Sir John de Gordon Lord of Gordon1

M, #9301, b. circa 1325

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Elizabeth Cruickshanks b. c 1325

  • Last Edited: 5 Apr 2015

Elizabeth Cruickshanks1

F, #9302, b. circa 1325

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 5 Apr 2015

Henry III (?) Duke of Brabant1

M, #9303, b. circa 1230, d. 28 February 1261

Henry III
Duke of Brabant
Duke of Lothier
Imperial Vicar

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Henry III (?) Duke of Brabant was born circa 1230 in Brabant, Belgium*.1
  • Marriage*: He married Adelaide (?) of Burgundy, daughter of Hugh IV (?) Duke of Burgundy and Yolande (?) of Dreux, Dutchess of Burgundy, circa 1254 in Brabant, Belgium*.4
  • Death*: Henry III (?) Duke of Brabant died on 28 February 1261 in Leuven, Brabant, Belgium*.1
  • Biography*: Henry III of Brabant (c. 1230 – February 28, 1261, Leuven) was Duke of Brabant between 1248 and his death. He was the son of Henry II of Brabant and Marie of Hohenstaufen.

    The disputed territory of Lothier, the former Duchy of Lower Lorraine, was assigned to him by the German King Alfonso X of Castile. Alfonso also appointed him Imperial Vicar to advance his claims on the Holy Roman Empire.

    In 1251, he married Adelaide of Burgundy (c. 1233 – October 23, 1273), daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy and Yolande de Dreux, by whom he had four children:
    Henry IV, Duke of Brabant (c. 1251 – aft. 1272) Mentally handicapped, and made to abdicate in favor of his brother John on 24 May 1267.
    John I, Duke of Brabant (1253–1294) Married first to Marguerite of France, daughter of King Louis IX of France (Saint Louis) and his wife Margaret of Provence, and later to Margaret of Flanders, daughter of Guy, Count of Flanders and his first wife Mathilda of Béthune.
    Godfrey of Brabant, Lord of Aarschot (d. July 11, 1302, Kortrijk), killed at the Battle of the Golden Spurs, married 1277 Jeanne Isabeau de Vierzon (d. aft. 1296)
    Maria of Brabant (1256, Leuven – January 12, 1321, Murel), married at Vincennes on August 27, 1274 to King Philip III of France.

    He also had two illegitimate sons:
    John Lyngwood (+1289)
    Gilles, ancestor of the van der Balch family.
    Composed several pieces of music, among them "Amors m'est u cuer entree" and "Se kascuns del monde savoit".1

Family: Adelaide (?) of Burgundy b. c 1233, d. 23 Oct 1273

  • Last Edited: 5 Apr 2015

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III,_Duke_of_Brabant.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_II,_Duke_of_Brabant.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10686.htm#i106853
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adelaide_of_Burgundy,_Duchess_of_Brabant.

Adelaide (?) of Burgundy1

F, #9304, b. circa 1233, d. 23 October 1273

Adelaide of Burgundy

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: Adelaide of Burgundy (c. 1233 – 23 October 1273) was a daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, by his first wife Yolande of Dreux. She was a member of the House of Burgundy.

    Family
    Adelaide's brother was Robert II, Duke of Burgundy, he succeeded their father upon his death in 1270. Adelaide's eldest brother was Odo, Count of Nevers, but he died in 1266, therefore he never inherited the duchy.

    Her paternal grandparents were Odo III, Duke of Burgundy, and Alice of Vergy. Her maternal grandparents were Robert III of Dreux and Aénor of Saint-Valéry.

    Marriage
    In 1251, Adelaide married Henry III, Duke of Brabant (c. 1230 – 28 February 1261, Leuven), he was the son of Henry II, Duke of Brabant, and Marie of Hohenstaufen. The couple had four children, all of whom lived to adulthood,
    Henry IV, Duke of Brabant (c. 1251 – after 1272)
    John I, Duke of Brabant (1253–1294)
    Godfrey of Brabant, Lord of Aarschot (died 11 July 1302, Kortrijk), killed at the Battle of the Golden Spurs, married in 1277 Jeanne Isabeau de Vierzon (died after 1296)
    Maria of Brabant (1256, Leuven – 12 January 1321, Murel), married at Vincennes on 27 August 1274 to King Philip III of France.
    Adelaide's husband died in 1261, and Adelaide died in 1273, aged forty years.1
  • Birth*: Adelaide (?) of Burgundy was born circa 1233 in Burgundy, France*.1
  • Marriage*: She married Henry III (?) Duke of Brabant, son of Henry II (?) Duke of Brabant and Marie (?) of Hohenstaufen, circa 1254 in Brabant, Belgium*.1
  • Death*: Adelaide (?) of Burgundy died on 23 October 1273 in Brabant, Belgium*.1

Family: Henry III (?) Duke of Brabant b. c 1230, d. 28 Feb 1261

  • Last Edited: 5 Apr 2015

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adelaide_of_Burgundy,_Duchess_of_Brabant.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_IV,_Duke_of_Burgundy.
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yolande_of_Dreux,_Duchess_of_Burgundy.

Henry II (?) Duke of Brabant1,2

M, #9305, b. 1207, d. 1 February 1248

Henry II
Duke of Brabant
Duke of Lothier

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Henry II (?) Duke of Brabant was born in 1207 in Brabant, Belgium*.1
  • Marriage*: He married Marie (?) of Hohenstaufen, daughter of Phillip von Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia and Irene (?) of Constantinople, circa 1230 in Holland*.3,4
  • Death*: Henry II (?) Duke of Brabant died on 1 February 1248 in Leuven, Brabant, Belgium*.1
  • Biography*: Henry II of Brabant (French: Henri II de Brabant, Dutch: Hendrik II van Brabant, 1207 – February 1, 1248) was Duke of Brabant and Lothier after the death of his father Henry I in 1235. His mother was Mathilde of Flanders.

    Henry II supported his sister Mathilde's son, William II, Count of Holland, in the latter's bid for election as German King.

    Family and children[edit]
    His first marriage was to Marie of Hohenstaufen (April 3, 1207–1235, Leuven), daughter of Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. They had six children:
    Henry III, Duke of Brabant (d. 1261)
    Philip, died young
    Matilda of Brabant (1224 – September 29, 1288), married:
    in Compiègne June 14, 1237 to Robert I of Artois;
    before May 31, 1254 to Guy II of Châtillon, Count of Saint Pol.
    Beatrix (1225 – November 11, 1288), married:
    at Kreuzburg March 10, 1241, Heinrich Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia;
    in Leuven November 1247 to William III of Dampierre, Count of Flanders (1224 – June 6, 1251).
    Maria of Brabant (c. 1226 – January 18, 1256, Donauwörth), married Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria. She was beheaded by her husband on suspicion of infidelity.
    Margaret (d. March 14, 1277), Abbess of Herzogenthal.

    His second marriage was to Sophie of Thuringia (March 20, 1224 – May 29, 1275), daughter of Ludwig IV of Thuringia and Elisabeth of Hungary by whom he had two children:
    Henry (1244–1308), created Landgrave of Hesse in 1264.
    Elizabeth (1243 – October 9, 1261), married Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
    Henry died in Leuven, aged about 40.1

Family: Marie (?) of Hohenstaufen b. 3 Apr 1207, d. 1235

  • Last Edited: 10 Mar 2016

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_II,_Duke_of_Brabant.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10686.htm#i106853
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adelaide_of_Burgundy,_Duchess_of_Brabant.
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11343.htm
  5. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matilda_of_Brabant,_Countess_of_Artois.

Marie (?) of Hohenstaufen1

F, #9306, b. 3 April 1207, d. 1235

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name Variation: Marie (?) of Hohenstaufen was also known as Maria (?) of Swabia.4
  • Birth*: She was born on 3 April 1207 in Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy*.4
  • Marriage*: She married Henry II (?) Duke of Brabant circa 1230 in Holland*.5,6
  • Death*: Marie (?) of Hohenstaufen died in 1235 in Leuven, Holland*.1
  • Biography*: Maria of Hohenstaufen (3 April 1201 – 29 March 1235) was a member of the powerful Hohenstaufen dynasty of German kings which lasted from 1138 to 1254. She is also known to history as Marie of Swabia.

    She was the third daughter of Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina of Byzantium, and her husband was Henry II, Duke of Brabant and Lothier. As she had died six months before her husband succeeded to the dukedom, Maria was never Duchess of Brabant and Lothier.

    Maria of Hohenstaufen was born in Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy on 3 April 1201. Her paternal grandparents were Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor and Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy, and her mother's parents were Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos and his first wife Herina.

    Emperor Frederick II was her first cousin.

    In 1208, at the age of seven, Maria was left an orphan by the unexpected deaths of her parents. On 21 June, her father was murdered by Otto of Wittelsbach, and two months later her mother died after giving birth to a daughter, who did not live beyond early infancy. Maria had three surviving sisters.

    Siblings
    Beatrice of Hohenstaufen (1198–1212), married Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor. The marriage was childless.
    Cunigunde of Hohenstaufen (1200–1248), married in 1228 King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, by whom she had issue.
    Elizabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203 – 5 November 1235), married in 1219 King Ferdinand III of Castile, by whom she had issue, including King Alfonso X of Castile. She was his first wife. Ferdinand married his second wife Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu before August 1237, by whom he had issue, including Eleanor of Castile, Queen consort of King Edward I of England.

    Marriage and issue
    Sometime before 22 August 1215, she married as his first wife Henry, heir to the Duchy of Brabant (present-day Belgium) and Lothier. They had six children, and through them, Maria is the ancestress of every royal house in Europe:
    Matilda of Brabant (14 June 1224 – 29 September 1288), married firstly, Robert I of Artois, by whom she had two children, Robert II of Artois and Blanche of Artois; she married secondly Guy III, Count of Saint-Pol, by whom she had six children.
    Beatrix of Brabant (1225 – 11 November 1288), married firstly Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia, and secondly William III of Dampierre. She died childless.
    Maria of Brabant (c. 1226 – 18 January 1256), married Louis II, Duke of Bavaria. She was beheaded by her husband on suspicion of infidelity.
    Margaret of Brabant (died 14 March 1277), Abbess of Herzogenthal.
    Henry III, Duke of Brabant (c. 1230 – 28 February 1261), married Adelaide of Burgundy (c. 1233 – 23 October 1273), daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, by whom he had issue, including Henry IV, Duke of Brabant, John I, Duke of Brabant, and Maria of Brabant, Queen consort of King Philip III of France.
    Philip of Brabant, died young.

    Death
    Maria of Hohenstaufen died on 29 March 1235 in Leuven, Brabant, five days before her thirty-fourth birthday. Less than six months later, her husband succeeded his father as Duke of Brabant and Lothier.

    In 1241, Henry married his second wife, Sophie of Thuringia, the daughter of Ludwig IV of Thuringia and Elisabeth of Hungary. The marriage produced two children: Henry I, Landgrave of Hesse and Elizabeth of Brabant, who married Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Sophie was the only wife of Henry to be styled Duchess of Brabant and Lothier.4

Family: Henry II (?) Duke of Brabant b. 1207, d. 1 Feb 1248

  • Last Edited: 15 May 2015

Giselbert (?) Duke of Burgundy1

M, #9307, b. circa 890, d. 8 April 956

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: Gilbert of Chalon or Giselbert (died April 8, 956) was count of Chalon, Autun, Troyes, Avallon and Dijon, and duke of Burgundy between 952 and 956. He ruled Burgundy jure uxoris, his wife Ermengarde being of the family of Richard the Justiciar. By her he had two daughters: Adelais and Liutgarde. Gilbert never managed to maintain the independence of the duchy in the struggles for power of 10th century France. In 955, he became a vassal of Hugh the Great, count of Paris and married his oldest daughter, Lieutgard, to Hugh's son Otto of Paris.1
  • Birth*: Giselbert (?) Duke of Burgundy was born circa 890 in Burgundy, France*.1
  • Death*: He died on 8 April 956 in France*.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 26 Apr 2015

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert,_Duke_of_Burgundy.

