Sigerferd (?)1

M, #8461, b. circa 600

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Sigerferd (?) was born circa 600 in England*.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 2 Nov 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15258.htm#i152578
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15258.htm#i152579

Seaxabeald (?) King of Essex1

M, #8462, b. circa 570

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Seaxabeald (?) King of Essex was born circa 570 in England*.1
  • Biography*: Sæberht, Saberht or Sæbert (d. c. 616) was a King of Essex (r. c. 604 – c. 616), in succession of his father King Sledd. He is known as the first East Saxon king to have been converted to Christianity.

    The principal source for his reign is the early 8th-century Historia Ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum by Bede (d. 735), who claims to have derived his information about the missionary work of Mellitus among the East Saxons from Abbot Albinus of Canterbury through the London priest Nothhelm, later Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 739). Other sources include the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, an imperfectly preserved genealogy possibly of the late 9th century and a handful of genealogies and regnal lists written down by Anglo-Norman historians.

    Family
    The genealogies and regnal lists are unanimous in describing Sæberht as the son of Sledd, who may have been regarded as the founder of the East Saxon dynasty. According to Bede, Sæberht's mother was Ricula, a sister of King Æthelberht of Kent.

    Bede omits the names of Sæberht's sons, but one name is given in the genealogy of MS Add. 23211 as Saweard.

    Conversion and succession
    In 604, the Gaulish churchman Mellitus was consecrated by Augustine as bishop in the province of the East Saxons, which had a capital at London, making him the first Bishop of London.

    Bede tells that Sæberht converted to Christianity in 604[5][9] and was baptised by Mellitus, while his sons remained pagan. Sæberht then allowed the bishopric to be established. The episcopal church which was built in London was probably founded by Æthelberht, rather than Sæberht, though a charter which claims to be a grant of lands from Æthelberht to Mellitus is a forgery.

    Death
    Both Æthelberht and Sæberht died in 616, leaving the Gregorian mission without strong patrons. Sæberht's pagan sons drove Mellitus from London. According to Bede's explanation, this happened because Mellitus refused the brothers' request for a taste of the sacramental bread.

    Later medieval legend claimed that Sæberht and his wife Ethelgoda had founded the original abbey building at the site of the present Westminster Abbey, and that they had been buried in the church. In the reign of Henry III their supposed remains were transferred into a tomb which the king had especially erected for them close to the entrance of the Royal Chapels. There is however, no genuine evidence to support this tradition.

    Prittlewell burial
    Royal Saxon tomb in Prittlewell
    In 2003 a high-status Anglo-Saxon tomb was discovered at Prittlewell in Essex. The artefacts found were of a quality that it is likely that Prittlewell was a tomb of one of the Kings of Essex and the discovery of golden foil crosses indicates that the inhabitant was an early Christian. As the evidence points to an early seventh century date, Sæberht is considered the most likely candidate for the burial, although other possibilities such as his Christian grandson Sigeberht the Good, or an unknown individual of high status, cannot be ruled out.3

Family:

  • Last Edited: 11 Jan 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15258.htm#i152579
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15258.htm#i152580
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C3%A6berht_of_Essex

Sledda (?) King of Essex1

M, #8463, b. circa 550

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Sledda (?) King of Essex was born circa 550 in England*.1,2
  • Marriage*: He married Ricula (?), daughter of Eormenric (?) King of Kent, in 575 in England*.1
  • Biography*: Sledd (or Sledda) was King of Essex in the late 6th century, possibly between 587 (?) - c. 604. Extremely little is known about him.

    A West-Saxon genealogy fragmentarily preserved in London, British Library, Add. MS 23211, possibly of the late 9th century, makes him a son and successor of King Æscwine. The post-Conquest historians Henry of Huntingdon's Historia Anglorum, Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum and Matthew Paris's Chronica Majora substitute his father's name for Eorcenwine (Erkenwine, Erchenwine). Though their testimony is centuries removed from Sledd's floruit, it is thought that they drew on alternative pre-Conquest material.

    Although Æscwine or Eorcenwine is sometimes credited with the foundation of the kingdom, genealogies included in the works of William of Malmesbury and John of Worcester (Chronicon B) make Sledd the first king of Essex and genealogies for Sigered and Swithred in Add. MS 23211 trace the line of East Saxon kings no further than Sledd. This suggests that Sledd may have been regarded as the founder of the East Saxon house. On no known authority, Roger of Wendover and Matthew Paris state that Sledd directly succeeded his father on his death in 587.

    Sledd married Ricula, sister of King Æthelbert of Kent. His name appears as being the father of Sæberht, whose rule began in c. 604, and another son is named as Seaxbald.2
  • Last Edited: 3 Nov 2014

Ricula (?)1

F, #8464

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 2 Nov 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15258.htm#i152580
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15257.htm#i152570
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sledd_of_Essex

Eormenric (?) King of Kent1

M, #8465, d. circa 560

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Eormenric (?) King of Kent was born in England.1
  • Death*: He died circa 560 in England.2
  • Biography*: Eormenric of Kent was King of Kent from circa 534/540 to 564/580. His father may have been Octa of Kent, whom Eormenric succeeded. His son, Æthelberht of Kent, in turn succeeded him circa 580/590, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

    Gregory of Tours records that the marriage of Æthelberht to a Frankish princess, Bertha, took place while he was filius regis (the son of the king), most likely during the reign of his father, whom the genealogies name Eormenric. Therefore Eormenric can be regarded as the first historical King of Kent. As the date of the marriage is not known, Eormenric's reign cannot be dated. The Venerable Bede placed his death in 560, but since his son's wife was not even born at that time, it seems unlikely. Rather, Gregory implies that Æthelberht's father was still reigning as of his writing (589).

