Allan MacDonnell1

M, #9571, b. 1912

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 12 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S904] 1921 Canada Census, McDonnell # 5275.

Alexander AuCoin1

M, #9572, b. 1917

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 12 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S909] 1921 Canada Census, Aucoin, ID# 3136.

Margaret Plantagenet1

F, #9573, b. 28 September 1240, d. 26 February 1275

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Margaret Plantagenet was born on 28 September 1240 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England.1
  • Marriage*: She married Alexander III (?) King of Scots, son of Alexander II (?) King of Scots and Marie de Coucy Queen Consort of the Kingdom of Scotland, on 26 December 1251 in York Minster, York, Yorkshire, England.1
  • Death*: Margaret Plantagenet died on 26 February 1275 in Cupar Castle, Fife, Scotland, at age 34.1
  • Biography*: Margaret of England (29 September 1240 – 26 February 1275) was Queen of Scots as the wife of King Alexander III.

    Life
    Margaret was the second child of King Henry III of England and his wife, Eleanor of Provence, and was born at Windsor Castle. Margaret’s first appearance in historical record comes when she was three years old.

    She was married on 26 December 1251, when she was 11 years old, at York Minster, to King Alexander III of Scotland, who was 10 years of age. The couple had three children:
    Margaret (28 February 1261 – 9 April 1283), who married King Eric II of Norway.
    Alexander (21 January 1264 Jedburgh – 28 January 1284 Lindores Abbey).
    David (20 March 1272 – June 1281 Stirling Castle); buried in Dunfermline Abbey.

    Margaret is said to have been unhappy in Scotland, and created some tensions between England and Scotland by writing to her family in England that she was poorly treated in Scotland.

    It was said that Margaret was responsible for the death of a young courtier, who reputedly had killed her uncle Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester. While walking along the River Tay, she became annoyed with the young man. She jokingly pushed him into the river, but he was swept to his death by a powerful current before anyone could help.

    Margaret died on 26 February 1275 at Cupar Castle, and was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife.1
  • Last Edited: 7 Mar 2016

Patrick Hepburn of Hailes1

M, #9574, b. before 1322, d. after 1402

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Patrick Hepburn of Hailes was born before 1322 in Hailes, Midlothian, Scotland.1
  • Marriage*: He married Agnes (?) circa 1375 in Scotland.1
  • Death*: Patrick Hepburn of Hailes died after 1402 in Scotland.3
  • Biography*: In 1381 he had a safe conduct from King Richard II in to pass through England to the Holy Land.3

Family: Agnes (?) b. c 1350

  • Last Edited: 9 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p18725.htm#i187250
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p18725.htm#i187245
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p18725.htm#i187247

Agnes (?)1

F, #9575, b. circa 1350

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Patrick Hepburn of Hailes b. b 1322, d. a 1402

  • Last Edited: 9 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p18725.htm#i187250

Adam de Hibburne1

M, #9576, b. circa 1300

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name Variation: Adam de Hibburne was also known as Adam de Hepburn.3
  • Birth*: He was born circa 1300 in Bywell, Northumberland, England.1
  • Marriage*: He married Mariota Fourbour circa 1322.1,3
  • Biography*: The Lordship and Barony of Hailes is a Scottish feudal lordship (a feudal barony of higher degree).

    Hailes is traditionally believed to have been founded by an Englishman, taken prisoner in the reign of David II of Scotland, who was rewarded with the grant of lands in East Lothian for having on rescued the Earl of Dunbar and March from an attacking horse.

    Patrick de Dunbar, 9th Earl of March granted the Barony of Hailes to Adam de Hepburn (or Hibburne or Hyburne) in 1343 (thus the Hepburns held Hailes in heritage from the Earl of March, who in turn held it on behalf of the Crown); Hew Gourlay of Beinstoun having earlier foreited the lands. On 20 December 1451, James II, King of Scots, granted Sir Patrick Hepburn, 1st Lord Hailes, and his heirs and assignees, the lands of the Lordship of Hailes, including Hailes Castle, and other lands, to be incorporated into the free barony of Hailes. Sir Patrick Hepburn was created a peer of the Parliament of Scotland under the title Lord Hailes in 1453.

    The Lordship and Barony of Hailes remained in the Hepburn family until 20 December 1567 when it was forfeited to the Parliament of Scotland by James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell. On 1 October 1594, it was granted to Sir Walter Scott, 1st Lord Scott of Buccleuch, remaining with the Scott family until around the time of the Cromwellian invasion of Scotland in 1650 when it came into the possession of the Earls of Winton. In 1692, the Lordship and Barony of Hailes was disponed by James Melville of Halhill to Sir David Dalrymple, advocate and remained in the Dalrymple family until 1876 when it was transferred to Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour.

    The caput baronium (or simply "caput") of the Lordship and Barony of Hailes is Hailes Castle.3

Family: Mariota Fourbour b. c 1300

  • Last Edited: 10 Mar 2016

Mariota Fourbour1

F, #9577, b. circa 1300

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Adam de Hibburne b. c 1300

  • Last Edited: 10 Mar 2016

Nicholas de Hibburne1

M, #9578, b. circa 1275

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Emma (?) b. c 1275

  • Last Edited: 10 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p18725.htm#i187243
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p18725.htm#i187242

Emma (?)1

F, #9579, b. circa 1275

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Nicholas de Hibburne b. c 1275

  • Last Edited: 10 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p18725.htm#i187243

Robert de Hyburne1

M, #9580, b. circa 1250

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Robert de Hyburne was born circa 1250.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 10 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p18725.htm#i187242

Ann MacIsaac1

F, #9581, b. 1905

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 19 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S864] 1921 Canada Census, McFarlane # 1864.

Isabella MacIsaac1

F, #9582, b. 1910

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 19 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S864] 1921 Canada Census, McFarlane # 1864.

John MacIsaac1

M, #9583, b. 1907

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 19 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S864] 1921 Canada Census, McFarlane # 1864.

Elizabeth Clara McNeil

F, #9584, b. circa 1868, d. 1956

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Alexander Cameron b. 1868, d. 1949

  • Last Edited: 21 Mar 2016

Berenguer Ramon I (?)1

M, #9585, b. 1005, d. 26 May 1035

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked, also called the Hunchback (in Catalan, Berenguer Ramon I el Corbat; and in Spanish, Berenguer Ramón I el Corvado or el Curvo) (1005 – 26 May 1035) was the count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 1018 to his death.