Baldwinus III Graaf Van Vlaanderen Comte d'Artois Boulogne Ternois et Saint-Pol1

M, #9308, b. circa 940, d. 1 November 962

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Baldwinus III Graaf Van Vlaanderen Comte d'Artois Boulogne Ternois et Saint-Pol was born circa 940 in France*.1
  • Death*: He died on 1 November 962 in France*.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 26 Apr 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10591.htm#i105909
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10591.htm#i105908

Arnulf III (?) Count of Boulogne1

M, #9309, b. circa 960, d. circa 990

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Arnulf III (?) Count of Boulogne was born circa 960 in France*.3
  • Death*: He died circa 990 in France*.3
  • Biography*: Arnulf III of Boulogne († 990) was a son of Arnulf II, Count of Boulogne. He succeeded his father as count of Boulogne from 971 to 990. On his death his lands were divided between his 3 sons:
    Baldwin got Boulogne
    Arnulf got Ternois
    a third son got Thérouanne.3

Family:

  • Last Edited: 26 Apr 2015

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_II,_Count_of_Boulogne.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnulf_II,_Count_of_Boulogne.
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnulf_III,_Count_of_Boulogne.

Arnulf II (?) Count of Boulogne1

M, #9310, b. circa 925, d. circa 971

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: Arnulf II of Boulogne († 971) was a son of Count Adalolf. He succeeded as Count of Boulogne in 964 after the death of his uncle Arnulf I, and held it until 971. He was the father of Arnulf III, Count of Boulogne.1
  • Birth*: Arnulf II (?) Count of Boulogne was born circa 925 in France*.1
  • Death*: He died circa 971 in France*.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 26 Apr 2015

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnulf_II,_Count_of_Boulogne.
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adelolf,_Count_of_Boulogne.

Adelof (?) Count of Boulogne1

M, #9311, b. circa 900, d. circa 933

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: Adelolf, Count of Boulogne († 933), was a younger brother of Arnulf I, Count of Flanders and was given the County of Boulogne by his father.

    He was a son of Baldwin II, Count of Flanders, and of Ælfthryth, daughter of Alfred the Great. He was probably named for his maternal great-grandfather, King Æthelwulf of Wessex. Baldwin II's extensive lands and many offices in what is now the north of modern France and the west of Belgium were divided among his sons on his death in 918. The elder, Arnulf, became Count of Flanders while Adelolf succeeded his father as count of Saint-Pol, Count of Boulogne and of Thérouanne. He was also the lay abbot of the Abbey of Saint Bertinus (Saint-Bertin) at Saint-Omer.

    In 926 Adelolf was sent as an ambassador to his maternal first cousin King Æthelstan of England by Count Hugh the Great, effective ruler of northern France under Rudolph, Duke of Burgundy, who had been elected king of France in 923. Adelolf was to seek the English king's agreement to a marriage between Hugh and another of Æthelstan's sisters. Among the lavish gifts sent to Æthelstan, an avid collector of relics, were said to be the sword of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great and the Holy Lance. The embassy was a success and Hugh was married to Æthelstan's half-sister Eadhild. In 933, Æthelstan's half-brother Edwin was drowned and his body cast ashore. Adelolf received the body of his kinsman with honour and took it to the Abbey of Saint Bertin for burial.

    Adelolf was the father of Arnulf II, Count of Boulogne († 971), and of an illegitimate son named Baldwin (died 973) who was guardian of Arnulf II, Count of Flanders. Adelolf died in 933. He was buried at Saint-Bertin.1
  • Birth*: Adelof (?) Count of Boulogne was born circa 900 in France*.1
  • Death*: He died circa 933 in France*.1
  • Burial*: He was buried in 933 in Saint-Bertin, France*.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 26 Apr 2015

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adelolf,_Count_of_Boulogne.

Magnus VI Haakonsson King of Norway1

M, #9312, b. 1 May 1238, d. 9 May 1280

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: Magnus Haakonsson (Old Norse: Magnús Hákonarson, Norwegian: Magnus Håkonsson; 1 May 1238 – 9 May 1280) was King of Norway (as Magnus VI) from 1263 to 1280 (junior king from 1257).[1] One of his greatest achievements was his modernisation and nationalisation of the Norwegian law-code, after which he is known as Magnus the Law-mender (Old Norse: Magnús lagabœtir, Norwegian: Magnus Lagabøte). He was the first Norwegian monarch known to personally have used an ordinal number, although originally counting himself as "IV".

    Early life
    He was the youngest son of King Håkon Håkonsson and his wife Margaret Skuladotter. He was born in Tunsberg and was baptised in May 1238. He spent most of his upbringing in Bergen. In 1257 his older brother Håkon died, leaving Magnus the heir-apparent to the kingdom. His father gave him the title of king the same year. On 11 September 1261, he married the Danish princess Ingeborg, the daughter of the late Danish King Erik Plogpenning, after she was practically abducted by King Håkon's men from the monastery she was living in. The struggle to claim Ingeborg's inheritance from her murdered father later involved Norway in intermittent conflicts with Denmark for decades to come. Magnus and Ingeborg were crowned directly after their marriage, and Magnus was given Ryfylke for his personal upkeep. On 16 December 1263 King Håkon died while fighting the Scottish king over the Hebrides, and Magnus became the ruler of Norway.

    Reign
    Foreign policy
    Magnus' rule brought about a change from the somewhat aggressive foreign policy of his father. In 1266 he gave up the Hebrides and the Isle of Man to Scotland, in return for a large sum of silver and a yearly payment, under the Treaty of Perth, by which the Scots at the same time recognised Norwegian rule over Shetland and the Orkney Islands. In 1269 the Treaty of Winchester cemented good relations with the English king Henry III. Magnus also seems to have had good relations with the Swedish King Valdemar Birgersson, and in the 1260s, the border with Sweden was officially defined for the first time. When Valdemar was deposed by his two brothers and fled to Norway in 1275, this stirred Magnus into gathering a leidang-fleet for the first and only time in his reign. With a large fleet, he met with the new Swedish King Magnus Ladulås to try to bring about a settlement between the two brothers, but without success, Magnus of Sweden would not give in to pressure and the Magnus of Norway retreated without engaging in hostile actions.

    Internal policies
    In internal politics, Magnus carried out a great effort to modernise the law-code, which gave him his epithet law-mender. These were adopted at the Things in the years 1274 (Landslov) and 1276 (Byloven). In 1274 he promulgated the new national law, a unified code of laws to apply for the whole country, including the Faroe Islands and Shetland. This replaced the different regional laws which had existed before. It was supplemented by a new municipal law (a law for the cities) in 1276, and a slightly modified version was also drawn up for Iceland. A unified code of laws for a whole country was at this time something quite new, which had until then only been introduced in Sicily and Castile. His code introduced the concept that crime is an offense against the state rather than against the individual and thus narrowed the possibilities of personal vengeance. It increased the formal power of the king, making the throne the source of justice. The municipal law gave the cities increased freedom from rural control. A specific section fixed the law of succession to the throne, in accordance with the arrangements laid down by King Håkon Håkonsson in 1260.

    The royal succession was an important and prickly matter, the last of the civil wars, fought for decades over disputed successions to the throne, having finally ended only in 1240. In 1273 Magnus gave his eldest son, five-year-old Eirik, the name of king, and his younger brother Håkon the title of duke, thus making unequivocally clear what the royal succession would be.

    Although Magnus was by all accounts a personally very pious king, his work with the law-codes brought him into conflict with the archbishop, who resisted temporal authority over the church, and sought to preserve the church's influence over the kingdom. The Tønsberg Concord (Sættargjerden in Tønsberg) signed in 1277 between King Magnus and Jon Raude, Archbishop of Nidaros, confirmed certain privileges of the clergy, the freedom of episcopal elections and similar matters. The church preserved considerable independence in judicial matters, but gave up its old claim that the Norwegian kingdom was a fief under the ultimate authority of the Catholic Church.

    In cultural terms Magnus continued his father's policy of introducing European courtly culture to Norway. In 1277 he replaced the old Norse titles lendmann and skutilsvein with the European titles baron and riddar (knight), at the same time giving them certain extra privileges and the right to be addressed as lord (herra). Magnus is probably also the first Norwegian king to have named himself using an ordinal number - he called himself "Magnus IV" (he did not count Magnus Haraldsson (II) and Magnus Sigurdsson (IV)). Immediately after his father's death, he commissioned the Icelander Sturla Þórðarson to write his father's saga, or biography. In 1278, he commissioned the same man to write his own saga. The Saga of Magnus the lawmender (Magnúss saga lagabœtis) thus became the last of the medieval Norwegian kings' sagas; unfortunately only a short fragment of it has been preserved.

    Death and aftermath

    In the spring of 1280, Magnus fell ill in Bergen and died 9 May. He had already planned to have his son Eirik crowned at midsummer as co-ruler, instead Eirik now took over as sole king at the age of 12. Real power fell to a circle of advisors, prominent among them Magnus' queen Ingeborg. Magnus was remembered as a good ruler, who ruled by law rather than by the sword. Some modern historians have considered him a weak king, for giving up the Hebrides and giving in to demands of the church, but others consider these wise policies, sparing the kingdom unnecessary and unfruitful wars abroad, while preserving stability at home. Magnus was buried in the church of the Franciscan monastery in Bergen, which has since the 16th century been the Bergen Cathedral (Bergen Domkirke).1
  • Birth*: Magnus VI Haakonsson King of Norway was born on 1 May 1238 in Norway*.1
  • Death*: He died on 9 May 1280 in Norway* at age 42.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 26 Apr 2015

Adrian (?) Count of Orleans1

M, #9313, b. circa 770, d. before November 821

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  • Birth*: Adrian (?) Count of Orleans was born circa 770 in France*.1
  • Marriage*: He married Waldrada (?) of Autun circa 790 in France*.1
  • Death*: Adrian (?) Count of Orleans died before November 821 in France*.1
  • Biography*: Adrian of Orléans (d. before November 821) was a Frankish count. His sister Hildegard of Vinzgouw married Charlemagne; therefore, he was the emperor's brother-in-law.

    Parentage
    He was the son of Gerold of Vinzgau and Emma of Alemannia.

    Family
    He married Waldrada, who may have been a daughter of Wilhelmid Adalhelm of Autun, and had issue:
    Odo I, Count of Orleans (d. aft. 15 Feb 834), who married Engeltrude of Fézensac, daughter of Count Leuthard I of Paris.
    Waldrada who married Robert III of Worms (d. 834), count of the Oberrheingau and the Wormsgau, father of Robert the Strong.1

Family: Waldrada (?) of Autun b. c 770

  • Last Edited: 13 Dec 2015

Waldrada (?) of Autun1

F, #9314, b. circa 770

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Adrian (?) Count of Orleans b. c 770, d. b Nov 821

  • Last Edited: 19 Jul 2015

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrian,_Count_of_Orl%C3%A9ans.

Sigtrygg II Olafsson Hiberno-Norse King of Dublin1

M, #9315, b. circa 970, d. 1042

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: Sigtrygg II Silkbeard Olafsson (also Sihtric, Sitric and Sitrick in Irish texts; or Sigtryg and Sigtryggr in Scandinavian texts) was a Hiberno-Norse king of Dublin (possibly AD 989–994; restored or began 995–1000; restored 1000 and abdicated 1036) of the Uí Ímair dynasty. He was caught up in the abortive Leinster revolt of 999–1000, after which he was forced to submit to the King of Munster, Brian Boru. His family also conducted a double marriage alliance with Boru, although he later realigned himself with the main leaders of the Leinster revolt of 1012–1014. He has a prominent role in the 12th-century Irish Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh and the 13th century Icelandic Njal's Saga, as the main Norse leader at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014.