    Eormenric's Frankish connexion goes deeper than his daughter-in-law. The first component of his name Eormen- was uncommon in England at the time, but common in Francia. Both Eormen- and -ric were used repeatedly in naming by the Oiscingas thereafter.3

Family:

  • Last Edited: 9 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15257.htm#i152570
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15026.htm#i150254
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eormenric_of_Kent

Octa (?) King of Kent1

M, #8466, b. circa 500, d. circa 543

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Octa (?) King of Kent was born circa 500 in Kent, England*.1,3
  • Death*: He died circa 543 in Kent, England*.3
  • Biography*: Octa (or Octha) (c. 500 – 543) was an Anglo-Saxon King of Kent during the 6th century. Sources disagree on his relationship to the other kings in his line; he may have been the son of Hengist or Oisc, and may have been the father of Oisc or Eormenric. The dates of his reign are unclear, but he may have ruled from 512 to 534 or from 516 to 540. Most likely the former of the to according to William of Malmesbury information about Orric's reign in Book I.8 of Gesta Regum Anglorum. Despite his shadowy recorded history Octa made an impact on the Britons, who describe his deeds in several sources.

    Sources
    The 9th-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, one of the most important sources for this period of history, does not mention Octa. It does, however, mention Hengist and gives Oisc as his son. However, Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People, completed around 731, names Octa as the son of "Orric, surnamed Oisc" and the grandson of Hengist. Conversely, the 9th-century Cotton Vespasian manuscript indicates that Octa was the son of Hengist and the father of Oisc.

    Octa also appears in the Historia Brittonum, a 9th-century history of the Britons. According to the narrative, Hengist, who had settled in Britain with the consent of the British king Vortigern as defence against the Scots, sends for his sons Octa and Ebusa to supplement his forces. Octa and Ebusa subsequently raid Scotland. After Hengist's death Octa becomes king of Kent. Some manuscripts of the Historia include genealogies of the Saxon kingdoms; the genealogy of the kings of Kent names Octa as the son and successor to Hengist and the father to the subsequent king Ossa.

    In literature
    Octa appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 12th-century pseudohistory Historia Regum Britanniae. The earlier scenes featuring him are taken directly from the Historia Brittonum, while the later scenes have no known source, and were likely invented by Geoffrey. As in the Historia Brittonum, Octa is brought to Britain by his father with Vortigern's consent. Later, Vortigern is deposed by the rightful King of the Britons, Aurelius Ambrosius (the historical Ambrosius Aurelianus) and Hengist is captured and later executed. Octa leads his men to York and continues to harry the Britons, along with his kinsman Eosa. Aurelius besieges York, and eventually Octa surrenders. He negotiates a truce in which the Saxons are allowed to stay in northern Britain as vassals to Aurelius. After the death of Aurelius, however, Octa and Eosa regard the treaty as no longer binding and resume their belligerence. The new king, Aurelius' brother Uther Pendragon, leads his armies against the Saxons and routs them in a surprise night attack. Octa and Eosa are taken prisoner, but they eventually escape and return to Germany. They return with a vast army, and Uther meets them again in a battle in which Octa and Eosa are finally slain.

    Octa may appear in Welsh Arthurian literature as Osla Bigknife, though this character may be better identified with Offa of Mercia. This Osla figures in two medieval prose tales, Culhwch and Olwen (c. 1100) and The Dream of Rhonabwy (12th- or 13th-century). In Culhwch he is a member of King Arthur's retinue; he is named in a list of Arthur's followers, and his weapon "Bronllavyn Short Broad", which is wide enough for Arthur's army to use as a bridge, is described. Osla later participates in the hunt for the great boar Twrch Trwyth, during which he nearly drowns when the sheath of his great knife fills with water. In Rhonabwy Osla is Arthur's opponent at the Battle of Badon.3

Family:

  • Last Edited: 31 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15026.htm#i150254
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15026.htm#i150253
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octa_of_Kent

Oeric Oisc (?) King of Kent1

M, #8467, b. circa 470, d. circa 516

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Oeric Oisc (?) King of Kent was born circa 470 in Kent, England*.1
  • Death*: He died circa 516 in Kent, England*.2
  • Biography*: He succeeded to the title of King Oeric of Kent in 488.

    Oisc (alternately Oeric, Aesc or Esc) was an early king of Kent who ruled for twenty-four years, from 488 to 516.

    Little is known about him, and the information that does survive regarding his life is often vague and suspect. He seems to have been the son or the grandson of Hengest, who led the initial Anglo-Saxon conquest and settlement of Kent. According to Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Oisc's given name was Orric. Bede indicates that he was the son of Hengest, and came to Britain with him, with the permission of the British king Vortigern. He was the father of Octa, who succeeded him. His descendants called themselves "Oiscingas" after him.2,3

Family:

  • Last Edited: 31 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15026.htm#i150253
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15026.htm#i150252
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oisc_of_Kent

Hengist (?) King of Kent1

M, #8468, b. circa 450, d. circa 488

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Hengist (?) King of Kent was born circa 450 in Germany.1
  • Death*: He died circa 488 in Kent, England.2
  • Biography*: Hengist (or Hengest) and Horsa (or Hors) are figures of Anglo-Saxon, and subsequently British, legend, which records the two as the Germanic brothers who led the Angle, Saxon, and Jutish armies that conquered the first territories of Britain in the 5th century. Hengist, through his son (who varies by source), is traditionally listed as the founder of the Kingdom of Kent.

    Hengist and Horsa are attested in Bede's 8th-century Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum; in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, attributed to Nennius; and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a collection of annals compiled from the end of the 9th century. Geoffrey of Monmouth greatly expanded the story in his influential 12th-century pseudohistory Historia Regum Britanniae, which was adapted into several other languages. As a result, the pair appear in various other later works. Notably, Hengist is also briefly mentioned in the Prose Edda, written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century.

    According to these sources Hengist and Horsa arrived in Britain as mercenaries serving Vortigern, King of the Britons. This event is traditionally recognised as the beginning of the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain. Sources disagree with whether Hengist was the father or grandfather of Oisc of Kent and Octa of Kent, one of whom succeeded Hengist as king. In the Historia Brittonum Hengist had an unnamed daughter (her name is first given in Historia Regum Britanniae as Rowena) who seduced Vortigern, eventually leading to the Night of the Long Knives when Hengist's men massacred the Britons at a peace accord. While the early sources indicate that Horsa died fighting the Britons, no details are provided about Hengist's death until Geoffrey's Historia, which states that Hengist was beheaded by Eldol, the British duke of Gloucester, and buried in an unlocated mound.