    Life
    He was the son of Ramon Borrell, Count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona and his wife Ermesinde of Carcassonne. He accepted the suzerainty of Sancho the Great of Navarre.
    Berenguer Ramon as a historical figure is enigmatic, shrouded in incomprehensible contradictions and ambiguities. First, he was a man of peace, and peace ruled throughout his reign. He pacified his neighbours as well, bringing to heel the Count of Urgell, Ermengol II. He reestablished amicable relations with Hugh I, Count of Empúries, and maintained them with William I of Besalú and Wilfred II of Cerdanya. He was a son of the church who maintained relations with the papacy and went on a pilgrimage to Rome in 1032. On many occasions he travelled to Zaragoza and Navarre to discuss with Sancho III the Great, King of Navarre their mutual stance against the Counts of Toulouse. His confidantes and councillors were the Abbot Oliva, the judge Ponç Bofill, Gombau de Besora, and the Bishops Pedro of Girona and Deudado of Barcelona. In 1025, he decreed that the proprietors of entails (men holding land in fee tail) were free from taxation.

    On the other hand, the government of Berenguer Ramon I marks the beginning of the decline of the comital power in Catalonia. At the death of his father in 1018, Berenguer Ramon was a minor and his mother Ermesinde served as regent until 1023. But even when he attained his majority, his mother would not relinquish the powers of regency and reigned with him.

    According to some chroniclers, Berenguer's character left some things to be desired. He is described as weak and indecisive. Moreover, his policy of peace with the Moors was a bone of contention with the noblesse, who saw war with the Muslims as a way of obtaining glory, wealth, and possibly even salvation. This led some nobles to act independently of the count's wishes. Ermesinde, contra her son, was energetic and decisive, intent on imposing the authority of Barcelona on the baronage. But, as a woman, her capability to exercise control of the military was greatly impeded and organizing a raid or expedition to satisfy the wants of the aristocracy was virtually impossible.

    The obliteration of comital authority became evident shortly before his death in 1035, as Ermisende partitioned his patrimony amongst his sons. Ramon Berenguer received Girona and Barcelona as far as the river Llobregat; Sancho received the frontierland from the Llobregat to the Moorish lands, which constituted the new county of Penedès with its capital in Olèrdola; and William was given the County of Ausona. Berenguer Ramon died on 26 May 1035 and was buried in Santa Maria de Ripoll.

    Marriage
    In 1021, he married the king's sister-in-law, Sancha Sánchez, daughter of Sancho I Garcés, Count of Castile. By her he had two sons:
    Ramon Berenguer (b. 1023)
    Sancho (birth year unknown).

    In 1027, he married secondly Guisla of Lluca, with whom he had two more sons;
    William (b. 1028)
    Bernard (b. 1029).

    Two daughters have also been tentatively assigned to this couple:
    Clemencia, who married Ermengol III of Urgell
    Sibylla, who married Henri deBourgogne.1
  • Birth*: Berenguer Ramon I (?) was born in 1005 in Barcelona, Spain*.1
  • Death*: He died on 26 May 1035 in Barcelona, Spain*.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 27 May 2016

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berenguer_Ramon_I,_Count_of_Barcelona.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramon_Berenguer_I,_Count_of_Barcelona.

Raimond Berenguer III (?) Count of Barcelona1

M, #9586, b. 11 November 1082, d. July 1131

Ramon Berenguer III
Count of Barcelona

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Raimond Berenguer III (?) Count of Barcelona was born on 11 November 1082 in Rodez, Youlouse, France*.1,2
  • Death*: He died in July 1131 in Barcelona, Spain*, at age 48.1,2
  • Burial*: He was buried after July 1131 in Santa Maria de Ripoll Monastery, Ripoll, Catalonia, Spain*.2
  • Biography*: Ramon Berenguer III the Great was the count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 1086 (jointly with Berenguer Ramon II and solely from 1097), Besalú from 1111, Cerdanya from 1117, and count of Provence in the Holy Roman Empire, from 1112, all until his death in Barcelona in 1131. As Ramon Berenguer I, he was Count of Provence from 1112 in right of his wife.

    Born on 11 November 1082 in Rodez, Viscounty of Rodez, County of Toulouse, Francia, he was the son of Ramon Berenguer II. He succeeded his father to co-rule with his uncle Berenguer Ramon II. He became the sole ruler in 1097, when Berenguer Ramon II was forced into exile.

    During his rule Catalan interests were extended on both sides of the Pyrenees. By marriage or vassalage he incorporated into his realm almost all of the Catalan counties (except Urgell and Peralada). He inherited the counties of Besalú (1111) and Cerdanya (1117) and in between married Douce, heiress of Provence (1112). His dominions then stretched as far east as Nice.

    In alliance with the Count of Urgell, Ramon Berenguer conquered Barbastro and Balaguer. He also established relations with the Italian maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa, and in 1114 and 1115 attacked with Pisa the then-Muslim islands of Majorca and Ibiza. They became his tributaries and many Christian slaves there were recovered and set free. Ramon Berenguer also raided mainland Muslim dependencies with Pisa's help, such as Valencia, Lleida and Tortosa. In 1116, Ramon traveled to Rome to petition Pope Paschal II for a crusade to liberate Tarragona. By 1118 he had captured and rebuilt Tarragona, which became the metropolitan seat of the church in Catalonia (before that, Catalans had depended ecclesiastically on the archbishopric of Narbonne).

    Toward the end of his life Ramon Berenguer became a Templar. He gave his five Catalonian counties to his eldest son Ramon Berenguer IV and Provence to the younger son Berenguer Ramon.

    He died on 23 January/19 July 1131 and was buried in the Santa Maria de Ripoll monastery.

    Marriages and descendants
    First wife, María Rodríguez de Vivar, second daughter of El Cid (died ca. 1105)
    María, married Bernat III, Count of Besalú (died 1111)
    Jimena, also known as Eixemena, married Roger III, Count of Foix

    Second wife, Almodis

    Third wife, Douce or Dolça de Gévaudaun, heiress of Provence (died ca. 1127)
    Almodis, married Ponce de Cervera, mother of Agalbursa, who married Barisone II of Arborea
    Berenguela or Berengaria (1116–1149), married Alfonso VII of Castile
    Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona (1113/1114–1162) married Petronilla of Aragon
    Berenguer Ramon I, Count of Provence (ca. 1115–1144)
    Bernat, died young.2

Family:

  • Last Edited: 3 Apr 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11333.htm#i113326
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramon_Berenguer_III,_Count_of_Barcelona.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11330.htm#i113291

Raimond Berenguer IV (?) Count of Barcelona1

M, #9587, b. 1113, d. 6 August 1162

Ramon Berenguer IV
Count of Barcelona

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Raimond Berenguer IV (?) Count of Barcelona was born in 1113 in Barcelona, Spain*.1
  • Marriage*: He married Petronella (?) Queen of Aragon on 11 August 1151 in Spain*.2
  • Death*: Raimond Berenguer IV (?) Count of Barcelona died on 6 August 1162 in San Dalmazio de Turin, Italy*.1
  • Biography*: Ramon Berenguer IV c. 1113 – 6 August 1162, Anglicized Raymond Berengar IV), sometimes called the Saint, was the Count of Barcelona who brought about the union of his County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the Crown of Aragon.