    Sigtrygg's long reign spanned 46 years, until his abdication in 1036. During that period, his armies saw action in four of the five Irish provinces of the time. In particular, he conducted a long series of raids into territories such as Meath, Wicklow, Ulster, and perhaps even the coast of Wales. He also came into conflict with rival Norse kings, especially in Cork and Waterford.

    He went on pilgrimage to Rome in 1028 and is associated with the foundation of Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin. Although Dublin underwent several reversals of fortune during his reign, on the whole trade in the city flourished. He died in 1042.

    Family
    Sigtrygg was of Norse and Irish ancestry. He was a son of Olaf Cuarán (also called Kváran), King of York and of Dublin, and Gormflaith. Gormflaith was the daughter of the King of Leinster, Murchad mac Finn, and the sister of his successor, King Máel Mórda of Leinster. She had previously been married to the King of Meath and High King of Ireland, Máel Sechnaill — the first of her three husbands. She was a beautiful, powerful and intriguing Irish woman, who according to the 13th-century Icelandic Njál's saga, was "the fairest of all women, and best gifted in everything that was not in her own power, but it was the talk of men that she did all things ill over which she had any power". Sigtrygg's paternal half-brother was Glúniairn, "Iron-knee", who ruled as King of Dublin from 980–989.

    An incident involving the ransom of one of Sigtrygg's sons late in his reign, in which "seven score British horse" were mentioned in the list of demands, suggests that Dublin was one of the main ports for importing horses into 11th century Ireland, and that Sigtrygg and his family may have been personally involved in animal husbandry.

    King of Dublin
    Sigtrygg may or may not have succeeded his paternal half-brother Glúniairn as king of Dublin in 989, because it is just as likely his rival Ivar of Waterford came to power in the city then. The Irish annals record curiously little information about Sigtrygg, his family or Dublin during these alleged first five years of his reign. The reason for this silence, claims Benjamin Hudson, was the arrival of the future King of Norway, Olaf Tryggvason, who took up residence in Dublin for a few years after marrying Sigtrygg's sister Gytha. Tryggvason had met Gytha while raiding along the coasts of the Irish Sea. The presence of a powerful Viking leader in Dublin was a deterrent to Irish raids, and Trygvason might have been weakening Sigtrygg's foes by plundering them.

    The return of Tryggvason to Norway in 994 is argued by Hudson to have coincided with the temporary expulsion of Sigtrygg from Dublin by his rival Ivar of Waterford, whom it must be remembered may have already ruled there from 989 until forced out by Sigtrygg in 993. Much depends on the interpretation. But in any case Sigtrygg was back within a year. In 995, he and his nephew, Muirchertach Ua Congalaich, attacked the church at Donaghpatrick in County Meath. In retaliation, Máel Sechnaill entered Dublin and took the ring of Thor and the sword of Carlus. Sigtrygg then attacked Kells and Clonard in 997. In 998, Máel Sechnaill and the King of Munster, Brian Boru, forced Sigtrygg to recognise their lordship by giving hostages.

    These events made Sigtrygg realise that Dublin's wealth made him an attractive target, and that his city needed powerful allies as well as walls for its security; the Dublin countryside was unable to provide the resources which would allow for competition against powerful Irish princes. Sigtrygg first allied with his maternal uncle, Máel Mórda, King of the Uí Fáeláin of north Leinster. In 999, they defeated their cousin the King of Leinster Donnchad mac Domhnaill, and imprisoned him in Dublin.

    First Leinster revolt against Brian Boru
    Late in 999, the Leinstermen, historically hostile to domination by either the Uí Néill overkings or the king of Munster, allied themselves with the Norse of Dublin and revolted against Brian Boru. This was the opportunity for Sigtrygg's second alliance with Máel Mórda. Brian's forces inflicted a crushing defeat on the united Leinster-Dublin army at the Battle of Glenmama, and followed up the victory with an attack on the city of Dublin. The 12th-century Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh gives two accounts of the occupation: that Brian remained in Dublin from Christmas Day until Epiphany (6 January), or from Christmas Day until St. Brigid's Day (1 February). The later Annals of Ulster date the Battle of Glenmama to 30 December, 999, while the Annals of Inisfallen date Brian's capture of the city to 1 January 1000. In any case, in 1000 Brian plundered the city, burned the Norse fortress and expelled Sigtrygg.

    According to the Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh, Sigtrygg's flight from the city took him north, first to the Ulaid and then to Aéd of Cenél nEógain. Both tribes refused to aid him. As Sigtrygg could find no refuge in Ireland, he eventually returned, submitted to Brian, gave hostages and was restored to Dublin. This was three months after Brian ended his occupation in February. In the meantime, Sigtrygg may have temporarily "turned pirate" and been responsible for a raid on St David's in Wales.

    Brian's daughter by his first wife was married to Sigtrygg, and Brian in turn took Sigtrygg's mother, the now thrice-married Gormflaith, as his second wife.

    Years between the revolts
    Dublin enjoyed a sustained period of peace while Sigtrygg's men served in the armies of Brian. Sigtrygg never forgot that the Ulaid had refused him aid when he had been forced to flee from Dublin, and in 1002 he had his revenge when his soldiers served in Brian's campaign against the Ulaid and ravaged their lands. His fleet raided Ulster, and he plundered Kilclief and Inis Cumhscraigh, taking many prisoners from both. They served under Brian against the Ulaid again in 1005, and against the Northern Uí Néill in 1006 and 1007. With the submission of Cenél Conaill, the last of the Northern Uí Néill Kingdoms in 1011, Brian was formally recognised as High King throughout Ireland.

    A remembrance of Sigtrygg's reign during these years is preserved in the late medieval Icelandic Saga of Gunnlaug Serpent's Tongue. Only fragments survive of the verses in the Sigtryggsdrápa, a drápa composed by the skald Gunnlaug Illugason, a visitor to Sigtrygg's court. The verses praise Sigtrygg for his royal ancestry, and give an impression of Dublin as a busy, thriving port. Archaeological excavations of ships, gold, clothing, and pieces for games from around this time seem to confirm the description. According to the prose, Sigtrygg considered rewarding the poet with ships and gold, but upon further consideration instead granted him a new suit of clothes.

    Second Leinster revolt against Brian Boru
    Some time during the 1010s, Brian Boru divorced Queen Gormflaith, and she began to engineer opposition to the High King. Around 1012, relations between Brian and Leinster had become so strained that revolt broke out among the Leinstermen. Sigtrygg aligned himself with the forces of Máel Mórda, leader of the revolt, and the chiefs Ua Ruairc, Ua Néill, and others. Together, they defeated Brian's ally Máel Sechnaill near the town of Swords, and Brian for the moment was unable to render assistance.
    Sigtrygg sent his son Oleif to lead a fleet south to Munster to burn the Viking settlement of Cork. The fleet also attacked Cape Clear, and seems to have crippled Brian's naval power, which was concentrated in Cork.

    According to Njál's saga, Gormflaith "egged on her son Sigtrygg very much to kill King Brian", and to that end sent him to win first the support of Earl Sigurd of Orkney, and then of Bróðir and Óspak of Man, at any price. Sigtrygg arrived in Orkney for Sigurd's Yule feast, at which he sat in a high seat between the two brothers-in-law, Earl Sigurd of Orkney and Earl Gilli of the Southern Isles. The saga also records that Sigtrygg was much interested by the tidings of the Burning of Njáll Þorgeirsson at Bergþórshvoll and what had happened since.[6] Afterwards, Sigtrygg bade Sigurd to go to war with him against Brian. Despite Sigurd's initial hesitance and against the advice of his men, he eventually agreed that he would arrive in Dublin by Palm Sunday with all his host, on the condition that if they slew Brian, he would marry Gormflaith and become King of Ireland.

    Sigtrygg went next to Man, where he also persuaded Bróðir to be in Dublin by Palm Sunday, and he promised Bróðir too that, if successful, he would be allowed marry Gormflaith and become King of Ireland; the terms of this agreement, however, were to be kept secret. Óspak was dissatisfied with the arrangement, and refused to "fight against so good a king".

    The two forces met at the Battle of Clontarf, on Good Friday in 1014, a battle which claimed the lives of the main commanders on both sides: principally Brian and his son Murchad on the Munster side; and Máel Mórda, Sigurd and Bróðir on the Leinster-Norse side. According to Irish sources, Sigtrygg did not take part in the battle, but was instead holding the garrison in reserve in Dublin. The Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh records that Sigtrygg was able to observe the progress of the battle and the movement of the battle standards from the ramparts of his fortress. As the modern Irish medievalist historian Donnchadh Ó Corráin notes, Sigtrygg "wisely kept within the city and lived to tell the tale".

    However, earlier Scandinavian sources (notably the Orkneyinga saga, Njál's saga and the Darraðarljóð, composed soon after the battle) contend that he did actually fight valiantly at Clontarf. The Darraðarljóð, the pagan tones of which show the persistence of paganism among the Vikings of Dublin, describes the Valkyries as following the "young king" Sigtrygg into battle. Njal's Saga records that Sigtrygg was on the wing opposite Óspak of Man for the whole battle, and that Óspak eventually put the king to flight.

    Reign after Clontarf
    Immediately after Clontarf, Sigtrygg's fortunes appear to have declined, even though he emerged with his kingdom intact. Máel Sechnaill, now again recognised as high king, was undoubtedly the battle's main beneficiary. In 1015, plague struck Dublin and Leinster, and Máel Sechnaill seized the opportunity by marching south to burn Dublin's suburbs. While Sigtrygg was able to ally with Leinster for another attack on Meath in 1017, the alliance was dissolved when Sigtrygg blinded his cousin Bróen, Máel Morda's son and heir, in Dublin.

    In 1018, Sigtrygg plundered Kells; he "carried off innumerable spoils and prisoners, and slew many persons in the middle of the church". These captives would either have been ransomed or sold off into Dublin's lucrative slave trade. However, when Sigtrygg raided south in 1021, he was defeated at Delgany in County Wicklow: the new King of Leinster, Augaire mac Dúnlainge, "made a dreadful slaughter of the foreigners" in the Kingdom of Breifne. In 1022, the Dublin fleet sailed north against the Ulaid, only to be destroyed in a naval battle against Niall mac Eochaid, after which the Norse crews and ships were taken prisoner.

    According to the American medievalist historian Benjamin Hudson, "matters went from bad to worse" for Sigtrygg after the death of Máel Sechnaill in 1022. The great Irish princes began to compete for the High Kingship, and the political situation in Ireland became chaotic as there was no clear choice for supremacy. Accordingly, "Dublin became a prize for those who would rule Ireland and wanted the town's wealth to finance their ambitions."

    Hostages were taken from Sigtrygg by Flaithbertach Ua Néill, King of Cenél nEógain and the Uí Néill, and Donnchad mac Briain of Munster in 1025 and 1026 respectively, in support of their bids for the high kingship. These hostages brought no security, and Dublin was raided in 1026 by Niall mac Eocada of the Ulaid in revenge for the naval attack of 1022. Sigtrygg was forced to make a new alliance with the men of Brega. In 1027, Sigtrygg's son Olaf joined Donnchad of Brega in a raid on Staholmock, County Meath. Sigtrygg and Donnchad's army was defeated by the men of Meath under their king, Roen Ua Mael Sechlainn. Sigtrygg rallied to the fight again, and fought a battle at Lickblaw where Donnchad and Roen were slain.