    A figure named Hengest, who may be identifiable with the leader of British legend, appears in the Finnesburg Fragment and Beowulf. In what is now Northern Germany, horse head gables, or gable signs adorned with two rampant horse figures, were referred to as "Hengist and Hors" up until the late 19th century. Other founding horse-associated twin brothers are attested among various other Germanic peoples, and appear in other Indo-European cultures. As a result, scholars have theorized a pan-Germanic mythological origin for Hengist and Horsa, stemming originally from divine twins found in Proto-Indo-European religion. In older scholarship, the scholar J. R. R. Tolkien and others have argued for a historical basis for Hengist.


    Etymology
    The Old English names Hengest and Horsa mean "stallion" and "horse" respectively.

    The original Old English word for a horse was eoh. Eoh is derived from the Proto-Indo-European base *ekwo, hence Latin equus which gave rise to the modern English words equine and equestrian. Hors is derived from the Proto-Indo-European base *kurs, which also gave rise to hurry, carry, harry, hurrah and current. Hors eventually replaced eoh, fitting a pattern elsewhere in Germanic languages where the original names of sacred animals are abandoned in favour of adjectives; for example, the word bear. While the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle refer to the brother as Horsa, in the Historia Brittonum his name is simply Hors. It has been suggested that Horsa may be a hypocorism for a compound name whose first element was hors.

    Attestations
    Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum
    In his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, Bede records that the first chieftains among the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes in England were said to be Hengist and Horsa. Bede says that Horsa was killed in battle against the Britons and was thereafter buried in east Kent. Bede adds that a monument bearing Horsa's name stood in east Kent at the time of his writing. According to Bede, Hengist and Horsa were the sons of Wictgils, son of Witta, son of Wecta, son of Woden.

    Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
    The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for the year 449 records that Hengest and Horsa were invited to Britain by Vortigern to assist his forces in fighting the Picts. Hengist and Horsa arrived at a place called Ipwinesfleet, and went on to defeat the Picts wherever they fought them. Hengist and Horsa sent word to the Angles describing "the worthlessness of the Britons, and the richness of the land" and asked for assistance. Their request was granted and support arrived. Afterward, more people arrived in Britain from "the three powers of Germany; the Old Saxons, the Angles, and the Jutes". The Old Saxons populated the areas of the kingdoms of Essex, Sussex and Wessex. The Jutes populated the area of Kent, the Isle of Wight and an area of the adjacent mainland that would later be part of Wessex. The East Angles, Middle Angles, Mercians and "all those north of Humber" arrived from the region of Anglia (a peninsula in Southern Schleswig, Northern Germany) "which has ever since remained waste between the Jutes and Saxons". These forces were led by the brothers Hengist and Horsa, sons of Wihtgils, son of Witta, son of Wecta, son of Woden.

    In the entry for the year 455 the Chronicle details that Hengist and Horsa fought with Vortigern at Aylesford and that Horsa died there. Hengist took control of the kingdom with his son Esc. In 457, Hengist and Esc fought against British forces in Crayford "and there slew four thousand men". The Britons left the land of Kent and fled to London. In 465, Hengest and Esc fought against the Welsh in the Battle of Wippedesfleot, probably near Ebbsfleet. Under their command a thegn was killed, "whose name was Wipped". In the year 473, the final entry in the Chronicle mentioning Hengist or Horsa, Hengist and Esc are recorded as having fought "the Welsh", having taken "immense booty" and the Welsh having "fled from the English like fire".

    Historia Brittonum
    The Historia Brittonum records that, during the reign of Vortigern in Britain, three vessels that had been exiled from Germania arrived in Britain, commanded by Hengist and Horsa. The narrative then gives a genealogy of the two: Hengist and Horsa were sons of Guictglis, son of Guicta, son of Guechta, son of Vouden, son of Frealof, son of Fredulf, son of Finn, son of Foleguald, and Foleguald son of Geta. The Historia Brittonum details that Geta was said to be the son of a god, yet "not of the omnipotent God and our Lord Jesus Christ," but rather "the offspring of one of their idols, and whom, blinded by some demon, they worshipped according to the custom of the heathen." In 447 AD, Vortigern received Hengist and Horsa "as friends" and gave to the brothers the Isle of Thanet.

    After the Saxons had lived on Thanet for "some time" Vortigern promised them supplies of clothing and other provisions on condition that the Saxons assist him in fighting the enemies of his country. The Saxons increased in number and the Britons were unable to keep their agreement. The Britons told the Saxons that the Saxons' numbers had increased, that they no longer needed Saxon assistance and that the Saxons should go home as the Britons could no longer support them.

    Vortigern allowed Hengist to send for more of Hengist's countrymen to come over to Britain and fight for Vortigern. Messengers were sent to "Scythia", where "a number" of warriors were selected, and, with sixteen ships, the messengers returned. With the men came Hengist's beautiful daughter. Hengist prepared a feast, inviting Vortigern, Vortigern's officers, and Ceretic[disambiguation needed], his translator. Prior to the feast, Hengist enjoined his daughter to serve the guests plenty of wine and ale so that they would get very intoxicated. The plan succeeded. "At the instigation of the Devil", Vortigern fell in love with Hengist's daughter and promised Hengist whatever he liked in exchange for her betrothal. Hengist, having previously "consulted with the Elders who attended him of the Angle race," demanded Kent. Without the knowledge of the then-ruler of Kent, Vortigern agreed.

    Hengist's daughter was given to Vortigern, who slept with her and deeply loved her. Hengist told Vortigern that he would now be both Vortigern's father and adviser and that Vortigern would know no defeat with his counsel, "for the people of my country are strong, warlike, and robust." With Vortigern's approval, Hengist would send for his son and his brother to fight against the Scots and those who dwell in the north "near the wall called Guaul." Vortigern agreed and Ochta and Ebissa arrived with 40 ships, sailed around the land of the Picts, conquered "many regions," and assaulted the Orkney Islands. Hengist continued to send for more ships from his country, so that some islands where his people had previously dwelt are now free of inhabitants.