    Early reign
    Ramon Berenguer IV inherited the county of Barcelona from his father Ramon Berenguer III on 19 August 1131. On 11 August 1137, at the age of about 24, he was betrothed to the infant Petronilla of Aragon, aged one at the time. Petronilla's father, Ramiro II of Aragon, who sought Barcelona's aid against Alfonso VII of Castile, withdrew from public life on 13 November 1137, leaving his kingdom to Petronilla and Ramon Berenguer, the latter in effect becoming ruler of Aragon, although he was never king himself, instead commonly using the titles "Count of the Barcelonans and Prince of the Aragonians" (Comes Barcinonensis et Princeps Aragonensis), and occasionally those of "Marquis of Lleida and Tortosa" (after conquering these cities). He was the last Catalan ruler to use "Count" as his primary title; starting with his son Alfonso II of Aragon the counts of Barcelona styled themselves, in the first place, as kings of Aragon.

    The treaty between Ramon Berenguer and his father-in-law, Ramiro II, stipulated that their descendants would rule jointly over both realms, and that even if Petronilla died before the marriage could be consummated, Berenguer's heirs would still inherit the Kingdom of Aragon. Both realms would preserve their laws, institutions and autonomy, remaining legally distinct but federated in a dynastic union under one ruling House. Historians consider this arrangement the political masterstroke of the Hispanic Middle Ages. Both realms gained greater strength and security and Aragon got its much needed outlet to the sea. On the other hand, formation of a new political entity in the north-east at the time when Portugal seceded from León in the west gave more balance to the Christian kingdoms of the peninsula. Ramon Berenguer successfully pulled Aragon out of its pledged submission to Castile, aided no doubt by his sister Berengaria, wife of Alfonso the Emperor, who was well known in her time for her beauty and charm.

    Crusades and wars
    In the middle years of his rule, Ramon Berenguer turned his attention to campaigns against the Moors. In October 1147, as part of the Second Crusade, he helped Castile to conquer Almería. He then invaded the lands of the Almoravid taifa kingdoms of Valencia and Murcia. In December 1148, he captured Tortosa after a five-month siege with the help of Southern French, Anglo-Norman and Genoese crusaders. (When Moors later tried to recapture Tortosa, the women put up such a spirited defense that Berenger created for them the Order of the Hatchet.) The next year, Fraga, Lleida and Mequinenza in the confluence of the Segre and Ebro rivers fell to his army. The reconquista of modern Catalonia was completed.

    Ramon Berenguer also campaigned in Provence, helping his brother Berenguer Ramon and his infant nephew Ramon Berenguer II against the Counts of Toulouse. During the minority of Ramon Berenguer II, the Count of Barcelona also acted as the regent of Provence (between 1144 and 1157). In 1151, Ramon signed the Treaty of Tudilén with Alfonso VII of León and Castile. The treaty defined the zones of conquest in Andalusia as an attempt to prevent the two rulers from coming into conflict. Also in 1151, Ramon Berenguer founded and endowed the royal monastery of Poblet. In 1154, he accepted the regency of Gaston V of Béarn in return for the Bearnese nobles rendering him homage at Canfranc, thus uniting that small principality with the growing Aragonese empire.

    Death
    Ramon Berenguer IV died on 6 August 1162 in Borgo San Dalmazzo, Piedmont, Italy, leaving the title of Count of Barcelona to his eldest surviving son, Ramon Berenguer, who inherited the title of King of Aragon after the abdication of his mother Petronilla of Aragon two years later in 1164. He changed his name to Alfonso as a nod to his Aragonese lineage, and became Alfonso II of Aragon. Ramon Berenguer IV's younger son Pere (Peter) inherited the county of Cerdanya and lands north of the Pyrenees, and changed his name to Ramon Berenguer.

    Appearance and character
    The Chronicle of San Juan de la Peña said he was, " at an unknown age man of particularly great nobility, prudence, and probity, of lively temperament, high counsel, great bravery, and steady intellect, who displayed great temperance in all his actions. He was handsome in appearance, with a large body and very well-proportioned limbs."3

Family: Petronella (?) Queen of Aragon b. 1135, d. 13 Oct 1173

  • Last Edited: 3 Apr 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11330.htm#i113291
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11330.htm#i113292
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramon_Berenguer_IV,_Count_of_Barcelona.

Petronella (?) Queen of Aragon1

F, #9588, b. 1135, d. 13 October 1173

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Raimond Berenguer IV (?) Count of Barcelona b. 1113, d. 6 Aug 1162

  • Last Edited: 1 Apr 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11330.htm#i113292

Robert Guiscard Duke of Apulia1

M, #9589, b. circa 1025, d. 1085

Robert Guiscard, from the 14th-century manuscript Nuova Cronica

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Robert Guiscard Duke of Apulia was born circa 1025 in Normandy, France.1
  • Death*: He died in 1085 in Apulia, Italy*.1
  • Biography*: Robert Guiscard (c.?1015 – 17 July 1085) was a Norman adventurer remembered for the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily. Robert was born into the Hauteville family in Normandy, went on to become Count of Apulia and Calabria (1057–1059), and then Duke of Apulia and Calabria and Duke of Sicily (1059–1085).

    His sobriquet, in contemporary Latin Viscardus and Old French Viscart, is often rendered "the Resourceful", "the Cunning", "the Wily", "the Fox", or "the Weasel". In Italian sources he is often Roberto il Guiscardo or Roberto d'Altavilla (from Robert de Hauteville).

    Background
    From 999 to 1042 the Normans in Italy, coming first as pilgrims, were mainly mercenaries serving at various times the Byzantines and a number of Lombard nobles. The first of the independent Norman Lords was Rainulf Drengot who established himself in the fortress of Aversa becoming Count of Aversa and Duke of Gaeta.

    In 1038 there arrived William Iron-Arm and Drogo, the two eldest sons of Tancred of Hauteville, a petty noble of the Cotentin in Normandy. The two joined in the revolt of the Lombards against Byzantine control of Apulia. By 1040 the Byzantines had lost most of that province. In 1042 Melfi was chosen as the Norman capital, and in September of that year the Normans elected as their count William Iron-Arm, who was succeeded in turn by his brothers Drogo, Comes Normannorum totius Apuliæ e Calabriæ ("the Count of all Normans in Apulia and Calabria"), and Humphrey, who arrived about 1044.