    In 1029, Sigtrygg's son Olaf was taken prisoner by the new lord of Brega, Mathghamhain Ua Riagain. Sigtrygg was forced to pay a ransom of 1,200 cows, and further conditions of the peace agreement required him to pay an additional 140 British horses, 60 ounces of gold and of silver, "the sword of Carlus", the Irish hostages of Leinster and Leath Cuinn, "four hostages to Ua Riagain as a security for peace, and the full value of the life of the third hostage." Added to the total, 80 cows "for word and supplication" were to be paid to the man who entreated for Olaf's release. The incident illustrates the importance of ransoming noble captives, as a means of political manipulation, increasing one's own revenues and exhausting the resources of one's foes.

    The 1030s saw a revival of fortunes for Sigtrygg. In 1030, he allied with the King of England, Cnut, and together their fleets raided Wales. A Dublin colony was established in Gwynedd, and for the following years Sigtrygg was at the height of his power. In 1032, without allies, Sigtrygg won a victory on the Boyne estuary of a type previously unseen by his dynasty for two decades, against a coalition of three kingdoms: over 300 members of the Conailli, the Ui Tortain, and the Ui Meith were captured or killed at the Battle of Inbher Boinne. In 1035, he plundered the celebrated stone church Ardbraccan in Meath, burned 200 men inside, and carried another 200 off into captivity. (In revenge, the church at Swords was plundered and burned by Conchobhar Ua Maeleachlainn, who in turn took away cattle and captives.)

    Meanwhile, in a renewal of ancient feuds that same year, Sigtrygg executed at Dublin the King of Waterford, Ragnall—a grandson of the Ivar, Sigtrygg's earliest rival, who had contested for Dublin decades before. However, Sigtrygg was forced to abdicate in 1036 by Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of the Isles. He died in exile, at an unknown place, in 1042.

    Issue and legacy
    Sigtrygg married Brian Boru's daughter, Sláine, and they had one son: Olaf (d. 1034). According to the Annals of the Four Masters, Olaf "was slain by the Saxons" on his way on a pilgrimage to Rome. He was survived by one Ragnhild, from whom Gruffudd ap Cynan and the Kings of Gwynedd were descended.

    Separately from Sláine, Sigtrygg had five children: Artalach (d. 999), Oleif (d. 1013), Godfrey (d. 1036), Glúniairn (d. 1031) and Cellach (d. 1042). The annals record the death of Oleif—"son of the lord of the foreigners"—who was killed in revenge for the burning of Cork. Glúniairn was killed by the people of South Brega in 1031. Godfrey was killed in Wales in 1036 by one Sitric, "son of Glúniairn"—as factionalism was common among Viking settlers, this could have been the same Glúniairn as Sigtrygg's half-brother, thus making Godfrey and his killer cousins. Sigtrygg's daughter Cellach died in the same month as her father.

    Sigtrygg was also, according to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, "a patron of the arts, a benefactor of the church, and an economic innovator". In the 990s, he established Ireland's first mint, in Dublin. He established a bishopric at Dublin and in 1028 he made a pilgrimage to Rome. It is thus possible to attribute the origins of the establishment of territorial bishoprics in Ireland on the Roman model, one of the most important results of 11th-century Irish Church Reform, to Sigtrygg. He went on to found Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin, which today is the oldest building in Dublin, but relatively young in comparison to the many monastic cathedrals in the rest of Ireland. Like many of the other coastal cathedrals in Ireland, it is of Hiberno-Norse origin. The cathedral, initially a wooden building, was rebuilt in stone in the 1180s following the arrival of the Anglo-Normans to Ireland, led by Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke.1
  • Birth*: Sigtrygg II Olafsson Hiberno-Norse King of Dublin was born circa 970 in Dublin, Ireland*.1
  • Marriage*: He married Slaine (?) ingen Brian, daughter of Brian Boru (?) High King of Ireland, after 999 in Ireland.2
  • Death*: Sigtrygg II Olafsson Hiberno-Norse King of Dublin died in 1042 in Dublin, Ireland*.1

Family: Slaine (?) ingen Brian b. c 970

  • Last Edited: 27 Apr 2015

Slaine (?) ingen Brian1

F, #9316, b. circa 970

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Slaine (?) ingen Brian was born circa 970 in Ireland.1
  • Marriage*: She married Sigtrygg II Olafsson Hiberno-Norse King of Dublin after 999 in Ireland.1
  • Married Name: As of after 999,her married name was Olafsson.1
  • Biography*: Sláine ingen Briain was the daughter of Brian Boru, High King of Ireland, and wife of Sigtrygg Silkbeard, King of Dublin. Sláine was married to Sigtrygg after his defeat at Glen Máma in 999 to unite Dublin and Munster forces following a failed rebellion by Sigtrygg and others. They had one son, Olaf Sigtryggsson. The most well known reference to Sláine is in the Cogadh Gáedhel re Galliabh.

    Although only referred to as daughter of Brian and wife of Amlaibh's son in the Cogadh, her attributed words in the Cogadh are jabs at Sigtrygg and his allies.

    It appears to me that the foreigners have gotten their inheritance...I wonder is it heat that is upon them. But they tarry not to be milked if that is it
    —Sláine, Cogadh Gáedhel re Galliabh.1
  • Last Edited: 16 Nov 2016

Brian Boru (?) High King of Ireland1

M, #9317, b. circa 941, d. 23 April 1014

18th-century engraving of Brian Boru, High King of Ireland

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name-Gaelic: Brian Boru (?) High King of Ireland was also known in Gaelic as Brian Bóruma mac Cennetig.5
  • Birth*: He was born circa 941 in Kincord, Killaloe, Clare, Ireland.1,5
  • Death*: He died on 23 April 1014 in Battle of Clontarf outside, Dublin, Ireland.1,5
  • Biography*: Brian Boru (c. 941 – 23 April 1014, Old Irish: Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig; Middle Irish: Brian Bóruma; modern Irish: Brian Bóroimhe) was an Irish king who ended the domination of the High Kingship of Ireland by the Uí Néill. Building on the achievements of his father, Cennétig mac Lorcain, and especially his elder brother, Mathgamain, Brian first made himself King of Munster, then subjugated Leinster, eventually becoming King of Ireland. He is the founder of the O'Brien dynasty.

    With a population of under 500,000 people, Ireland had over 150 kings, with greater or lesser domains. The Uí Néill king Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill, abandoned by his northern kinsmen of the Cenél nEógain and Cenél Conaill, acknowledged Brian as High King at Athlone in 1002. In the decade that followed, Brian campaigned against the northern Uí Néill, who refused to accept his claims, against Leinster, where resistance was frequent, and against the Norse-Gaelic Kingdom of Dublin. Brian's hard-won authority was seriously challenged in 1013 when his ally Máel Sechnaill was attacked by the Cenél nEógain king Flaithbertach Ua Néill, with the Ulstermen as his allies. This was followed by further attacks on Máel Sechnaill by the Dubliners under their king Sihtric Silkbeard and the Leinstermen led by Máel Mórda mac Murchada. Brian campaigned against these enemies in 1013. In 1014, Brian's armies confronted the armies of Leinster and Dublin at Clontarf near Dublin on Good Friday. The resulting Battle of Clontarf was a bloody affair, with Brian, his son Murchad, and Máel Mórda among those killed. The list of the noble dead in the Annals of Ulster includes Irish kings, Norse Gaels, Scotsmen, and Scandinavians. The immediate beneficiary of the slaughter was Máel Sechnaill who resumed his interrupted reign. The Norse-Gaels and Scandinavians also produced works mentioning Brian, among these Njal's Saga, the Orkneyinga Saga, and the now-lost Brian's Saga. Brian's war against Máel Mórda and Sihtric was to be inextricably connected with his complicated marital relations, in particular his marriage to Gormlaith, Máel Mórda's sister and Sihtric's mother, who had been in turn the wife of Amlaíb Cuarán, king of Dublin and York, then of Máel Sechnaill, and finally of Brian.

    Early life and background
    Many Irish annals state that Brian was in his 88th year when he fell in the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. If true, this would mean that he was born as early as 926 or 927. Other birth dates given in retrospect are 923 or 942.

    He was one of the 12 sons of Cennétig mac Lorcáin (d. 951), king of Dál gCais and king of Tuadmumu (Thomond), modern County Clare, then a sub-kingdom in the north of Munster. Cennétig was described as rígdamna Caisil, meaning that he was either heir or candidate ("king material") to the kingship of Cashel or Munster, although this might be a later interpolation. Brian's mother was Bé Binn inion Urchadh, daughter of Urchadh mac Murchadh (d. 945), king of Maigh Seóla in west Connacht. That they belonged to the Uí Briúin Seóla may explain why he received the name Brian, which was rare among the Dál gCais.

    Brian was born at Kincora, Killaloe, a town in the region of Tuadmumu. Brian's posthumous cognomen "Bóruma" (anglicised as Boru) may have referred to "Béal Bóruma", a fort north of Killaloe, where the Dál gCais held sway. Another explanation, though possibly a late (re-)interpretation, is that the nickname represented Old Irish bóruma "of the cattle tribute", referring to his capacity as a powerful overlord.

    When their father died, the kingship of Tuadmumu passed to Brian's older brother, Mathgamain, and, when Mathgamain was killed in 976, Brian replaced him. Subsequently he became the King of the entire kingdom of Munster.

    Situation of his tribe, the Dál gCais
    Brian belonged to the Dál gCais (or Dalcassians), a newly styled kin group of ultimately Déisi origin who occupied a territory north of the Shannon Estuary, which today would incorporate a substantial part of County Clare and then formed the core of the new kingdom of Thomond. In earlier times their ancestors had controlled some lands in today's County Limerick as well, but these had been overrun by the Uí Fidgenti from the 9th century and the invading Norse in the 10th.

    The River Shannon served as an easy route by which raids could be made against the provinces of Connacht and Meath. Both Brian's father, Cennétig mac Lorcáin and his older brother Mathgamain conducted river-borne raids, in which the young Brian would undoubtedly have participated. This was probably the root of his appreciation for naval forces in his later career. Thus an important influence upon the Dalcassians was the presence of the Hiberno-Norse city of Limerick on an isthmus around which the Shannon River winds (known today as King's Island or the Island Field). The Norse had made many a raid themselves from the Shannon, and the Dalcassians likely benefited from some interaction with them, from which they would have been exposed to innovations such as superior weapons and ship design, all factors that may have contributed to their growing power.

    Reign of his brother, Mathgamain
    In 964, Brian's older brother, Mathgamain, claimed control over the entire province of Munster by capturing the Rock of Cashel, capital of the ancient Eóganachta, the hereditary overlords or High Kings of Munster, but who in dynastic strife and with multiple assassinations had weakened themselves to the point they were now impotent. Earlier attacks from both the Uí Néill and Vikings were also factors. This situation allowed the illegitimate (from the Eóganacht perspective) but militarized Dál Cais to attempt to seize the provincial kingship. However, Mathgamain was never fully recognized and was opposed throughout his career in the 960s and 970s by Máel Muad mac Brain, a semi-outsider from the Cashel perspective but still a legitimate Eóganacht claimant from far south Munster. In addition to Máel Muad, the Norse king Ivar of Limerick was a threat and may have been attempting to establish some overlordship in the province or a region of it himself, with the Cogad Gaedel re Gallaib even asserting he actually achieved this until routed by Mathgamain in the celebrated Battle of Sulcoit in 967. This victory was not decisive however and eventually there grew up a brief alliance of sorts between Mathgamain, Máel Muad and others to drive the Norse "soldiers" or "officials" out of Munster and destroy their Limerick fortress in 972. But the two Gaelic claimants were soon back to fighting and the fortuitous capture of Mathgamain in 976 by Donnubán mac Cathail allowed him to be effortlessly dispatched or murdered by Máel Muad, who would now rule as king of Cashel for two years.