    Vortigern had meanwhile incurred the wrath of Germanus of Auxerre and gone into hiding at the advice of his counsel. But at length his son Vortimer engaged Hengist and Horsa and their men in battle, drove them back to Thanet and there enclosed them and beset them on the western flank. The war waxed and waned; the Saxons repeatedly gained ground and were repeatedly driven back. Vortimer attacked the Saxons four times: first enclosing the Saxons in Thanet, secondly fighting at the river Derwent[disambiguation needed], the third time at Epsford, where both Horsa and Vortigern's son Catigern died, and lastly "near the stone on the shore of the Gallic sea," where the Saxons were defeated and fled to their ships.

    After a "short interval" Vortimer died and the Saxons became established, "assisted by foreign pagans." Hengist convened his forces and sent to Vortigern an offer of peace. Vortigern accepted, and Hengist prepared a feast to bring together the British and Saxon leaders. However, he instructed his men to conceal knives beneath their feet. At the right moment, Hengist shouted "nima der sexa" (take out the sword), and his men massacred the unsuspecting Britons. However, they spared Vortigern, who ransomed himself by giving the Saxons Essex, Sussex, Middlesex, and other unnamed districts.

    Germanus of Auxerre was acclaimed as commander of the British forces. By praying, singing hallelujah and crying to God, the Saxons were driven to the sea. Germanus then prayed for three days and nights at Vortigern's castle and fire fell from heaven and engulfed the castle. Vortigern, Hengist's daughter, Vortigern's other wives, and all other inhabitants burned to death. Potential alternate fates for Vortigern are provided.[14] However, the Saxons continued to increase in numbers, and after Hengist died his son Ochta succeeded him.

    Historia Regum Britanniae
    Geoffrey of Monmouth adapted and greatly expanded the Historia Brittonum account in his work Historia Regum Britanniae. Hengist and Horsa appear in books 6 and 8:

    Book 6
    In chapter 10 of book 6 of Historia Regum Britanniae, Geoffrey records that three brigandines (or long galleys) full of armed men commanded by two brothers, Hengist and Horsa, arrived in Britain. At the time, Vortigern was in what is now Canterbury, and upon being informed of "the arrival of some tall strangers in large ships," he ordered that they be received with peace and led to him. After the brothers are brought before him, Vortigern looks over their company and observes that the brothers "excelled all the rest both in nobility and in gracefulness of person." Vortigern asks what country they have come from and why they have come to his kingdom. Hengist—here Geoffrey notes whose "years and wisdom entitled him to precedence"—responds for the company, stating that they have come from their homeland of Saxony, and that they had come to offer their services to Vortigern or some other prince. Hengist continues that they were driven from their native country because "the laws of the kingdom require it" and details that Saxony had become overpopulated; the tradition of their people dictates that when their lands are overstocked with people, the princes of all their provinces meet, and they order that all of the youth of the kingdom assemble before them. Then, through casting lots, the princes chose among the "strongest and ablest" among their people to "go into foreign nations, to procure themselves sustenance, and free their native country from a superfluous multitude of people." Hengist notes that his retinue is the result of this process, and through this custom Hengist and his brother Horsa were made generals "out of respect to our ancestors, who enjoyed the same honour," and so they have arrived in Vortigern's kingdom "under the good guidance of Mercury."

    At Hengist's mention of Mercury, Vortigern looks "earnestly upon them" and asks them their religion. Hengist responds:
    "We worship," replied Hengist, "our country gods, Saturn and Jupiter, and the other deities that govern the world, but especially Mercury, whom in our language we call Woden and to whom our ancestors consecrated the fourth day of the week, still called after his name Wodensday. Next to him we worship the powerful goddess, Frea, to whom they also dedicated the sixth day, which after her name we call Friday."

    Vortigern comments that he is grieved that pagans have come to help him, but says that he rejoices at their arrival as, "whether by God's providence, or some other agency," their assistance is much needed, for Vortigern is surrounded by enemies. Vortigern asks Hengist and Horsa if they will help him in his wars, and offers them land and "other possessions." Hengist and Horsa accept Vortigern's offer, settle on an agreement, and stay with Vortigern at his court. Soon after, the Picts come from Albania with an immense army and attack the northern part of the island. Vortigern catches word of the attack, gathers his forces, and meets the Picts beyond the Humber. A fierce battle ensues, yet "there was little occasion for the Britons to exert themselves, for the Saxons fought so bravely, that the enemy, formerly victorious were speedily put to flight."

    In chapter 11, since Vortigern now owes his victory to Hengist and Horsa, he increases the rewards he has promised to two. Vortigern gives Hengist "large possessions of lands in Lindesia for the subsistence of himself and his fellow-soldiers." Geoffrey refers to Hengist as a "man of experience and subtilty," and records that Hengist told Vortigern that Vortigern's enemies assail him from every quarter, and that few of Vortigern's subjects love him. Hengist continues that Vortigern's subjects threaten Vortigern and say that they will bring over Aurelius Ambrosius from Armorica to depose Vortigern and make Aurelius king. Hengist asks Vortigen to allow him to send word to Saxony to bring over more soldiers so that the Saxon forces will be better able to oppose the call to depose Vortigern. Vortigern agrees, adds that Hengist may invite over whom he pleases and tells Hengist that "you shall have no refusal from me in whatever you shall desire."

    Hengist bows low in thanks, and tells Vortigern that, while Vortigern has provided him with much land, he wishes Vortigern would make of him a consul or a prince, as Hengist notes Hengist's royal heritage dictates. Vortigern responds that it is not in his power to appoint Hengist to these positions, reasoning that Hengist is a pagan, that he barely knows Hengist, that Hengist's people are strangers and that Vortigern's nobles would not accept the appointment. Hengist asks Vortigern to give him only enough land that Hengist can encircle with a leather thong, so that Hengist may build a fortress upon it—in case a future retreat may require it. Hengist reassures Vortigern that Hengist will always be faithful to him. Vortigern accepts Hengist's proposition and orders Hengist to invite more people from Hengist's homeland.

    After immediately executing Vortigern's orders, Hengist took a bull's hide, and made the hide into a single thong. Using the leather thong, Hengist encompasses a rocky location he carefully chooses. Upon the rocky place Hengist begins to build a castle, and after it is finished he names it Kaercorrei, or in Saxon Thancastre, which Geoffrey explains means "thong castle."