    Early years
    Robert Guiscard was the sixth son of Tancred of Hauteville and eldest by his second wife Fressenda. According to the Byzantine historian Anna Comnena, he left Normandy with only five mounted riders and thirty followers on foot. Upon arriving in Langobardia in 1047, he became the chief of a roving robber-band. Anna Comnena also leaves a physical description of Guiscard:
    This Robert was Norman by birth, of obscure origins, with an overbearing character and a thoroughly villainous mind; he was a brave fighter, very cunning in his assaults on the wealth and power of great men; in achieving his aims absolutely inexorable, diverting criticism by incontrovertible argument. He was a man of immense stature, surpassing even the biggest men; he had a ruddy complexion, fair hair, broad shoulders, eyes that all but shot out sparks of fire. In a well-built man one looks for breadth here and slimness there; in him all was admirably well-proportioned and elegant... Homer remarked of Achilles that when he shouted his hearers had the impression of a multitude in uproar, but Robert’s bellow, so they say, put tens of thousands to flight.

    Lands were scarce in Apulia at the time and the roving Guiscard could not expect any grant from Drogo, then reigning, for Humphrey had just received his own county of Lavello. Guiscard soon joined Prince Pandulf IV of Capua in his ceaseless wars with Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno (1048). The next year, however, Guiscard left Pandulf, according to Amatus of Montecassino because Pandulf reneged on a promise of a castle and his daughter's hand. Guiscard returned to his brother Drogo and asked to be granted a fief. Drogo, who had just finished campaigning in Calabria, gave Guiscard command of the fortress of Scribla. Dissatisfied with this position, Guiscard moved to the castle of San Marco Argentano (after which he later named the first Norman castle in Sicily, at the site of ancient Aluntium).

    During his time in Calabria, Guiscard married his first wife, Alberada De Macon, known in Italy as Alberada of Buonalbergo. She was the daughter of Reginald I, Count of Burgundy, also known as Renaud I De Macon (Raynald I), Baron of Buonalbergo, and Girard of Buonalbergo, and his wife Alice of Normandy.

    Guiscard soon rose to distinction. The Lombards turned against their erstwhile allies, and Pope Leo IX determined to expel the Norman freebooters. His army was defeated, however, at the Battle of Civitate sul Fortore in 1053 by the Normans, united under Humphrey. Humphrey commanded the centre against the pope's Swabian troops. Early in the battle Count Richard of Aversa, commanding the right van, put the Lombards to flight and chased them down, then returned to help rout the Swabians. Guiscard had come all the way from Calabria to command the left. His troops were held in reserve until, seeing Humphrey's forces ineffectually charging the pope's centre, he called up his father-in-law's reinforcements and joined the fray, distinguishing himself personally, even being dismounted and remounting again three separate times, according to William of Apulia. Honored for his actions at Civitate, Guiscard succeeded Humphrey as count of Apulia in 1057, over his elder half-brother Geoffrey. In company with Roger, his youngest brother, Guiscard carried on the conquest of Apulia and Calabria, while Richard conquered the principality of Capua.

    Rule
    Soon after his succession, probably in 1058, Guiscard separated from his wife Alberada because they were related within the prohibited degrees. Shortly after, he married Sichelgaita, the sister of Gisulf II of Salerno, Guaimar's successor. In return for giving him his sister's hand, Gisulf demanded that Guiscard destroy two castles of his brother William, count of the Principate, which had encroached on Gisulf's territory.

    The reformist Papacy, at odds with the Holy Roman Emperor (the Investiture Controversy) and the Roman nobility itself, resolved to recognize the Normans and secure them as allies. Therefore, at the Council of Melfi, on 23 August 1059, Pope Nicholas II invested Guiscard as duke of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily. Guiscard, now "by the Grace of God and St Peter duke of Apulia and Calabria and, if either aid me, future lord of Sicily", agreed to hold his titles and lands by annual rent of the Holy See and to maintain its cause. In the next twenty years he undertook a series of conquests, winning his Sicilian dukedom.

    Subjection of Calabria
    At the time of the opening of the Melfitan council in June, Guiscard had been leading an army in Calabria, the first strong attempt to subjugate that Byzantine province since the campaigns of Iron-Arm with Guaimar. After attending the synod for his investiture, Guiscard returned to Calabria, where his army was besieging Cariati. After his arrival, Cariati submitted and, before winter was out, Rossano and Gerace followed. Only Reggio was left in Byzantine hands when Guiscard returned to Apulia. In Apulia, he worked to remove the Byzantine garrisons from Taranto and Brindisi, before, largely in preparation for his planned Sicilian expedition, he returned again to Calabria, where Roger was waiting with siege engines.

    The fall of Reggio, after a long and arduous siege, and the subsequent capitulation of Scilla, an island citadel to which the Reggian garrison had fled, opened up the way to Sicily. Roger first led a tiny force to attack Messina but was repulsed easily by the Saracen garrison. The large invading force that could have been expected did not materialise, for Guiscard was recalled by a new Byzantine army, sent by Constantine X Doukas, ravaging Apulia. In January 1061, Melfi itself was under siege, and Roger too was recalled. But the full weight of Guiscard's forces forced the Byzantines to retreat and by May Apulia was calm.

    Sicilian campaigns
    Guiscard invaded Sicily with his brother Roger, capturing Messina in 1061 with comparable ease: Roger's men landed unsighted during the night and surprised the Saracen army in the morning, while Guiscard's troops landed unopposed and found Messina abandoned. Guiscard immediately fortified Messina and allied himself with Ibn at-Timnah, one of the rival emirs of Sicily, against Ibn al-Hawas, another emir. The armies of Guiscard, his brother, and his Moslem friend marched into central Sicily by way of Rometta, which had remained loyal to al-Timnah. They passed through Frazzanò and the pianura di Maniace, where George Maniakes and the first Hautevilles had distinguished themselves 21 years prior. Guiscard assaulted the town of Centuripe, but resistance was strong, and he moved on. Paternò fell, and Guiscard brought his army to Enna (then Castrogiovanni), a formidable fortress. The Saracens sallied forth and were defeated, but Enna itself did not fall. Guiscard turned back, leaving a fortress at San Marco d'Alunzio, named after his first stronghold in Calabria. He returned to Apulia with Sichelgaita for Christmas.

    He returned in 1064, but bypassed Enna making straight for Palermo. His campsite was infested with tarantulas, however, and had to be abandoned. The campaign was unsuccessful, though a later campaign, in 1072, saw Palermo fall, and for the rest of Sicily it was only then a matter of time. As a result of his Sicilian campaign, Guiscard was referred to as "Black Shirt Robert" because throughout the campaign he wore elegant clothing with imported dyes that ran together resulting in black clothing.