    But the Dál Cais remained a powerful force and Brian quickly proved to be as fine a commander of armies as his brother. After first dispatching the already much weakened Ivar in 977, he challenged Máel Muad in 978 and defeated him in the fateful Battle of Belach Lechta, after which all the Eóganachta were no longer viable at the provincial level and Brian and the Dál Cais now enjoyed the overlordship, although not the traditional kingship of the province, which was based on lineage. Either soon before or soon after his victory over Máel Muad, Brian routed Donnubán and the remainder of the Norse army in the Battle of Cathair Cuan, there probably slaying the last of Ivar's sons and successor Aralt. He then allowed some of the Norse to remain in their settlement, but they were wealthy and now central to trade in the region, with a fleet of great value.
    Cian, the son of his brother Mathgamain's sworn enemy Máel Muad, later became a loyal ally of Brian and served under him in a number of campaigns.

    Extending authority
    Having established unchallenged rule over his home Province of Munster, Brian turned to extending his authority over the neighboring provinces of Leinster to the east and Connacht to the north. By doing so, he came into conflict with High King Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill whose power base was the Province of Meath. For the next fifteen years, from 982 to 997, High King Máel Sechnaill repeatedly led armies into Leinster and Munster, while Brian, like his father and brother before him, led his naval forces up the Shannon to attack Connacht and Meath on either side of the river. He suffered quite a few reverses in this struggle, but appears to have learned from his setbacks. He developed a military strategy that would serve him well throughout his career: the coordinated use of forces on both land and water, including on rivers and along Ireland's coast. Brian's naval forces, which included contingents supplied by the Hiberno-Norse cities that he brought under his control, provided both indirect and direct support for his forces on land. Indirect support involved a fleet making a diversionary attack on an enemy in a location far away from where Brian planned to strike with his army. Direct support involved naval forces acting as one arm in a strategic pincer, the army forming the other arm.

    In 996 Brian finally managed to control the province of Leinster, which may have been what led Máel Sechnaill to reach a compromise with him in the following year. By recognising Brian's authority over Leth Moga, that is, the Southern Half, which included the Provinces of Munster and Leinster (and the Hiberno-Norse cities within them), Máel Sechnaill was simply accepting the reality that confronted him and retained control over Leth Cuinn, that is, the Northern Half, which consisted of the Provinces of Meath, Connacht, and Ulster.

    Precisely because he had submitted to Brian's authority, the King of Leinster was overthrown in 998 and replaced by Máel Morda mac Murchada. Given the circumstances under which Máel Morda had been appointed, it is not surprising that he launched an open rebellion against Brian's authority. In response, Brian assembled the forces of the Province of Munster with the intention of laying siege to the Hiberno-Norse city of Dublin, which was ruled by Máel Morda's ally and cousin, Sigtrygg Silkbeard. Together Máel Morda and Sigtrygg determined to meet Brian's army in battle rather than risk a siege. Thus, in 999, the opposing armies fought the Battle of Glen Mama. The Irish annals all agree that this was a particularly fierce and bloody engagement, although claims that it lasted from morning until midnight, or that the combined Leinster-Dublin force lost 4,000 killed are open to question. In any case, Brian followed up his victory, as he and his brother had in the aftermath of the Battle of Sulcoit thirty-two years before, by capturing and sacking the enemy's city. Once again, however, Brian opted for reconciliation; he requested Sigtrygg to return and resume his position as ruler of Dublin, giving Sigtrygg the hand of one of his daughters in marriage, just as he had with the Eoganacht King, Cian. It may have been on this occasion that Brian married Sigtrygg's mother and Máel Morda's sister Gormflaith, the former wife of Máel Sechnaill.

    The struggle for Ireland
    Brian made it clear that his ambitions had not been satisfied by the compromise of 997 when, in the year 1000, he led a combined Munster-Leinster-Dublin army in an attack on High King Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill's home province of Meath. The struggle over who would control all of Ireland was renewed. Máel Sechnaill's most important ally was the King of Connacht, Cathal mac Conchobar mac Taidg (O'Connor), but this presented a number of problems. The Provinces of Meath and Connacht were separated by the Shannon River, which served as both a route by which Brian's naval forces could attack the shores of either province and as a barrier to the two rulers providing mutual support for each other. Máel Sechnaill came up with an ingenious solution; two bridges would be erected across the Shannon. These bridges would serve as both obstacles preventing Brian's fleet from traveling up the Shannon and as a means by which the armies of the Provinces of Meath and Connacht could cross over into each other's kingdoms.

    The Annals state that, in the year 1002, Máel Sechnaill surrendered his title to Brian, although they do not say anything about how or why this came about. The Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh provides a story in which Brian challenges High King Máel Sechnaill to a battle at the Hill of Tara in the province of Meath, but the High King requests a month-long truce so that he can mobilise his forces, which Brian grants him. But Máel Sechnaill fails to rally the regional rulers who are nominally his subordinates by the time the deadline arrives, and he is forced to surrender his title to Brian. There have been some doubts expressed about this explanation, given Brian's style of engaging in war; if he had found his opponent at a disadvantage it is most likely he would have taken full advantage of it rather than allowing his enemy the time to even the odds. Also, given the length and intensity of the struggle between Máel Sechnaill and Brian, it seems unlikely that the High King would surrender his title without a fight.

    There have been some doubts about whether the fight occurred and what the particular circumstances were surrounding the fight. However it is generally accepted that in 1002 Brian became the new High King of Ireland.

    Unlike some who had previously held the title, Brian intended to be High King in more than name only. To accomplish this he needed to impose his will upon the regional rulers of the only province that did not already recognise his authority, Ulster. Ulster's geography presented a formidable challenge; there were three main routes by which an invading army could enter the province, and all three favored the defenders. Brian first had to find a means of getting through or around these defensive 'choke points', and then he had to subdue the fiercely independent regional Kings of Ulster. It took Brian ten years of campaigning to achieve his goal which, considering he could and did call on all of the military forces of the rest of Ireland, indicates how formidable the Kings of Ulster were. Once again, it was his coordinated use of forces on land and at sea that allowed him to triumph; while the rulers of Ulster could bring the advance of Brian's army to a halt, they could not prevent his fleet from attacking the shores of their kingdoms. But gaining entry to the Province of Ulster brought him only halfway to his goal. Brian systematically defeated each of the regional rulers who defied him, forcing them to recognise him as their overlord.

    First High King of the Irish
    It was during this process that Brian pursued an alternative means of consolidating his control, not merely over the Province of Ulster, but over Ireland as a whole. In contrast to its structure elsewhere, the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland was centred, not around the bishops of dioceses and archbishops of archdioceses, but rather around monasteries headed by powerful abbots who were members of the royal dynasties of the lands in which their monasteries resided. Among the most important monasteries was Armagh, located in the Province of Ulster. Brian's advisor, Maelsuthain O'Carroll, documented in the 'Book of Armagh' that, in the year 1005, Brian donated twenty-two ounces of gold to the monastery and declared that Armagh was the religious capital of Ireland to which all other monasteries should send the funds they collected. This was a clever move, for the supremacy of the monastery of Armagh would last only so long as Brian remained the High King. Therefore, it was in the interest of Armagh to support Brian with all their wealth and power. It is interesting that Brian is not referred to in the passage from the 'Book of Armagh' as the 'Ard Rí' —that is, High-King— but rather he is declared "Imperator Scottorum," or "Emperor of the Irish" ("Scottorum" then being the common Late Latin term for the Irish: Ireland was usually referred to in Latin as "Scotia Major" while Scotland was referred to as "Scotia Minor").

    Though it is only speculation, it has been suggested that Brian and the Church in Ireland were together seeking to establish a new form of kingship in Ireland, one that was modelled after the kingships of England and France, in which there were no lesser ranks of regional Kings – simply one King who had (or sought to have) power over all in a unitary state. In any case, whether as High King or Emperor, by 1011 all of the regional rulers in Ireland acknowledged Brian's authority. No sooner had this been achieved than it was lost again.

    Máel Mórda mac Murchada of Leinster had only accepted Brian's authority grudgingly and in 1012 rose in rebellion. The Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh relates a story in which one of Brian's sons insults Máel Morda, which leads him to declare his independence from Brian's authority. Whatever the actual reason was, Máel Morda sought allies with which to defy the High-King. He found one in a regional ruler in Ulster who had only recently submitted to Brian. Together they attacked the Province of Meath, where the former High King Máel Sechnaill sought Brian's help to defend his Kingdom. In 1013 Brian led a force from his own Province of Munster and from southern Connacht into Leinster; a detachment under his son, Murchad, ravaged the southern half of the Province of Leinster for three months. The forces under Murchad and Brian were reunited on 9 September outside the walls of Dublin. The city was blockaded, but it was the High King's army that ran out of supplies first, so that Brian was forced to abandon the siege and return to Munster around the time of Christmas.

    Battle of Clontarf
    Máel Morda was aware that the High King would return to Dublin in 1014 to try once more to defeat him. He may have hoped that by defying Brian, he could enlist the aid of all the other regional rulers Brian had forced to submit to him. If so, he had been sorely disappointed; while the entire Province of Ulster and most of the Province of Connacht failed to provide the High King with troops, they did not, with the exception of a single ruler in Ulster, provide support for Máel Morda either. His inability to obtain troops from any rulers in Ireland, may explain why Máel Morda sought to obtain troops from rulers outside of Ireland. He instructed his subordinate and cousin, Sigtrygg, the ruler of Dublin, to travel overseas to enlist aid.

    Sigtrygg sailed to Orkney, and on his return stopped at the Isle of Man. These islands had been seized by the Vikings long before and the Hiberno-Norse had close ties with Orkney and the Isle of Man. There was even a precedent for employing Norsemen from the isles; they had been used by Sigtrygg's father, Amlaíb Cuarán, in 980, and by Sigtrygg himself in 990. Their incentive was loot, not land. Contrary to the assertions made in the Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh, this was not an attempt by the Vikings to reconquer Ireland. All of the Norsemen, both the Norse-Gaels of Dublin and the Norsemen from the Isles, were in the service of Máel Morda. It should be remembered that the High King had 'Vikings' in his army as well; mainly the Hiberno-Norse of Limerick (and probably those of Waterford, Wexford, and Cork as well), but, according to some sources, a rival gang of Norse mercenaries from the Isle of Man. Essentially this could be characterised as an Irish civil war in which foreigners participated as minor players.
    Along with whatever troops he obtained from abroad, the forces that Brian mustered included the troops of his home Province of Munster, those of Southern Connacht, and the men of the Province of Meath, the latter commanded by his old rival Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill. He may have outnumbered Máel Morda's army, since Brian felt secure enough to dispatch a mounted detachment under the command of his youngest son, Donnchad, to raid southern Leinster, presumably hoping to force Máel Morda to release his contingents from there to return to defend their homes. Unfortunately for the High King, if he had had a superiority in numbers it was soon lost. A disagreement with the King of Meath resulted in Máel Sechnaill withdrawing his support (Brian sent a messenger to find Donnchad and ask him to return with his detachment, but the call for help came too late). To compound his problems, the Norse contingents, led by Sigurd Hlodvirsson, Earl of Orkney and Brodir of the Isle of Man, arrived on Palm Sunday, 18 April. The battle would occur five days later, on Good Friday.

    The fighting took place just north of the city of Dublin, at Clontarf (now a prosperous suburb). It may well be that the two sides were evenly matched, as all of the accounts state that the Battle of Clontarf lasted all day. Although this may be an exaggeration, it does suggest that it was a long, drawn-out fight.

    There are many legends concerning how Brian was killed, from dying in a heroic man-to-man combat to being killed by the fleeing Viking mercenary Brodir while praying in his tent at Clontarf. After his death, his body was taken to Swords Co. Dublin to be waked and then on to Armagh to be buried. His tomb is said to be in the north wall of St. Patrick's Cathedral in the city of Armagh.