    Chapter 11 begins with the return of the messengers sent to Germania, bringing with them eighteen ships full of "the best soldiers they could get." Along with the soldiers comes Rowena, Hengist's daughter, described as "one of the most accomplished beauties of that age." After their arrival, Hengist invites Vortigern to see his new buildings and the newly arrived soldiers. Vortigern privately accepts the invitation, commends "the magnificence of the structure" and inducts the new soldiers into his service. Vortigern attends a royal banquet held in the new castle, and Vortigern cavorts with Rowena. Vortigern falls in love with the pagan Rowena (due to the influence of "the devil" in Vortigern's heart, according to the account) and Vortigern asks. Noting this, Hengist—here described as a "prudent man"—realizes the advantage of the situation and consults with his brother Horsa "and the other ancient men present" about how best to respond to Vortigern's request. Horsa and the men all agree that Hengist should allow the marriage.

    Rowena is immediately sent to Vortigern and the providence of Kent is given to Hengist, without the knowledge of the then-ruler of Kent, Gorangan. Vortigern marries Rowena that night, is very pleased with her, but brings upon himself the hatred of his nobles and three sons.

    In chapter 12, Hengist tells Vortigern that, due to Vortigern's marriage to his daughter Rowena, Hengist is now Vortigern's father, and Vortigern must now heed his counsel. Hengist says:
    "As I am your father, I claim the right of being your counsellor: do not therefore slight my advice, since it is to my countrymen you must owe the conquest of all your enemies. Let us invite over my son Octa, and his brother Ebissa, who are brave soldiers, and give them the countries that are in the northern parts of Britain, by the wall, between Deira and Albania. For they will hinder the inroads of the barbarians, and so you shall enjoy peace on the other side of the Humber."

    Vortigern agrees. Upon receiving the invitation, Octa, Ebissa, and Cherdich, with three hundred ships full of soldiers immediately left for Britain. Vortigern receives them kindly, and gives them ample gifts. With their assistance, Vortigern defeats his enemies in every engagement. All the while Hengist continues inviting over yet more ships, adding to his numbers daily. Witnessing this, the Britons try to get Vortigern to banish the pagan Saxons from Vortigern's coasts. Vortimer's subjects turn on him, and attempt to drive out the pagans. The Saxons and Britons meet in four battles. In the second, one of Vortigern's sons, Catigern, fights Horsa, and they kill one another. By the fourth battle, the British have fled to the Isle of Thanet, where Vortigern's son Vortimer there besieges them. When the Saxons can no longer tolerate the assaults of the Britons, they send out Vortigern to his son Vortimer, asking for safe return back to Germania. While the matter is being discussed, the Saxons board their ships, and, leaving their wives and children behind, set sail back to Germania.

    In chapter 13, Rowena poisons the victorious Vortimer, resulting in his death. In chapter 13, Vortigern returns to the throne, and, at the request of Rowena, has messengers relay an invitation to Hengist in Germania to return back to Britain but, this time, with only a small retinue in tow. Hengist, hearing that Vortimer is dead, raises an army of three thousand or men, sets up a fleet, and sails it to Britain. When Vortigern and his nobility catch word of the imminent arrival of the Saxon fleet, they meet in counsel, and resolve to drive the Saxons from their coasts. Rowena sends messengers to her father Hengist to alert him of the plight of the Britons. Hengist holds counsel, considers several strategies, yet comes to the conclusion that the Saxons should rather make a show of peace. Hengist sends ambassadors to Vortigern.

    The ambassadors inform Vortigern that Hengist does not intend to stay with Vortigern nor does Hengist intend to attack his countrymen, but rather he has brought his men because he thought Vortimer was yet living, so that he could defend himself. Yet now that he, Hengist, no longer doubts the death of Vortimer, Hengist submits himself and his people to the will of Vortigern, so that he will accept whomever Vortigern likes among his men, and send the rest back to Germania. Hengist says that, if Vortigern deems these terms acceptable, he requests that Vortigern set a time and place for them to meet. Vortimer, having been most unwilling to part with Hengist, agrees and orders his subjects and the Saxons at the monastery of Ambrius to meet during the nearby month of May. Both sides agreed.

    Hengist orders each of his soldiers to carry a long dagger beneath their clothing. While consulting with the Britons, who would not be suspicious, Hengist would give out the command "Nemet oure Saxas," (take out our swords) and, at that moment, every soldier must be ready to seize the Briton closest to him and, with their drawn dagger, stab him. As planned, the Britons and Saxons meet together at the appointed time and place, and begin to discuss peace. When Hengist feels the time had come to execute his plan, he cries out "Nemet oure Saxas," and, at that moment, grabs and holds Vortigern by his cloak. The signal given, the Saxons fall upon the unsuspecting and unarmed British princes, and kill 460 barons and consuls. The spectating Britons slay some of the Saxons with clubs and stones.

    Book 8
    In chapter 1 of book 8 of Historia Regum Britanniae, Merlin prophecies to Vortigern (who fled to Cambria during the Saxon onslaught) that Hengist will be killed and that Uther Pendragon will be crowned. In chapter III, Hengist is struck with terror after hearing that Aurelius Ambrosius had rallied the Britons and burned Vortigern alive in a tower, "for he dreaded the valour of Aurelius." The Saxons flee beyond the Humber. Aurelius goes northward in pursuit of the Saxons.

    In chapter 4, Hengist takes courage at the approach of Aurelius and chooses out the bravest among his men to defend. Hengist tells these chosen men not to be afraid of Aurelius, for Aurelius must only have had a few Armorican Britons, as their numbers did not exceed ten thousand, and the native Britons he did not mention, "since they had been so often defeated by him." Hengist promises the men victory and safety, reasoning that the Saxon numbers are superior, being 200,000 men. Hengist and his men advance towards Aurelius in a field called Maisbeli, intending to take Aurelius by surprise and to attack the Britons while they were unprepared. Aurelius expects Hengist's rush, and rushes with speed into the field.