    Against the Byzantines
    Bari was reduced in April 1071, and Byzantine forces were finally ousted from southern Italy. The territory around Salerno was already held by Guiscard, and in December 1076 he took the city, expelling its Lombard prince Gisulf, whose sister Sichelgaita he had married. The Norman attacks on Benevento, a papal fief, alarmed and angered Pope Gregory VII. Pressured by the emperor, Henry IV, Gregory VII turned again to the Normans, and at Ceprano in June 1080, he reinvested Guiscard, securing him also in the southern Abruzzi, while reserving Salerno.

    In his last enterprise, Guiscard mounted an attack on the Byzantine Empire, taking up the cause of Raiktor, a monk pretending to be Michael VII, who had been deposed in 1078 and to whose son Guiscard's daughter had been betrothed. He sailed with 16,000 men, including 1,300 Norman knights, against the empire in May 1081. He defeated Emperor Alexius I Comnenus at the Battle of Dyrrhachium in October 1081, and by February 1082 he had occupied Corfu and Durazzo. He was recalled to the aid of Gregory VII, however, who was besieged in Castel Sant'Angelo by Henry IV, in June 1083. Also in 1083, Guiscard destroyed the town of Cannae, leaving only the cathedral and bishop's residence. Guiscard was ally to kingdom of Duklja and Constantine Bodin. In 1081 he married his daughter Iaqinta to Bodin in Bari.

    In May 1084, Guiscard marched north with 36,000 men, entered Rome, and forced Henry to retire. A rebellion, or seditious tumult, of the citizens led to a three-day sack of the city, after which Guiscard escorted the pope to Rome. Guiscard's son Bohemund, for a time master of Thessaly, had now lost the Byzantine conquests. Guiscard returned with 150 ships to restore them, and he occupied Corfu and Kefalonia with the help of Ragusa and the Dalmatian cities (which were under the rule of Demetrius Zvonimir of Croatia). On 17 July 1085, Guiscard died of fever at Atheras, north of Lixouri, along with 500 Norman knights. He was buried in the Hauteville family mausoleum of the Abbey of the Santissima Trinità at Venosa. The town of Fiscardo on Kefalonia is named after him.

    Guiscard was succeeded by Roger Borsa, his son by Sichelgaita, as Bohemund, his son by an earlier wife Alberada De Macon (aka Alberada of Buonalbergo), was set aside. Guiscard left two younger sons: Guy of Hauteville and Robert Scalio, neither of whom made any trouble for their elder brothers. At his death Guiscard was duke of Apulia and Calabria, prince of Salerno, and suzerain of Sicily. His successes had been due not only to his great qualities but to the "entente" with the Papal See. He created and enforced a strong ducal power, which was nevertheless met by many baronial revolts, including one in 1078, when he demanded from the Apulian vassals an "aid" on the betrothal of his daughter. In conquering such wide territories he had little time to organize them internally. In the history of the Norman kingdom of Italy, Guiscard remains essentially the hero and founder, though his career ended in "something of a dead end," while his nephew Roger II was the statesman and organizer.

    Religion
    Due to his conquest of Calabria and Sicily, Guiscard was instrumental in bringing Latin Christianity to an area that had historically followed the Byzantine rite. Guiscard laid the foundation of the Salerno Cathedral and of a Norman monastery at Sant'Eufemia in Calabria. This latter monastery, famous for its choir, began as a community of eleven monks from Saint-Evroul in Normandy under the abbot Robert de Grantmesnil.

    Although his relationship with the pope was rocky, Guiscard preferred to be on good terms with the papacy, and he made a gesture of abandoning his first wife in response to church law. While the popes were often fearful of his growing power, they preferred the strong and independent hand of a Catholic Norman to the rule of a Byzantine Greek. Guiscard received his investment with Sicily at the hands of Pope Nicholas II, who feared the opposition of the Holy Roman Emperor to the Papal reforms more. Guiscard supported the reforms, coming to the rescue of a besieged Pope Gregory VII, who had once excommunicated him for encroaching on the territory of the Papal States. After the Great Schism of 1054, the polarized religious atmosphere served to strengthen Guiscard's alliance with papal forces, resulting in a formidable papal-Norman opposition to the Eastern Empire.

    In literature
    In the Divine Comedy, Dante sees Guiscard's spirit in the Heaven of Mars, along with other "warriors of the faith" who exemplify the cardinal virtue of fortitude. In the Inferno, Dante describes Guiscard's enemies as a field of mutilated shades stretching out to the horizon.

    Guiscard was the protagonist of Kleist's verse drama Robert Guiskard, incomplete at the author's death (1811).

    Historical fiction novels covering the early years of the dynasty, from the arrival of the brothers in Italy to the conquest of Sicily, is covered in Jack Ludlow's trilogy Mercenaries, Warriors and Conquest.

    Marriage and issue
    Married in 1051 to Alberada of Buonalbergo (1032 – aft. July 1122)[4] and had:
    Bohemund.
    Emma (b. 1052 or after), married to Odo the Good Marquis

    Married in 1058 or 1059 to Sichelgaita and had:
    Matilda (also Mahalta, Maud, or Maude; 1059 – aft. 1085), married Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona.
    Roger Borsa, duke of Apulia and Calabria
    Mabile, married to William de Grantmesnil.
    Gersent, married to Hugh V of Maine, repudiated.
    Robert Scalio
    Guy, Byzantine sebastos
    Sibylla, married to Ebles de Ramerupt, 4th Count of Roucy and had 8 children.
    Olympias (renamed Helena), betrothed to Constantine Doukas, son of Michael VII in August 1074, contract broken off in 1078.2

Family:

  • Last Edited: 1 Apr 2016

Ramon Berenguer I (?) Count of Barcelona1

M, #9590, b. 1024, d. 26 May 1076

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Ramon Berenguer I (?) Count of Barcelona was born in 1024 in Barcelona, Spain*.1
  • Death*: He died on 26 May 1076 in Spain*.1
  • Biography*: Ramon Berenguer I (1023–1076), called the Old, was Count of Barcelona in 1035–1076. He promulgated the earliest versions of a written code of Catalan law, the Usages of Barcelona.

    Born in 1024, he succeeded his father, Berenguer Ramon I the Crooked in 1035. It was during his reign that the dominant position of Barcelona among the other Catalan counties became evident.

    Ramon Berenguer campaigned against the Moors, extending his dominions as far west as Barbastro and imposing heavy tributes (parias) on other Moorish cities. Historians claim that those tributes helped create the first wave of prosperity in Catalan history. During his reign Catalan maritime power started to be felt in the western Mediterranean. Ramon Berenguer the Old was also the first count of Catalonia to acquire lands (the counties of Carcassonne and Razés) and influence north of the Pyrenees.