    Historical view
    The popular image of Brian—the ruler who managed to unify the regional leaders of Ireland so as to free the land from a 'Danish' (Viking) occupation—originates from the powerful influence of a work of 12th century propaganda, Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh (The War of the Irish with the Foreigners) in which Brian takes the leading role. This work is thought to have been commissioned by Brian's great-grandson, Muirchertach Ua Briain, as a means of justifying the Ua Briain claim to the High-Kingship, a title upon which the Uí Neill had had a near-monopoly.

    The influence of this work, on both scholarly and popular authors, cannot be exaggerated. Until the 1970s most scholarly writing concerning the Vikings' activities in Ireland, as well as the career of Brian Boru, accepted the claims of Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh at face value.

    Brian did not free Ireland from a Norse (Viking) occupation, simply because it was never conquered by the Vikings. In the last decade of the 8th century, Norse raiders began attacking targets in Ireland and, beginning in the mid-9th century, these raiders established the fortified camps that later grew into Ireland's first cities: Dublin, Limerick, Waterford, Wexford, and Cork. Within only a few generations, the Norse citizens of these cities had converted to Christianity, intermarried with the Irish, and often adopted the Irish language, dress and customs, thus becoming what historians refer to as the 'Hiberno-Norse'. Such Hiberno-Norse cities were fully integrated into the political scene in Ireland long before the birth of Brian. They often suffered attacks from Irish rulers, and made alliances with others. Rather than conquering Ireland, the Vikings, who initially attacked and subsequently settled in Ireland, were, in fact, assimilated by the Irish.

    Wives and children
    Brian's first wife was Mór, daughter of the king of Uí Fiachrach Aidne of Connacht. She is said to have been the mother of his sons Murchad, Conchobar and Flann. Later genealogies claimed that these sons left no descendants, although in fact Murchad's son Tadc is recorded as being killed at Clontarf along with his father and grandfather.
    Echrad daughter of the king of Uí Áeda Odba, an obscure branch of the southern Uí Néill, was the mother of Tadc, whose son Toirdelbach and grandson Muirchertach rivalled Brian in power and fame.

    Brian's most famous marriage was with Gormflaith, sister of Máel Mórda of Leinster. Donnchad, who had his half-brother Tadc killed in 1023 and ruled Munster for forty years thereafter, was the result of this union.

    Brian had a sixth son, Domnall. Although he predeceased his father, Domnall apparently had at least one surviving child, a son whose name is not recorded. Domnall may perhaps have been the son of Brian's fourth known wife, Dub Choblaig, who died in 1009. She was a daughter of King Cathal mac Conchobar mac Taidg of Connacht.
    Brian had at least three daughters but their mothers are not recorded. Sadb, whose death in 1048 is recorded by the Annals of Innisfallen, was married to Cian, son of Máel Muad mac Brain. Bé Binn was married to the northern Uí Néill king Flaithbertach Ua Néill. A third daughter, Sláni, was married to Brian's stepson Sitric of Dublin.
    According to Njal's Saga, he had a foster-son named Kerthialfad.

    Cultural heritage
    The descendants of Brian were known as the Ui Briain (O'Brien) clan, hence the surnames Ó Briain, O'Brien, O'Brian etc. "O" was originally Ó which in turn came from Ua, which means "grandson", or "descendant" (of a named person). The prefix is often anglicised to O', using an apostrophe instead of the Irish síneadh fada: "´". The O'Briens subsequently ranked as one of the chief dynastic families of the country.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 5 Dec 2016

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brian_Boru
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/…
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p18895.htm#i188941
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p18895.htm#i188942
  5. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10286.htm#i102854
  6. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10286.htm#i102855

Ermentrude (?) of France1

F, #9318, b. circa 875

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: Ermentrude (c. 875–?) was the daughter of Louis the Stammerer, king of France and his second wife Adelaide of Paris whom he married in February 875 with official sanction. Louis had secretly married as his first wife Ansgarde of Burgundy but the marriage was annulled prior to his marriage with Adelaide. After the death of Louis, the struggle for power in the kingdom probably led to Ermentrude's marriage to someone for whom records are scant, whereas usually the marriage of daughter of a king is to a well known noble. Ermentrude's daughter, Cunigunda, first in 909 married Wigeric, count of Bidgau and count palatine of Lotharingia, then in 922 married Ricuin, count of Verdun (d. 923).1
  • Birth*: Ermentrude (?) of France was born circa 875 in France.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 9 May 2015

Roger de Lacy 6th Baron of Pontefract1

M, #9319, b. 1170, d. 1211

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Roger de Lacy 6th Baron of Pontefract was born in 1170 in Chester, Cheshire, England.1
  • Death*: He died in 1211 in England.1
  • Biography*: Roger de Lacy (1170–1211), 6th Baron of Pontefract, 7th Lord of Bowland, Lord of Blackburnshire, 7th Baron of Halton and Constable of Chester (formerly Roger le Constable) was a notable English soldier, crusader and baron in the late 12th and early 13th centuries.

    Family and Provenance
    Roger de Lacy was also known as Roger FitzJohn (son of John, constable of Chester) and during the time that he was hoping to inherit his grandmother's de Lisours lands as Roger de Lisours. He was the son of John FitzRichard (son of Richard), Baron of Halton, Lord of Bowland, Lord of Flamborough and Constable of Chester. Roger became Baron of Pontefract on the death of his paternal grandmother Albreda de Lisours (-aft.1194) who had inherited the Barony in her own right as 1st-cousin and heir to Robert de Lacy (-1193), 4th Baron of Pontefract. In agreements with his grandmother Roger adopted the name of de Lacy, received the right to inherit the Barony of Pontefract and its lands, and the lands of Bowland, and Blackburnshire. He gave up all claims to his grandmother's de Lisours lands. He also gave his younger brother Robert le Constable the Flamborough lands that he had inherited from his father. He married Maud (or Matilda) de Clere (not of the de Clare family).

    Service to Kings Henry, Richard and John
    Robert de Lacy failed to support King Henry I during his power struggle with his brother and the King confiscated Pontefract Castle from the family during the 12th century. Roger paid King Richard I 3,000 marks for the Honour of Pontefract, but the King retained possession of the castle. He joined King Richard for the Third Crusade.

    Accession of King John
    At the accession of King John of England, Roger was a person of great eminence, for we find him shortly after the coronation of that prince, deputed with the Sheriff of Northumberland, and other great men, to conduct William, King of Scotland, to Lincoln, where the English king had fixed to give him an interview; and the next year he was one of the barons present at Lincoln, when Davis, of Scotland, did homage and fealty to King John. His successor, King John gave de Lacy Pontefract Castle in 1199, the year he ascended the throne.

    Siege of Acre
    Roger was the Constable of Chester, and joined Richard the Lionheart for the Third Crusade. Roger assisted at the Siege of Acre, in 1192 and clearly earned the favour and the trust of King Richard as a soldier and loyal subject as judged by his subsequent service.

    Château Gaillard
    King Richard reconquered Normandy from King Phillip II of France in 1198, where de Lacy was likely in his retinue. In 1204, de Lacy was the commander of the great English fortress in Normandy, Château Gaillard, when it was retaken by Phillip, marking the loss of mainland English possessions in Normandy. Under de Lacy's command the defence of the castle was lengthy, and it fell only after an eight-month siege on 8 March 1204. After the siege, de Lacy returned to England to begin work reinforcing Pontefract Castle.

    Siege of Rothelan
    In the time of this Roger, Ranulph, Earl of Chester, having entered Wales at the head of some forces, was compelled, by superior numbers, to shut himself up in the castle of Rothelan (Rhuddlan Castle), where, being closely besieged by the Welsh, he sent for aid to the Constable of Chester. Hugh Lupus, the 1st Earl of Chester, in his charter of foundation of the Abbey of St. Werberg, at Chester, had given a privilege to the frequenters of Chester fair, "That they should not be apprehended for theft, or any other offense during the time of the fair, unless the crime was committed therein." This privilege made the fair, of course, the resort of thieves and vagabonds from all parts of the kingdom. Accordingly, the Constable, Roger de Lacy, forthwith marched to his relief, at the head of a concourse of people, then collected at the fair of Chester, consisting of minstrels, and loose characters of all description, forming altogether so numerous a body, that the besiegers, at their approach, mistaking them for soldiers, immediately raised the siege. For this timely service, the Earl of Chester conferred upon De Lacy and his heirs, the patronage of all the minstrels in those parts, which patronage the Constable transferred to his steward; and was enjoyed for many years afterwards.

    High Sheriff
    He was appointed High Sheriff of Cumberland for the years 1204 to 1209.

    Death and succession
    Roger died in 1211. Roger was succeeded by his son, John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 31 Aug 2015

John Fitz Richard Baron of Halton1

M, #9320, b. circa 1150, d. 1190

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: The son of Richard FitzEustace. He was a Governor in Ireland for Henry II. Being a patron of science, he maintained an astronomer at Halton Castle. He founded a Cistercian monastery at Stanlow. In 1190 he granted the second known charter for a ferry at Runcorn Gap. He served with Richard I in the Third Crusade and died at the siege of Tyre.1
  • Birth*: John Fitz Richard Baron of Halton was born circa 1150 in Barony of Halton, Cheshire, England.1
  • Death*: He died in 1190 in the seige of Tyre in the Third Crusade, Tyre, Lebanon*.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 13 Nov 2016

Richard Fitz Eustace Baron of Halton1

M, #9321, b. circa 1125, d. 1171

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Richard Fitz Eustace Baron of Halton was born circa 1125 in England.1
  • Death*: He died in 1171.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 13 Nov 2016

Eustace Fitz John Baron of Halton1

M, #9322, b. circa 1100, d. 1157

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: Eustace fitz John (died 1157) was a powerful magnate in northern England during the reigns of Henry I, Stephen and Henry II. From a relatively humble background in the south-east of England, Eustace made his career serving Henry I, and was elevated by the king through marriage and office into one of the most important figures in the north of England. Eustace acquired a great deal of property in the region, controlled Bamburgh Castle, and served jointly with Walter Espec as justiciar of the North.

    After Henry I's death in 1135, Eustace became involved in the warfare between the supporters of Stephen and his rival the Empress Matilda, the latter led by Matilda's uncle David, King of Scotland. He surrendered Alnwick Castle and Malton Castle temporarily to David, while Bamburgh was taken by Stephen. Eustace became a supporter of David, fighting and suffering defeat at the Battle of the Standard in 1138. He maintained most of his lands in the north however, and from around 1144 became one of the main followers of Ranulf II, Earl of Chester, through whom he gained even more land. Eustace subsequently founded three religious houses, and died on campaign with Henry II in 1157.

    Origins and early career
    Eustace's family came from the south-east of England. His father John fitz Richard was a tenant-in-chief who appeared in the Domesday Book owning estates in Essex and Norfolk. The family was not of exalted origin, representing the middle rank of society. Eustace had two known sisters, Agnes and Alice. He also had two brothers, Pain (Payne) and William, and it is thought that Pain—whose career was as successful as Eustace's— was probably the eldest. Eustace likely did not inherit much from his father, but instead depended on success as a royal servant.

    Eustace is witnessing royal charters from at least 1119, but may have been at Henry's court as early as 1114. Through Henry's patronage, Eustace married two heiresses, both of whom brought him lands. Beatrix de Vesci, daughter and heiress of Ivo de Vesci, brought him control of Alnwick Castle and the barony of Alnwick in Northumberland. He probably received, in addition, land in Lincolnshire as well as five and a half knight's fees in Yorkshire previously belonging to Ranulf de Mortimer (died 1104). Although it has often been claimed that this marriage brought Eustace the lordship of Old Malton, a former royal manor in the North Riding of Yorkshire, this was probably a separate gift from the king. Eustace's marriage to Beatrix occurred some time before 1130.