    In chapter 5, Eldol, the duke of Gloucester, goes to Aurelius as they march to meet Hengist. Eldol tells Aurelius that he greatly wishes to meet engage in single combat with Hengist, noting that "one of the two of us should die before we parted." Eldol explains that he recalls vividly the day that the Saxons and Britons met for a peace treaty, only for the Saxons to turn on the convened Britons . Eldol states that he is the sole survivor of the Britons who met there, having escaped by defending himself a stake that he claims was thrown to him by God. On the other side, Hengist was placing his troops into formation, giving directions, and walking through the lines of troops, "the more to spirit them up."

    Both armies in formation, battle begins between the Britons and Saxons, both sides shedding "no small loss of blood." Eldol focuses on attempting to find Hengist, but has no chance. Hengist finds that his men, who are pagans, are routed, and that the Britons, who are Christian, "by the especial favour of god," hold the upper hand. Hengist and his men flee to "Kaerconan, now Conungeburg." Aurelius pursues the Saxons, killing or enslaving all he encounters along the way. Seeing that he is being pursued by Aurelius and, realizing the town will not hold against Aurelius, Hengist refuses to enter the town, but rather assembles his men, and orders them to make a stand, "for he knew that his whole security now lay in his sword."

    Aurelius overtakes Hengist, and a "most furious" fight begins. The Saxons solidly maintain their ground. Both sides see "great slaughter, the groans of the dying causing a greater range in those that survived." The Saxons nearly win, yet a detachment of horses from the Armorican Britons arrive. Eldol continues to focus on pursuing Hengist, slaying men all along the way.

    In chapter 6, the battle between the Saxons and Britons continues. Gorlois, the duke of Cornwall arrives, which inspires Eldol to grab Hengist's helmet, and Eldol pulls Hengist into the Britons. Eldol cries out that Hengist is defeated, and the sides continue to battle. After a while, Hengist's son Octa retreats to York "with a great body of men" and Eosa, "his kinsman," retreats to Alclud, where he keeps a "large army for his guard."

    In chapter 7, after a break of three days, Aurelius calls together a counsel of principal officers to decide what to do with Hengist. Present at the assembly is Eldad, brother of Eldol and bishop of Gloucester. Eldad sees Hengist standing by Aurelius and demands silence. Eldad says:
    Though all should be unanimous for setting him at liberty, yet would I cut him to pieces. The prophet Samuel is my warrant, who, when he had Agag, king of Amalek, in his power, hewed him in pieces, saying, As they sword hath made women childless, so shall thy mother be childless among women. Do therefore the same to Hengist, who is a second Agag.

    Eldol takes his sword, draws Hengist out of the city, and cuts off Hengist's head. Aurelius, "who showed moderation in all his conduct," arranged for Hengist to be buried and a mound be raised over his corpse "according to the custom of pagans.[35] In chapter 8, Octa surrenders to Aurelius and Aurelius grants Octa, Eosa, "and the rest that fled" the "country bordering upon Scotland, and made a firm covenant with them."

    Prose Edda
    Hengist is briefly mentioned in Prologue, the first book of the Prose Edda, written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century. In Prologue, a euhemerized account of the origins of Norse mythology is provided, including that while Odin was in Saxony, Odin put three of his sons in charge of the area. One of these three sons was Veggdegg, a "powerful king" who ruled over eastern Saxony. One of Veggdegg's sons was Vitrgils, the father of Vitta, father of Hengist. Vitta's other son (and Hengist's uncle) was Sigar, father of Svipdagr.3

Family:

  • Last Edited: 7 Mar 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15026.htm#i150252
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15026.htm#i150251
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hengist_and_Horsa

Wihtgils (?)1

M, #8469, b. circa 425

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Wihtgils (?) was born circa 425 in Germany.1
  • Biography*: Wihtgils (fl. 5th century) was a semi-legendary Jutish chieftain who, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, was the father of Hengest and Horsa:
    A.D. 449 Their leaders were two brothers, Hengest and Horsa; who were the sons of Wihtgils; Wihtgils was the son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, Wecta of Woden. From this Woden arose all our royal kindred, and that of the Southumbrians also.3

Family:

  • Last Edited: 7 Mar 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15026.htm#i150251
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15025.htm#i150250
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wihtgils

Uitta (?)1

M, #8470

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Uitta (?) was born in Germany.1
  • Name Variation: Uitta (?) was also known as Witta (?)2

Family:

  • Last Edited: 20 Mar 2013

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p15025.htm#i150250
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wihtgils

Helias I de la Fleche Comte de Maine1

M, #8471, b. circa 1070, d. 11 July 1110

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name Variation: Helias I de la Fleche Comte de Maine was also known as Elias I Comte de Maine.3
  • Birth*: He was born circa 1070 in Maine, France*.1
  • Marriage*: He married Mathilde de Chateau-du-Loire, daughter of Gervase de Chateau-du-Loire Seigneur de Chateau-du-Loire and Aremberge (?), circa 1090 in France.1
  • Death*: Helias I de la Fleche Comte de Maine died on 11 July 1110 in France.2
  • Biography*: Elias I (also Hélie or Élie) (died 11 July 1110), called de la Flèche or de Baugency, was the Count of Maine, succeeding his cousin Hugh V, Count of Maine.

    Life
    He was the son of Jean de la Flèche and Paula, daughter of Herbert I, Count of Maine.

    In 1092, his cousin Hugh V sold Maine to him for 10,000 shillings. With the support of Fulk IV of Anjou, he continued the war with Robert II of Normandy. After Robert's departure with the First Crusade, Elias made peace with William Rufus, Robert's regent in Normandy.

    Family
    In 1090 Elias married Matilda, daughter of Gervais II, Lord of Château-du-Loir. They had a daughter:

    Eremburg, married Fulk V of Anjou.

    In 1109, says Orderic Vitalis, Elias remarried to Agnes, the daughter of William of Poitou and relict of Alfonso VI of Castile] She died the following year, however.4

Family: Mathilde de Chateau-du-Loire b. c 1075, d. c 1099

  • Last Edited: 20 Nov 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10475.htm#i104743
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10078.htm#i100776
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elias_I_of_Maine
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elias_I,_Count_of_Maine.