    Another major achievement of his was beginning the codification of Catalan law in the written Usatges of Barcelona which was to become the first full compilation of feudal law in Western Europe. Legal codification was part of the count's efforts to forward and somehow control the process of feudalization which started during the reign of his weak father, Berenguer Ramon. Another major contributor was the Church acting through the institution of the Peace and Truce of God. This established a general truce among warring factions and lords in a given region for a given time. The earliest extant date for introducing the Truce of God in Western Europe is 1027 in Catalonia, during the reign of his father, Berenguer Ramon.

    While still married to his second wife Blanca, he became involved with the wife of the Count of Toulouse, Almodis de La Marche, countess of Limoges. Both quickly married and were consequently excommunicated by Pope Victor II.

    Ramon Berenguer I, together with his third wife Almodis, also founded the Romanesque cathedral of Barcelona, to replace the older basilica presumably destroyed by Al-Mansur. Their velvet and brass bound wooden coffins are still displayed in the Gothic cathedral which eventually replaced the cathedral that they founded.

    He was succeeded by his twin sons Ramon Berenguer II and Berenguer Ramon II.

    Family and issue
    First wife, possibly Isabel, daughter of Count Sancho of Gascony
    Berenguer (died young)
    Arnau (died young)
    Pere Ramon (1050-1073?), murdered his father's third wife, Almodis, and was exiled

    Second wife, Blanca of Narbonne, daughter of Wolf Ato Zuberoa and Ermengarda of Narbonne

    Third wife, Almodis de La Marche, countess of Limoges
    Berenguer Ramon II, Count of Barcelona the Fratricide (1053/54-1097)
    Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona the Towhead (1053/54-1082)
    Agnes, married Guigues II of Albon
    Sancha, married William Raymond, count of Cerdanya.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 10 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramon_Berenguer_I,_Count_of_Barcelona.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berenguer_Ramon_I,_Count_of_Barcelona.

Amice Fitz William1

F, #9591, b. circa 1160

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 13 Nov 2016

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_de_Clare,_5th_Earl_of_Gloucester.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p408.htm#i4074

Roger de Montgomery Seigneur of Montgomery1

M, #9592, b. circa 1010, d. 7 February 1055

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Roger de Montgomery Seigneur of Montgomery was born circa 1010 in Normandy, France.1
  • Marriage*: He married Josseline de Pont-Audemer circa 1020 in France.1
  • Death*: Roger de Montgomery Seigneur of Montgomery died on 7 February 1055 in in exile, Paris, Ile-de-France, France.1
  • Biography*: Roger de Montgomery (fl. 1027), seigneur of Montgomery and vicomte of the Hiémois.

    Life
    Roger was the son of Hugh de Montgomery (955-1056) and Sibell De Crepon (1000-1046), both of Normandie, France. Roger was born 975 in Saint-Germain-de-Montgommery, Calvados, Normandy, France. He died on 7 Feb 1055 in Île-de-France, France.

    Roger's wife Josseline de Pont-Audemer was born in 975 in Pont-Audemer, Eure, Haute-Normandie, France. She died in Pont-Audemer on 7 Feb 1050. She was the niece of Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy.

    Roger held the lands of Saint-Germain-de-Montgommery and Sainte-Foy-de-Montgommery, both of which show traces of early castles. He acquired the office of vicomte of the Hiémois probably about the time Robert I became Duke in 1027. In c.?1031–1032 he witnessed a charter to the abbey of St. Wandrille by Robert I, Duke of Normandy as vicomte. Like Duke Robert, Roger began acquiring church properties, among these, c.?1025–27, half the town of Bernay. He took over a wood at 'Crispus Fagidus' which belonged to Jumièges Abbey in the 1030s. He suppressed a market held by the same abbey and transferred it into his own domain. He later returned the market to the abbey and paid restitution for their losses.

    In 1035 at Robert I's death, his great uncle, Robert Archbishop of Rouen ruled Normandy as regent. Roger seems to have lost favor with the young duke as well as his vicomte office as he signed an early charter of Duke William simply as Roger of Montgomery. At the archbishop’s death in 1037, anarchy broke out in Normandy and among the rebels was Roger de Montgomery, formerly one of Duke Robert's closest companions, who, after being defeated in his own territory, fled to the court of Henry I of France. Roger had been forced into exile by Osbern the Steward who was afterwards killed by William de Montgomery, Roger's son. Roger died on February 7th 1055 in exile in Paris, Ile-de-France, France. In 1068 his wife was still holding lands at Bures and Saint-Pair.

    Family
    Interpolating William of Jumièges provides the names of their five sons:
    Hugh de Montgomery
    Robert de Montgomery
    Roger II de Montgomery, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury
    William de Montgomery killed during the minority of duke William
    Gilbert de Montgomery who in 1063 was claimed by Orderic to have been poisoned by Mabel de Bellême.1
  • Last Edited: 24 May 2016

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_de_Montgomery,_seigneur_of_Montgomery.

Josseline de Pont-Audemer1

F, #9593, b. 975, d. 7 February 1050

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 14 Apr 2016

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_de_Montgomery,_seigneur_of_Montgomery.

Hugh de Montgomery1

M, #9594, b. 955, d. 1056

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family:

  • Last Edited: 24 May 2016

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_de_Montgomery,_seigneur_of_Montgomery.

Sibell de Crepon1

F, #9595, b. 1000, d. 1046

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 24 May 2016

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_de_Montgomery,_seigneur_of_Montgomery.

Uhtread the Bold (?) Ealdorman of all Northumbria1

M, #9596, b. circa 950, d. 1016

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Uhtread the Bold (?) Ealdorman of all Northumbria was born circa 950 in England*.1
  • Marriage*: He married Ecgfrida (?), daughter of Aldhun (?) Bishop of Durham, circa 1000 in England*.3
  • Marriage*: Uhtread the Bold (?) Ealdorman of all Northumbria married Aelfgifu (?), daughter of Aethelred II (?) King of England and Aelfgifu (?) of York, before 1016.4
  • Death*: Uhtread the Bold (?) Ealdorman of all Northumbria died in 1016 in England*.1
  • Biography*: Uchtred or Uhtred, called the Bold, (d. 1016) was the ealdorman of all Northumbria from 1006 to 1016, when he was assassinated. He was the son of Waltheof I, ealdorman of Bamburgh, whose ancient family had ruled from the castle of Bamburgh on the Northumbrian coast.