    The other marriage, which also occurred before 1130, was to Agnes daughter of the constable of Chester William fitz Nigel, and this eventually brought Eustace more land in Yorkshire at Bridlington as well as in Northamptonshire at Loddington. Both landholdings were held from the earl of Chester. Eustace would gain control of many other sub-tenancies, held from a number of lords, including the Archbishop of York, Bishop of Durham, Nigel d'Aubigny, and the count of Aumale, and in Henry's reign he held lands at Aldborough, Tickhill and Knaresborough from the king as a tenant-in-chief.

    Eustace had thus emerged as one of the key players in Henry's reordering of Northumbrian society following the destruction of the earldom of Northumbria in the late 11th-century. According to historian William Kapelle, Eustace was one of the "three mainstays of Henry's new regime in the North", the other two being Walter Espec and King David of Scotland. In Northumberland he is known to have commanded authority over at least ten local notables, including John FitzOdard lord of Embleton and Robert II de Umfraville lord of Redesdale. Eustace's barony of Alnwick stretched across the potential Scottish invasion routes of the Tweed basin, and was one of the two largest baronies in the county, holding between 14 and 17 knight's fees by 1166, nearly three times the size of the average lordship in the county.

    Henry I's only surviving pipe roll, for 1129–30, shows that Eustace served jointly as justiciar of the north along with Walter Espec, and had custody of the former capital of the Northumbrian earldom, Bamburgh Castle. Allowances made to Eustace for the repair of the gate of Bamburgh Castle and the construction of fortifications at Tickhill and Knaresborough in Yorkshire are also recorded in this pipe roll. This and evidence of royal writs show that Eustace and Walter Espec had justiciar responsibility for the counties of Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham, and Yorkshire, a role that involved hearing pleas and conveying instructions from central government.

    The Anarchy
    The death of Henry I on 1 December 1135 led to the accession of Stephen de Blois, to whom Eustace submitted. Stephen's seizure of the throne was contested by Henry I's daughter, the Empress Matilda, who had been Henry's designated heir. The Gesta Stephani claimed that certain "very intimate friends of Henry" had been against Stephen from the beginning because of loyalty for Henry's daughter Matilda, and names Eustace's brother Pain as one of these, making it quite possible that Eustace had likewise never been on Stephen's side. However, they, just like Eustace, did swear fealty to Stephen after a short time. This capitulation meant that Stephen let them keep the honours and positions they had held under Henry, and Stephen is even found confirming the grants of Eustace's family between 1136 and 1138.

    Matilda was supported by her uncle King David of Scotland, and he did not accept Stephen's succession peacefully. Thus Eustace was placed in the front line of a new war, and when David invaded northern England Eustace's castle of Alnwick was among those captured by David in the first two months of the year (though it was returned in March). Stephen relieved Eustace of control of Bamburgh Castle when he returned from his punitive invasion of Lothian early in 1138. It has been claimed that Eustace must have gone over to David's side by the end of 1137, when David invaded northern England. There is no proof however that Eustace had switched allegiance at this point.

    After David crossed back into Northumberland in April 1138, Eustace became one of David's active supporters, and during David's siege of Wark Castle in May, Eustace tried to persuade him to besiege Bamburgh Castle instead. Eustace had had a long association with the Scottish king, or at least with his Norman follower Robert I de Brus, as Eustace's name appears as witness to David's charter recording the grant of Annandale to Robert, issued at Scone in 1124.

    Eustace fought at the Battle of the Standard in August 1138, fighting for David in the second line with the men of Cumbria and Teviotdale. The battle ended in defeat, and Eustace was wounded and fled to Alnwick in its aftermath, leaving his castle at Malton to be captured soon after. Despite the defeat for David, peace the following year brought David victory, his son Henry becoming Earl of Northumbria and Huntingdon, and under the rule of Earl Henry, Eustace regained many of his Northumberland possessions and received other lands in the earldom of Huntingdon. When a succession dispute for the bishopric of Durham erupted in 1141, Eustace supported the pro-David William Cumin against William de Ste Barbara; and in 1143, Eustace helped negotiate a truce between the two claimants.

    Eustace's number of known associations with David and Henry after 1144 is small, appearing only as witness to one charter of Earl Henry issued at Corbridge at some point between 1150 and 1152. Around 1144 Eustace seems to have entered a beneficial relationship with Ranulf II, Earl of Chester. Eustace was married to the sister of Ranulf's constable, William fitz William, and in 1143 or 1144 William died. This made Eustace's wife and her sister Matilda joint heiress to the lands and offices of William, who was childless.

    In either 1144 or 1145 Eustace obtained from Ranulf a large honour with lands mostly in Cheshire, Lancashire and Yorkshire, and gained the office of constable of Chester along with the status as chief counselor in Ranulf's dominions. Earl Ranulf's patronage also seems to have gained Eustace a grant by Roger de Mowbray (the earl's captive from the Battle of Lincoln) of fourteen knight fees worth of estates in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, with townships along the river Humber. This was probably part of the attempts of the earl and his half-brother the Earl of Lincoln William de Roumare to tighten their family's grip on the region. Eustace's position vis-a-vis Stephen probably mirrored that of Ranulf, and like other pro-Matildans there was probably no permanent stabilisation of relations until the settlement between Stephen and Matilda in the winter of 1153. In the following year, Eustace attested a charter King Stephen issued at York in favour of Pontefract Priory.

    Death and legacy
    Eustace had a good relationship with Stephen's successor Henry II, and the latter seems to have regarded Eustace as one of his supporters. Henry confirmed Eustace's gifts to his son William de Vescy, and would recognise the latters succession to his father's lands. After Henry accession in 1154, Eustace attested the new king's charters. Eustace died in July 1157 near Basingwerk in Flintshire, where on campaign with Henry against the Welsh he was ambushed and killed.

    Eustace fitz John was remembered as a great monastic patron. He patronised Gloucester Abbey, a Benedictine house, as well as the Augustinian Priory of Bridlington. In 1147, he founded his own abbey, Alnwick Abbey, as a daughter-house of England's first Premonstratensian monastery, Newhouse Abbey in Lincolnshire. Two years later, Eustace turned his favours to the order of Gilbert of Sempringham, in 1150 founding a Gilbertine priory at Malton in Yorkshire and another priory (with a nunnery) at Watton (also Yorkshire) around the same time. Later tradition held that Eustace founded these houses in penance for fighting with the Scots, but this has no basis in fact.

    Watton, scene of Ailred of Rievaulx's De Sanctimoniali de Wattun, was founded jointly with Eustace's landlord William Fossard. Probably Eustace's patronage of the Gilbertines was influenced by the policies and inclinations of William, Earl of York and Henry Murdac, Archbishop of York. Eustace had become closely associated with the Earl of York. He witnessed two of Earl William's charters, between 1150 and 1153, and obtained land from him. And Eustace's name appears on coins minted at York, a city under the control of the earl.

    Eustace is known to have had two sons, one by each wife. William de Vesci, his son by Beatrix, served as sheriff of Northumberland between 1157 and 1170, and would become the ancestor of the Northumberland de Vescy family. Richard fitz Eustace, his son by Agnes, is known to have married Aubrey de Lisours, daughter of Aubrey de Lacy and niece of Ilbert II de Lacy (another baron captured by Earl Ranulf at the Battle of Lincoln). He became ancestor of a second line of de Lacys.

    Several sources, including Roger of Howden, report that Eustace had only one eye.1

  • Birth*: Eustace Fitz John Baron of Halton was born circa 1100 in south-east of, England.1
  • Marriage*: He married Agnes de Halton circa 1125 in England.2
  • Death*: Eustace Fitz John Baron of Halton died in 1157 in fighting the Welsh near Basingwerk, Flintshire, Wales.1

Family: Agnes de Halton b. c 1100

  • Last Edited: 13 Nov 2016

Agnes de Halton1

F, #9323, b. circa 1100

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Eustace Fitz John Baron of Halton b. c 1100, d. 1157

  • Last Edited: 9 May 2015

Waltheof (?) of Allerdale1

M, #9324, b. circa 1100

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: Waltheof of Allerdale was an 11th- and 12th-century Anglo-Saxon noble, lord of Allerdale in modern Cumbria. Brother of Dolfin of Carlisle and Gospatric of Dunbar, Waltheof son of Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria. Both Waltheof and his brother Gospatric witness Earl David's Glasgow Inquest 1113 x 1124, and Waltheof also attests some of David's charters as king of the Scots later. The account of Waltheof and his family in Cumbrian monastic cartularies (St Bees and Wetheral), says that he gave land in Allerdale to his three sisters, Octreda, Gunhilda and Maud.

    Waltheof had two sons and several daughters. Alan (fl. 1139), succeeded to Allerdale. The other son was named Gopspatric. An Octreda, either his sister or daughter, appears to have married Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim and become mother of William fitz Duncan, mormaer of Moray. William fitz Duncan appears to have inherited Waltheof's Allerdale territory from his mother. A definite daughter, Ethelreda, married Ranulf de Lindsay and then William de Esseville. Another, Gunnilda, married Uhtred of Galloway.

    Waltheof's partner appears to have been a woman named Sigrid or Sigarith.

    He seems to have become abbot of Crowland late in his life, but this Waltheof may be someone else. The abbot of Crowland in question was a monk of Crowland Abbey before becoming abbot in 1125. Abbot Waltheof was deposed by Papal legate Alberic of Ostia at the Council of Westminster.3
  • Birth*: Waltheof (?) of Allerdale was born circa 1100 in Northumbria, Scotland.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 9 May 2015

Gospatric (?) Earl of Northumbria1

M, #9325, b. circa 1040, d. after 1073

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: Gospatric or Cospatric (from the Cumbric "Servant of Saint Patrick"), (died after 1073), was Earl of Northumbria, or of Bernicia, and later lord of sizable estates around Dunbar. While his paternal ancestry is uncertain, his descendants held the Earldom of Dunbar, later known as the Earldom of March, in south-east Scotland until 1435.

    Background
    Gospatric was a great-grandson of Æthelred II through his mother, Ealdgyth, and his maternal grandmother, Ælfgifu, who had married Uchtred the Bold.

    Issue about paternal lineage
    He is often said to have been a son of Maldred son of Crínán of Dunkeld. If this is correct, Maldred was apparently not the son of Crínán's known wife Bethóc, daughter of the Scots king Malcolm II, as Gospatric's descendants made no such claim when they submitted their pleadings in the Great Cause (though according to this link his descendant, Patrick the Seventh Earl of Dunbar, did indeed make a claim to the throne during these pleadings) to determine the succession to the kingship of the Scots after the death of Alexander III in 1286.

    Alternatively, rather than being descended from a half-brother of King Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin), Gospatric may have been the youngest son of Earl Uhtred the Bold (died 1016). Another reconstruction would make Gospatric the grandson of Uhtred's discarded first wife, Ecgfritha, daughter of Aldhun, Bishop of Durham, through Sigrida, her daughter with Kilvert son of Ligulf. Whatever his parentage may have been, Gospatric was clearly an important figure in Northumbria and Cumbria, with ties to the family of Earl Uchtred.

    The Life of Edward the Confessor, commissioned by Queen Edith, contains an account of the pilgrimage to Rome of Tostig Godwinson, Earl of Northumbria. It tells how a band of robbers attacked Tostig's party in Italy, seeking to kidnap the Earl. A certain Gospatric "was believed because of the luxury of his clothes and his physical appearance, which was indeed distinguished" to be Earl Tostig, and succeeded in deceiving the would-be kidnappers as to his identity until the real Earl was safely away from the scene. Whether this was the same Gospatric, or a kinsman of the same name, is unclear, but it is suggested that his presence in Tostig's party was as a hostage as much as a guest.

