop of Regensburg. Cuno revolted.

    Final wars in Germany
    In 1053, at Tribur, the young Henry, born 11 November 1050, was elected king of Germany. Andrew of Hungary almost made peace, but Cuno convinced him otherwise. Henry appointed his young son duke of Bavaria and went thence to deal with the ongoing insurrection. Henry sent another army to assist Leo in the Mezzogiorno against the Normans he himself had confirmed in their conquests as his vassal. Leo, sans assistance from Guaimar (distanced from Henry since 1047), was defeated at the Battle of Civitate on 18 June 1053 by Humphrey, Count of Apulia; Robert Guiscard, his younger brother; and Prince Richard I of Capua. The Swabians were cut to pieces.

    In 1054, Henry went north to deal with Casimir of Poland, now on the warpath. He transferred Silesia from Bretislaus to Casimir. Bretislaus nevertheless remained loyal to the end. Henry turned westwards and crowned his young son at Aachen on July 17 and then marched into Flanders, for the two Baldwins were in arms again. John of Arras, who had seized Cambrai before, had been forced out by Baldwin of Flanders and so turned to the Emperor. In return for inducing Liutpert, Bishop of Cambrai, to give John the castle, John would lead Henry through Flanders. The Flemish campaign was a success, but Liutpert could not be convinced.

    Bretislaus, who had regained Silesia in a short war, died in 1054. The margrave Adalbert of Austria, however, successfully resisted the depredations of Cuno and the raids of the king of Hungary. Henry could thus direct his attention elsewhere than rebellions for once. He returned to Goslar, the city where his son had been born and which he had raised to imperial and ecclesiastic grandeur with his palace and church reforms. He passed Christmas there and appointed Gebhard of Eichstedt as the next holder of the Petrine see, with the name Victor II. He was the last of Henry's four German popes.

    Preparing Italy and Germany for his death
    In 1055, Henry turned south, to Italy again, for Boniface III of Tuscany, ever an imperial ally, had died, and his widow, Beatrice of Bar had married Godfrey of Lorraine (1054). First, however, he gave his old hostage, Spitignev, the son of Bretislaus to the Bohemians as duke. Spitignev did homage and Bohemia remained securely, loyally, and happily within the Imperial fold. By Easter, Henry had arrived in Mantua. He held several courts, one at Roncaglia, where, a century later (1158), Frederick Barbarossa held a far more important diet, sent out his missi dominici to establish order. Godfrey, ostensibly the reason for the visit, was not well received by the people and returned to Flanders. Henry met the pope at Florence and arrested Beatrice for marrying a traitor, and her daughter Matilda, later to be such an enemy of Henry's son. The young Frederick of Tuscany, son of Beatrice, refused to come to Florence and died within days. Henry returned via Zürich and there betrothed his young son to Bertha, daughter of Count Otto of Savoy.

    Henry entered a Germany in turmoil. A staunch ally against Cuno in Bavaria, Gebhard of Regensburg, was implicated in a plot against the king along with Cuno and Welf of Carinthia. Sources diverge here: some claim only that the retainers of the princes plotted the undoing of the king. Whatever the case, it all came to naught, and Cuno died of plague, and Welf soon following him to the grave. Baldwin of Flanders and Godfrey were at it again, besieging Antwerp, and they were defeated again. Henry's reign was clearly changing in character: old foes were dead or dying and old friends as well.

    Herman of Cologne died. Henry appointed his confessor, Anno, as Herman's successor. Henry of France, so long eyeing Lorraine greedily, met for a third time with the emperor at Ivois in May 1056. The French king, not renowned for his tactical or strategic prowess, but admirable for his personal valour on the field, had a heated debate with the German king and challenged him to single combat. Henry fled at night from this meeting. Once in Germany again, Godfrey made his final peace, and Henry went to the northeast to deal with a Slav uprising after the death of William of Meissen. He fell ill on the way and took to bed. He freed Beatrice and Matilda and had those with him swear allegiance to the young Henry, whom he commended the pope, present.

    On 5 October, not yet forty, Henry died at Bodfeld, the imperial hunting lodge in the Harz Mountains. His heart went to Goslar, his body to Speyer, to lie next to his father's in the family vault in the cathedral of Speyer. He had been one of the most powerful of the Holy Roman Emperors: his authority as king in Burgundy, Germany, and Italy was only rarely questioned, his power over the church was at the root of what the reformers he sponsored later fought against in his son, and his achievement in binding to the empire her tributaries was clear. Nevertheless, his reign is often pronounced a failure in that he apparently left problems far beyond the capacities of his successors to handle. The Investiture Controversy was largely the result of his church politics, though his popemaking gave the Roman diocese to the reform party. He united all the great duchies save Saxony to himself at one point or another but gave them all away. His most enduring and concrete monument may be the impressive palace (kaiserpfalz) at Goslar.

    Family and children
    Henry III was married twice and had at least seven children:
    With his first wife, Gunhilda of Denmark:
    Beatrice (1037 – 13 July 1061), abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim
    With his second wife, Agnes:
    Adelaide II (1045, Goslar – 11 January 1096), abbess of Gandersheim from 1061 and Quedlinburg from 1063
    Gisela (1047, Ravenna – 6 May 1053)
    Matilda (October 1048 – 12 May 1060, Pöhlde), married 1059 Rudolf of Rheinfelden, duke of Swabia and anti-king (1077)
    Henry, his successor
    Conrad (1052, Regensburg – 10 April 1055), duke of Bavaria (from 1054)
    Judith (1054, Goslar – 14 March 1092 or 1096), married firstly 1063 Solomon of Hungary and secondly 1089 Ladislaus I Herman, duke of Poland.2



Family:

  • Last Edited: 21 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10258.htm#i102571
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III,_Holy_Roman_Emperor.