    Life
    In 995, according to Symeon of Durham, when the remains of St Cuthbert were transferred from Chester-le-Street to Durham, Uhtred helped the monks clear the site of the new cathedral. The new cathedral was founded by Bishop Aldhun, and Uhtred married Aldhun's daughter, Ecgfrida, probably at about this time. From his marriage he received several estates that had belonged to the church.

    In 1006 Malcolm II of Scotland invaded Northumbria and besieged the newly founded episcopal city of Durham. At that time the Danes were raiding southern England and King Ethelred was unable to send help to the Northumbrians. Ealdorman Waltheof was too old to fight and remained in his castle at Bamburgh. Ealdorman Ælfhelm of York also took no action. Uhtred, acting for his father, called together an army from Bernicia and Yorkshire and led it against the Scots. The result was a decisive victory for Uhtred. Local women washed the severed heads of the Scots, receiving a payment of a cow for each, and the heads were fixed on stakes to Durham's walls. Uhtred was rewarded by King Ethelred II with the ealdormanry of Bamburgh even though his father was still alive. In the mean time, Ethelred had Ealdorman Ælfhelm of York murdered, and he allowed Uhtred to succeed Ælfhelm as ealdorman of York, thus uniting northern and southern Northumbria under the house of Bamburgh. It seems likely that Ethelred did not trust the Scandinavian population of southern Northumbria and wanted an Anglo-Saxon in power there.

    After receiving these honours Uhtred dismissed his wife, Ecgfrida, and married Sige, daughter of Styr, son of Ulf. Styr was a rich citizen of York. It appears that Uhtred was trying to make political allies amongst the Danes in Deira. Through Sige, Uhtred had two children, Eadulf, later Eadulf III, and Gospatric. This Gospatric's grandson was the infamous Eadwulf Rus who murdered Bishop Walcher.

    In 1013 King Sweyn of Denmark invaded England, sailing up the Humber and Trent to the town of Gainsborough. Uhtred submitted to him there, as did all of the Danes in the north. In the winter of 1013 Ethelred was forced into exile in Normandy. After London had finally submitted to him, Sweyn was accepted as king by Christmas 1013. However he only reigned for five weeks, for he died at, or near, Gainsborough on 2 February 1014. At Sweyn’s death, Ethelred was able to return from exile and resume his reign. Uhtred, along with many others, transferred his allegiance back to Ethelred, on his return. Uhtred also married Ethelred’s daughter Ælfgifu about this time.

    In 1016 Uhtred campaigned with Ethelred's son Edmund Ironside in Cheshire and the surrounding shires. While Uhtred was away from his lands, Sweyn's son, Cnut, invaded Yorkshire. Cnut's forces were too strong for Uhtred to fight, and so Uhtred did homage to him as King of England. Uhtred was summoned to a meeting with Cnut, and on the way there, he and forty of his men were murdered by Thurbrand the Hold, with assistance from Uhtred's own servant, Wighill and with the connivance of Cnut. Uhtred was succeeded in Bernicia by his brother Eadwulf Cudel. Cnut made the Norwegian, Eric of Hlathir, ealdorman ("earl" in Scandinavian terms) in southern Northumbria.

    The killing of Uhtred by Thurbrand the Hold started a blood feud that lasted for many years. Uhtred's son Ealdred subsequently avenged his father by killing Thurbrand, but Ealdred in turn was killed by Thurbrand's son, Carl. Ealdred's vengeance had to wait until the 1070s, when Waltheof, Ealdred’s grandson had his soldiers kill most of Carl's sons and grandsons. This is an example of the notorious Northumbrian blood feuds that were common at this time.

    Uhtred's dynasty continued to reign in Bernicia through Ealdred, Earl of Bamburgh (killed 1038) his son from his marriage to Ecgfrida, and Eadulf (killed 1041) his son from his marriage to Sige, and briefly Eadulf's son Osulf held the earldom of northern Northumbria 1067 until he too was killed. Eadulf's brother Cospatric began the Swinton Family dynasty, his son Eadulf Rus famously murdering William Walcher, Bishop of Durham which led to William the Conqueror sending an army northwards to harry the region again. Uhtred’s marriage to Ælfgifu produced a daughter, Ealdgyth, who married Maldred, brother of Duncan I of Scotland and who gave birth to a son, Gospatric, who was Earl of Northumbria from 1068 to 1072.

    Fiction
    In Bernard Cornwell's series The Saxon Stories the protagonist is Earl Uhtred of Bebbanburg, also from Northumbria. The story of the siege of Durham and the severed heads on poles is told about the historical Uhtred (see Battles of the Dark Ages, Peter Marren), though it is perhaps possible to assume that the fictional Earl Uhtred of Bebbanburg is an ancestor of this Uhtred.

    In Bernard Cornwell's series he adds a 'historical note' at the end, in which, especially in the first book, he mentions that Uhtred was his ancestor. He took the liberty of installing Uhtred earlier in history.

    Adrian Mourby's two Radio Plays, The Corsaint (c.1986) and its sequel, The King of the North Rides his Horse through the Sky (1992) provide convincing dramatic realisations of these historical events. They were broadcast by BBC Radio 4.1

Family 1: Ecgfrida (?) b. c 975

Family 2: Aelfgifu (?) b. bt 991 - 1002

  • Last Edited: 14 Sep 2016

Ecgfrida (?)1

F, #9597, b. circa 975

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 15 Apr 2016

Aldhun (?) Bishop of Durham1

M, #9598, b. circa 950, d. circa 1018

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Aldhun (?) Bishop of Durham was born circa 950 in England*.1
  • Death*: He died circa 1018 in Durham, England*.1
  • Biography*: Aldhun of Durham (died 1018 or 1019), also known as Ealdhun, was the last Bishop of Lindisfarne (based at Chester-le-Street) and the first Bishop of Durham. He was of "noble descent".

    Since the late 9th century the see of Lindisfarne was based at Chester-le-Street because of constant attacks from invading Danes. However, in 994 King Æthelred II of England had paid a Danegeld (protection money) to King Sweyn I of Denmark and King Olaf I of Norway in return for peace. The pay-off worked and there followed a period of freedom from Viking raids. This encouraged Aldhun to return the remains of Cuthbert of Lindisfarne to their original resting place at Lindisfarne, and to reinstate the diocese there.

    En route to their destination however Aldhun claimed to have received a vision from Cuthbert saying that the saint's remains should be laid to rest at Durham. The monks detoured then to Durham, and the title Bishop of Lindisfarne was transferred to Bishop of Durham. The removal of the see from Chester-le-Street to Durham took place in 995. Symeon of Durham is the main source for the moving of the see, and he states that Uhtred the Bold helped the monks clear the site of the new cathedral, which was consecrated in 998.