    Harrying of the North
    After his victory over Harold Godwinson at Hastings, William of Normandy appointed a certain Copsi or Copsig, a supporter of the late Earl Tostig, who had been exiled with his master in 1065, as Earl of Bernicia in the spring of 1067. Copsi was dead within five weeks, killed by Oswulf, grandson of Uchtred, who installed himself as Earl. Oswulf was killed in the autumn by bandits after less than six months as Earl. At this point, Gospatric, who had a plausible claim to the Earldom given the likelihood that he was related to Oswulf and Uchtred, offered King William a large amount of money to be given the Earldom of Bernicia. The King, who was in the process of raising heavy taxes, accepted.

    In early 1068, a series of uprisings in England, along with foreign invasion, faced King William with a dire threat. Gospatric is found among the leaders of the uprising, along with Edgar Ætheling and Edwin, Earl of Mercia and his brother Morcar. This uprising soon collapsed, and William proceeded to dispossess many of the northern landowners and grant the lands to Norman incomers. For Gospatric, this meant the loss of his earldom to Robert Comine and exile in Scotland. King William's authority, apart from minor local troubles such as Hereward the Wake and Eadric the Wild, appeared to extend securely across England.

    Gospatric joined the invading army of Danes, Scots, and Englishmen under Edgar the Aetheling in the next year. Though the army was defeated, he afterwards was able, from his possession of Bamburgh castle, to make terms with the conqueror, who left him undisturbed till 1072. The widespread destruction in Northumbria known as the Harrying of the North relates to this period.

    Exile
    In 1072 William the Conqueror stripped Gospatric of his Earldom of Northumbria, and he replaced him with Siward's son Waltheof, 1st Earl of Northampton.

    Gospatric fled into exile in Scotland and not long afterwards went to Flanders. When he returned to Scotland he was granted the castle at "Dunbar and lands adjacent to it" and in the Merse by King Malcolm Canmore. This earldom without a name in the Scots-controlled northern part of Bernicia would later become the Earldom of Dunbar.
    Gospatric did not long survive in exile according to Roger of Hoveden's chronicle:
    [N]ot long after this, being reduced to extreme infirmity, he sent for Aldwin and Turgot, the monks, who at this time were living at Meilros, in poverty and contrite in spirit for the sake of Christ, and ended his life with a full confession of his sins, and great lamentations and penitence, at Ubbanford, which is also called Northam, and was buried in the porch of the church there.

    He was the father of three sons, and at least one daughter named Uchtreda, who married Duncan II of Scotland, the son of King Malcolm Canmore.
    The sons were:,
    Gospatric who was killed at the battle of the Standard in 1138.
    Dolfin, who seems to have received from Malcolm the government of Carlisle. Dolfin has also been identified with Dolfin de Bradeley and is believed to be the progenitor of the Bradley, Staveley, De Hebden, and Thoresby families.
    Waltheof, Lord of Allerdale and Abbot of Crowland

    Fiction
    Under the alternative spelling Cospatrick, he appears as a major character in Nigel Tranter's 1979 historical novel Margaret the Queen.

    Gospatric is one of the central characters of the novel Warriors of the Dragon Gold by Ray Bryant. The author employs the version that he is the youngest son of Earl Uchtred, so he is named Gospatric Uchtredsson in the book.1


  • Birth*: Gospatric (?) Earl of Northumbria was born circa 1040 in Scotland.1
  • Death*: He died after 1073 in Dunbar, Scotland.1
  • Last Edited: 2 Apr 2017

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospatric,_Earl_of_Northumbria.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10664.htm#i106640
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10768.htm#i107673
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waltheof,_Earl_of_Dunbar.

David Stewart Earl Palatine of Strathern and Caithness1

M, #9326, b. 1357, d. circa 1386

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Biography*: David Stewart (1357 – c. 1386), Prince of Scotland, was a 14th-century Scottish magnate. He was the eldest son of the second marriage of King Robert II of Scotland with Euphemia de Ross. King Robert, on 26 March 1371, the day of his coronation, is styled Earl of Strathearn, and on the following day his son David does homage to him under the title of Earl of Strathearn.

    On June 19 of the same year, he obtained a charter of the barony of Urquhart. He received the Castle of Braal in Caithness 21 March 1375, and he was also given the title Earl of Caithness between that date and 28 December 1377, when he was styled "Earl Palatine of Strathearn and Caithness".

    He was involved in a major dispute with his older half-brother, Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, who by 1385 had occupied his castle at Urquhart. It is uncertain, but it is highly likely that he died in March 1386, and no later than 1389. His wife appears to have been a daughter of Sir Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk, and sister of David Lindsay, 1st Earl of Crawford. They had a daughter, Euphemia, who succeeded to the earldom. His widow married secondly Sir William Graham of Montrose, by whom she was the mother of his eldest son and heir Alexander Graham, esq., of Kincardine, father of the first Lord Graham.1
  • Birth*: David Stewart Earl Palatine of Strathern and Caithness was born in 1357 in Scotland.1
  • Death*: He died circa 1386 in Scotland.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 9 May 2015

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Stewart,_Earl_of_Strathearn.

Friedrich I von Luxembourg Graf im Moselgau1

M, #9327, b. 965, d. 6 October 1019

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Friedrich I von Luxembourg Graf im Moselgau was born in 965 in Moselgau, Germany.1
  • Death*: He died on 6 October 1019 in Germany.1
  • Biography*: Frederick of Luxembourg (965 – 6 October 1019), count of Moselgau, was a son of count Siegfried of Luxembourg and Hedwig of Nordgau.

    By a wife whose name is unknown (certain historians give her as Ermentrude, countess of Gleiberg), he had:
    Henry II († 1047), count of Luxembourg and duke of Bavaria
    Frederick (1003 † 1065), Duke of Lower Lorraine
    Giselbert (1007 † 1059), count of Longwy, of Salm and of Luxembourg
    Adalbéron III († 1072), bishop of Metz
    Thierry, father of :
    Thierry († 1075)
    Henry († 1095), count palatine of Lorraine
    Poppon († 1103), bishop of Metz
    Ogive (v. 990 † 1036), married in 1012 to Baldwin IV (980 † 1035), count of Flanders
    Imiza, married Welf II of Altdorf, count in Lechrain († 1030)
    Oda, canoness at Remiremont, then abbess of Saint-Rémy at Lunéville
    Gisèle (1019 † after 1058), married to Radulfe, lord of Aalst († after 1038) parents to Gilbert de Gant.3

Family:

  • Last Edited: 13 May 2015

Sigfried (?) of Luxembourg1

M, #9328, b. circa 922, d. 28 October 998

Siegfried of Luxembourg

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Sigfried (?) of Luxembourg was born circa 922 in Lotharingia, Germany*.1
  • Death*: He died on 28 October 998 in Germany*.1
  • Biography*: Siegfried (or Sigefroy) (c.?922 – 28 October 998) is considered the first count of Luxembourg. He was actually count in the Moselgau and the Ardennes. He was also the advocate of the abbeys of Saint-Maximin de Trêves and Saint-Willibrord d'Echternach. He is speculated to be the son of Count Palatine Wigeric of Lotharingia and Cunigunda. He is the founder of the House of Luxembourg, a cadet branch of the House of Ardennes.

    He had possessions from his father in Upper Lorraine. If his title of "count" is not in dispute, the extent of the lands he possessed remains unclear. The dispersed and limited nature of his territories may have induced him to engage in an expansionist policy. From 958, he set his eyes on the territories of count Warner in the region of Bodeux, near the Benedictine Abbey of Stavelot. However, the abbot of Stavelot, Werinfried, reluctant to have an amibitious landowner as his neighbour, acquired the village of Bodeux himself in 959.

    As Siegfried's ambitions to expand towards the Meuse had failed, and as he was unwilling to move towards the powerful episcopal cities of Trier or Metz, which ruled out expanding towards the Moselle, he turned his attention towards a meander in the Alzette valley.

    In the mid-10th century, Siegfried acquired the rocky promontory known as Lucilinburhuc and its immediate surrounding area in this meander, as well as usage rights for the river, from the Abbey of Saint-Maximin in Trier; this was in exchange for a plot of land he owned near Feulen. The deed for the exchange was not drawn up until 987; although the plots of land involved were tiny, the transaction was evidently a significant one: the document bears the seals of Bruno, archbishop of Cologne and brother of emperor Otto I; Henry, archbishop of Trier; and Frederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine, who was Siegfried's brother.

    Historical knowledge of the early years of the fortress and town of Luxembourg, as it would become known, is limited. It is known that in 963 Siegfried built a stronghold, a castellum Lucilinburhuc, around which a town started to grow. In fact, whether he built a new structure, or restored an existing building on the site, is another unknown. Siegfried gradually extended his territory towards the west, whilst making sure not to encroach on the Abbey's lands, as well as those of the emperor, Otto.

    Though he used the title of count, the title "count of Luxembourg" was only applied to William some 150 years later.

    Siegfried remained a loyal servant of the Holy Roman Emperors: at the death of Otto II in 983, he fought at the side of the widowed Empress consort and regent Theophanu against the ambitions of Lothair of France.

    Around 950, he married Hedwig of Nordgau (937–992), daughter of Eberhard IV of Nordgau. They had the following issue:
    Henry I of Luxembourg
    Siegfried, cited in 985
    Frederick I, Count of Salm and Luxembourg, married Ermentrude of Gleiberg, daughter of Heribert I, Count of Gleiberg and Ermentrud (Imizi).
    Dietrich, bishop of Metz
    Adalberon, canon of Trier
    Gislebert (d.1004), count in the Moselgau
    Cunigunda, married Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor
    Eve, married Gerard, Count of Metz
    Ermentrude, abbess
    Luitgarde, married Arnulf, Count of Holland
    a daughter, married Thietmar.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 13 May 2015

Ceolwulf I (?) King of Mercia1

M, #9329, b. circa 800, d. after 823

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Ceolwulf I (?) King of Mercia was born circa 800 in Mercia, England*.1
  • Death*: He died after 823 in England*.1
  • Biography*: Ceolwulf I was King of Mercia, East Anglia and Kent, from 821 to 823. He was the brother of Cœnwulf, his predecessor, and was deposed by Beornwulf.

    William of Malmesbury declared that, after Coenwulf: “the kingdom of the Mercians declining, and if I may use the expression, nearly lifeless, produced nothing worthy of historical commemoration.” Actually, Mercia did have a moment of glory that William was unaware of. Indicating the year 822, the ‘Annales Cambriae’ states: “The fortress of Degannwy (in Gwynedd) is destroyed by the Saxons and they took the kingdom of Powys into their own control.”

    A later charter depicts a disturbed state of affairs during Ceolwulf's reign: “After the death of Coenwulf, king of the Mercians, many disagreements and innumerable disputes arose among leading persons of every kind – kings, bishops, and ministers of the churches of God – concerning all manner of secular affairs”. In 823, sometime after 26th May, on which date he granted land to Archbishop Wulfred in exchange for a gold and silver vessel, Ceolwulf was overthrown. His replacement was one Beornwulf, whose pedigree is not known.

    Ceolwulf had ruled Kent directly – in his two charters, he is styled as ‘king of the Mercians and of the men of Kent'. Beornwulf would place a kinsman, Baldred, on the Kentish throne.3
  • Last Edited: 13 May 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15037.htm#i150365
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15028.htm#i150273
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceolwulf_I_of_Mercia

Cuthbeort (?)1

M, #9330, b. circa 775

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Cuthbeort (?) was born circa 775 in England*.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 13 May 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15028.htm#i150273
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15036.htm#i150360