Mathilde de Chateau-du-Loire1

F, #8472, b. circa 1075, d. circa 1099

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Helias I de la Fleche Comte de Maine b. c 1070, d. 11 Jul 1110

  • Last Edited: 7 Mar 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10475.htm#i104743
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p386.htm#i3857
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p386.htm#i3857
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10475.htm#i104743

Jean de la Fleche Seigneur dela Fleche1

M, #8473, b. circa 1050

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Paula (?) of Maine b. b 1035

  • Last Edited: 20 Nov 2014

Paula (?) of Maine1

F, #8474, b. before 1035

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 20 Nov 2014

Herbert I (?) Count of Maine1

M, #8475, b. circa 950, d. 13 April 1035

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Herbert I (?) Count of Maine was born circa 950 in Maine, France*.1
  • Death*: He died on 13 April 1035 in Maine, France*.2,3
  • Biography*: Herbert I (died 13 April 1035), called Wakedog (from French Eveille-chien, Latinized as Evigilans Canis), was the count of Maine from 1017 until his death. He had a turbulent career with an early victory that may have contributed to his later decline.

    Life
    He was the son of Hugh III and succeeded his father as count of Maine. Herbert was, at times, a nominal vassal of his neighbor Fulk III Nerra, Count of Anjou but otherwise considered himself independent and obtained his nickname "Wake-dog" for having to constantly resist the intrusions of his Angevin neighbors to the south] From the time Herbert became count in 1017, he was almost constantly at war with Avesgaud de Bellême, Bishop of Le Mans.

    In 1016, a young Herbert was allied to Fulk III in a war against Odo II of Blois. On July 6 Odo was en route to attack the fortress of Montrichard, and on discovering this Fulk and Herbert split their forces to block either of the two approaches. Odo ran headlong into the Angevin force under Fulk, known as the Battle of Pontlevoy. Odo’s greater force was prevailing and Fulk himself was thrown from his horse and in danger of being killed or captured, but a messenger had been sent to Herbert to come immediately] Herbert attacked the left flank of Odo’s forces throwing them into complete confusion; Odo’s mounted force fled leaving his foot soldiers to be slaughtered. Odo was completely defeated and was unable to challenge Fulk again for nearly a decade. While this battle established Herbert’s reputation as a warrior it also began deteriorating the relationship between Fulk and Heebert.

    His battles with Avesgaud, Bishop of Le Mans were heating up again and in 1025 Herbert made a night raid on the Bishop’s castle at Duneau causing Avesgaud to flee to the protection of his brother William Lord of Belleme. Once he was safe the Bishop excommunicated Herbert and then continued his warring against with him. Not long after the excommunication was lifted and peace was restored between them when Herbert started raiding the Bishop’s estates again. This time Herbert, with the help of Count Alan III of Rennes, attacked the Bishop at his castle at Le Ferte and reduced this castle as well.

    On 7 March 1025, Fulk Nerra lured Herbert to Saintes on the promise of giving him Saintes as a benefice. Herbert was captured and imprisoned for two years until a coalition forced his release. During his captivity Fulk had taken over the government of Maine and before returning Herbert to his countship, he seized the southwestern territories of Maine including several fortresses, attaching them to Anjou. It was only after suffering complete humiliation that Herbert was allowed to go free.

    Due in part to his wars with Bishop Avesguadus (an ally of Fulk Nerra) and in part with his imprisonment, the county of Main declined under Herbert I. He built the castle of Sablé but by 1015 he had for some reason allowed it to become an independent lordship under the viscounts of Maine. Likewise Chateau-du-Loir built in the early eleventh century also quickly came under control of independent castellans.

    While plain coins with only Latin motto Gratia dei rex had been minted under comital authority throughout the tenth century at Le Mans, at some time between 1020 and 1030 coins were struck with the monogram of Count Herbert and the motto signum Dei vivi and continued with this design through the twelfth century.[15] The coins at le Mans were of such weight and fine quality they were among the most widely accepted in western France. Herbert died on 13 April 1035.

    Issue
    Herbert left four children:

    Hugh IV, successor, married Bertha of Blois, daughter of Odo of Blois.
    Gersenda, married firstly Theobald III of Blois; divorced in 1048 and married secondly Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan. Her son by the latter would regain Maine from Norman control in 1069, as count Hugh V
    Paula (Paule) wife of Jean de la Fleche, their son Elias would succeed his cousin Hugh V as Count of Maine.
    Biota, married Walter III of the Vexin, and Walter briefly held Maine in after the death of his nephew, Herbert II, son of Hugh IV, before both Walter and Biota died of possible poisoning and William the Conqueror seized the county.3

Family:

  • Last Edited: 19 Dec 2015

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elias_I_of_Maine
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p393.htm
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elias_I,_Count_of_Maine.

Hugues I de Maine Comte de Maine1

M, #8476, b. circa 875

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Hugues I de Maine Comte de Maine was born circa 875 in Maine, France.1,2
  • Biography*: Hugh I was Count of Maine (900-933). He succeeded his father as of Count of Maine c.?900.

    Life
    He was the son of Roger , Count of Maine, and Rothilde, daughter of Charles the Bald. He succeeded his father c.?900. By a marriage of his unnamed sister to Hugh the Great sometime before 917 Hugh became an ally to the Robertians ending a long peroid of hostility between them. Around 922 , King Charles the Simple withdrew the benefit of the Abbey of Chelles to Rotilde, Hugh's mother and Hugh the Great's mother-in-law, to entrust it to a favorite of his, Hagano. The favoritism shown Hagano caused a great deal of resentment and led, in part, to a revolt against Charles the Simple that placed Robert I of France on the throne. Even after the death of his sister when Hugh the Great married a second time he remained an adherent of the Robertians.

    Family
    By his unnamed wife, very probably a Rorgonide, he had:
    Hugh II, Count of Maine (d. bef. 991).2

Family:

  • Last Edited: 12 Mar 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p393.htm
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_I,_Count_of_Maine.

Roger de Maine Comte de Maine1

M, #8477, b. circa 830, d. 25 July 885

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Roger de Maine Comte de Maine was born circa 830 in Herbauges, France*.1,2
  • Marriage*: He married Rothilde (?) of France, daughter of Charles II (?) Holy Roman Emperor and Richilde (?) of Provence, circa 875.3
  • Death*: Roger de Maine Comte de Maine died on 25 July 885 in killed fighting Vikings, Rouen, France*.2
  • Biography*: Ragenold (or Raino) (killed 25 July 885) was the Count of Herbauges from 852 and Count of Maine and Margrave of Neustria (positioned against the Vikings) from 878. His family is unidentified, but he may have been a son of Reginald of Herbauges.