    Aldhun was a bishop for 24 years, which puts his death in 1018 or 1019. He was said to have died of heartbreak because of the defeat of the Northumbrians by the Scots at the battle of Carham.

    Aldhun's daughter Ecgfrida married first Uhtred the Bold who was Earl of Northumbria from 1006 to 1016. After he repudiated her, she married a northern thegn Kilvert. The marriage probably took place close to the time when Uhtred helped her father move the see to Durham. Their son Ealdred was the grandfather of Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria.1

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  • Last Edited: 15 Apr 2016

Waltheof (?) of Bamburgh1

M, #9599, b. before 994, d. after 1006

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Waltheof (?) of Bamburgh was born before 994 in Bamburgh, England*.1
  • Death*: He died after 1006 in Bamburgh, England*.1
  • Biography*: Waltheof was high-reeve or ealdorman of Bamburgh (fl. 994). He was the son of Osulf I and father of Uhtred the Bold, Ealdorman of Northumbria. His name is Scandinavian and implies that he had Viking ancestors.

    The name 'Waltheof' remained in his family when Earl Siward married his great-granddaughter and named his son Waltheof. This son of Siward became Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria, and one of his descendant being Saint Waltheof of Melrose.

    Additionally, another branch of the family would use the Waltheof name including: Waltheof of Allerdale who was son of Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria. Waltheof of Inverkeithing and Dalmeny was son of Cospatric, and grandson of Waltheof of Allerdale. Another descendant of Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria was Waltheof, Earl of Dunbar.

    Genealogical research provides a thesis that there is a high probability that Waltheof de Strachan is likely descendant from this line as well. Walthoef de Strachan is the progenitor of Clan Strachan.

    In 1006 Malcolm II of Scotland invaded Northumbria and besieged the newly founded episcopal city of Durham. At that time the Danes were raiding southern England and King Ethelred was unable to send help to the Northumbrians. Ealdorman Waltheof was too old to fight and remained in his castle at Bamburgh. Ealdorman Ælfhelm of York also took no action. Waltheof's son Uhtred, acting for his father, called together an army from Bernicia and Yorkshire and led it against the Scots. The result was a decisive victory for Uhtred. Local women washed the severed heads of the Scots, receiving a payment of a cow for each, and the heads were fixed on stakes to Durham's walls. Uhtred was rewarded by King Ethelred II with the ealdormanry of Bamburgh even though his father was still alive.1
  • Last Edited: 17 Apr 2016

Osulf I (?) of Bamburgh1

M, #9600, b. before 946

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Osulf I (?) of Bamburgh was born before 946 in England*.1
  • Biography*: Osulf (fl. 946—54) was high-reeve of Bamburgh and ruler of Northumbria. Sometimes called "earl", he is more surely the first recorded high-reeve of Bamburgh and the man who, after assisting in the death of its last independent ruler Erik Bloodaxe, administered the York-based Kingdom of Northumbria when it was taken over by the Wessex-based King Eadred of England in 954.

    Origins
    Osulf appears at least 5 times in witness lists for charters, some of which may be genuine, in the years 946, 949, and 950. In 946 and 949 he witnessed charters as "high reeve" In 949 he witnessed an Evesham grant as well as a grant by King Eadred to Canterbury Cathedral as dux. And in 950 an Osulf Bebbanburg is alleged to have witnessed as Earl.
    He is the first man specifically designated "high-reeve" of Bamburgh. High-reeve is Old English heah-gerefa, which Alfred Smyth thought was influenced by the Scottish word mormaer, which possibly has the same meaning ("High Steward"). Judging by the North People's Law, a high-reeve was not the same as an ealdorman (dux), having only half an ealdorman's wergild.

    Osulf's origins are unclear. A genealogy in the text De Northumbria post Britannos, recording the ancestry of Waltheof Earl of Northampton (and, briefly, Northumbria), suggests that Osulf was the son of Eadulf of Bamburgh, the ?King of the Northern English? who died in 913. Richard Fletcher and David Rollason thought he might be the Osulf Dux who had witnessed charters further south in the 930s, which if true would extend Osulf's floruit back to 934.

    Erik Bloodaxe and domination of all Northumbria
    Though Eadulf and Ealdred appear to have ruled Northumbria, in the years running up to 954 the kingdom was controlled by the Scandinavians Amlaíb Cuarán and Eric Bloodaxe. According to Roger of Wendover's Flores historiarum (early 13th century), Osulf was responsible for a conspiracy with a certain Maccus that led to the betrayal and death of Eric Bloodaxe, King of Northumbria, "in a certain lonely place called Stainmore".

    Following this, Osulf is said to have taken control of all Northumbria. Although this part of the Flores historiarum was compiled centuries later and contains some obvious anachronisms, Roger of Wendover appears to have used certain earlier sources, no longer extant, which would add credibility to the story. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names King Eadred as the new ruler of Northumbria following the expulsion of Erik:
    Her Norðhymbre fordrifon Yric, 7 Eadred feng to Norðhymbra rice
    In this year the Northumbrians drove out Eric and Eadred succeeded to the kingdom".

    This is why Richard Fletcher thinks Osulf was working at Eadred's instigation, and that a grateful Eadred promoted Osulf ruler of the entire Northumbrian sub-kingdom. However he got there, it was with Eadred's consent and overlordship, at least according to our sources. De primo Saxonum adventu summarises his status as follows:
    Primus comitum post Eiricum, quem ultimum regem habuerunt Northymbrenses, Osulf provincias omnes Northanhymbrorum sub Edrido rege procuravit.
    First of the earls after Erik, the last king whom the Northumbrians had, Osulf administered under King Eadred all the provinces of the Northumbrians.

    Similar sentiments were expressed in the related Historia Regum: "Here the kings of Northumbrians came to an end and henceforth the provinces was administered by earls". Eadred's takeover and Osulf's rule thus represent the beginning of permanent West Saxon control of the North. Historian Alex Woolf argued that this take-over was a personal union of crowns rather like that between Scotland and England in 1603.

    Death and legacy
    Little else is known about Osulf's period in power. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says that in the time of Ildulb mac Causantín (954—62), Edinburgh was abandoned to the Scots, though nothing is said about the involvement of Northumbrians or Osulf.

    The date of Osulf's death is not known. He was probably dead before 963, as that is the date Oslac appears for the first time as ealdorman in York. It is unclear whether Oslac was related to Osulf. According to the De primo Saxonum adventu, Northumbria was divided into two parts after Osulf's death. De Northumbria post Britannos says that Osulf had a son named Ealdred, father of Waltheof of Bamburgh (fl. 994), father of Uhtred of Northumbria.1





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  • Last Edited: 17 Apr 2016