    In 878, on the death of Gauzfrid, Charles the Bald conferred the Neustrian march and the county of Maine on Ragenold, because Gauzfrid's children were too young to succeed. On 25 July 885, the Vikings pillaged Rouen. Ragenold came up and surprised the Viking raiders, but was killed in the ensuing action.2
  • Last Edited: 22 Nov 2014

Rothilde (?) of France1

F, #8478, b. 871, d. 929

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Roger de Maine Comte de Maine b. c 830, d. 25 Jul 885

  • Last Edited: 21 Nov 2014

Richilde (?) of Provence1

F, #8480, b. circa 845, d. 2 June 910

Richilde of Provence

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  • Birth*: Richilde (?) of Provence was born circa 845 in Provence, France.3
  • Marriage*: She married Charles II (?) Holy Roman Emperor, son of Louis I (?) King of France and Judith von Bayern, circa 870.3
  • Death*: Richilde (?) of Provence died on 2 June 910 in Provence, France.2
  • Biography*: Richilde of the Ardennes (or Richilde of Provence) (ca. 845 – 2 June 910) was the second consort of Charles the Bald, King and Emperor of the Franks. By her marriage, she became Queen of the West Franks, and then Empress of the Franks. She also served as regent.

    Richilde was the daughter of Bivin of Gorze, Count of the Ardennes, and the sister of Boso of Provence (of the Bosonid dynasty). Her great-aunt was Theutberga, the wife of Lothar II of Lotharingia. Her marriage to Charles the Bald, in 870 after the death of his first wife, Ermentrude of Orléans, was intended to secure his rule in Lotharingia through her powerful family and her connection to Theutberga, the previous Queen consort. She bore him five children, but only the eldest daughter, Rothilde (c. 871 – c. 928), who married first Hugues of Bourges and secondly Roger of Maine, survived to adulthood.

    Whenever Charles went to war, Richilde managed the realm, and acted as head of state after the death of Charles in 877.

    She planned to place her brother Boso, Duke of Burgundy, on the throne, after Louis the Stammerer (son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans) died shortly after his father while his children were too young to rule on their own. However, she was accused of incest with her brother and the lords of the kingdom refused to subject themselves to her authority. She then helped Boso to become King of Provence.

    She attempted to assume a position of authority upon the death of Louis III in 882, and of Carloman II in 884; however, the empire was agitated and under threat by the Normans, and the grandees of the realm forced her to withdraw to Provence, where she died on 2 June 910.2

Family: Charles II (?) Holy Roman Emperor b. 13 Jun 823, d. 6 Oct 877

  • Last Edited: 2 Nov 2014

Charles I de France Comte de Valois1

M, #8481, b. 12 March 1270, d. 16 December 1325

Charles
Count of Valois

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  • Birth*: Charles I de France Comte de Valois was born on 12 March 1270 in Valois, France.1,2
  • Marriage*: He married Marguerite d'Anjou, daughter of Charles II d'Anjou King of Naples and Mary of Hungry Queen Consort of Naples, circa 1290 in France.1
  • Death*: Charles I de France Comte de Valois died on 16 December 1325 in Nogent-le-Roi, France, at age 55.3
  • Biography*: Charles of Valois (12 March 1270 – 16 December 1325) was the fourth son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. He was a member of the House of Capet and founded the House of Valois. In 1284, he was created Count of Valois (as Charles I) by his father and, in 1290, received the title of Count of Anjou from his marriage to Margaret of Anjou.

    Life
    Moderately intelligent, disproportionately ambitious and quite greedy, Charles of Valois collected principalities. He had as appanage the counties of Valois, Alençon and Perche (1285). He became in 1290 count of Anjou and of Maine by his marriage with Margaret, eldest daughter of Charles II, titular king of Sicily; by a second marriage, contracted with the heiress of Baldwin II de Courtenay, last Latin emperor of Constantinople, he also had pretensions on this throne. But he was son, brother, brother-in-law, son-in-law, and uncle of kings or of queens (of France, of Navarre, of England, and of Naples), becoming, moreover, after his death, father of a king (Philip VI).

    He thus dreamed of more and sought all his life for a crown he never obtained. In 1285 the pope recognized him as King of Aragon (under the vassalage of the Holy See), as son of his mother, in opposition to King Peter III, who after the conquest of the island of Sicily was an enemy of the papacy. Charles then married Marguerite of Sicily, daughter of the Neapolitan king, in order to re-enforce his position in Sicily, supported by the Pope. Thanks to this Aragonese Crusade undertaken by his father Philip III against the advice of his brother, the future Philip the Fair, he believed he would win a kingdom and won nothing but the ridicule of having been crowned with a cardinal's hat in 1285, which gave him the sobriquet of the "King of the Cap." He would never dare to use the royal seal which was made on this occasion and would have to renounce the title.

    His principal quality was to be a good military leader. He commanded effectively in Flanders in 1297. The king quickly deduced that his brother could conduct an expedition in Italy against Frederick II of Sicily. The affair was ended by the peace of Caltabellotta.

    Charles dreamed at the same time of the imperial crown and married in 1301 Catherine de Courtenay, who was a titular empress. But it needed the connivance of the Pope, which he obtained by his expedition to Italy, where he supported Charles II of Anjou against Frederick II of Sicily, his cousin. Named papal vicar, he lost himself in the imbroglio of Italian politics, was compromised in a massacre at Florence and in sordid financial exigencies, reached Sicily where he consolidated his reputation as a looter and finally returned to France discredited in 1301-1302.

    Charles was back in shape to seek a new crown when the German king Albert of Habsburg was murdered in 1308. Charles's brother, who did not wish to take the risk himself of a check and probably thought that a French puppet on the imperial throne would be a good thing for France, encouraged him. The candidacy was defeated with the election of Henry VII as German king. Charles continued to dream of the eastern crown of the Courtenays.

    He did benefit from the affection which Philip the Fair, who had suffered from the remarriage of their father, brought to his only full brother, and he found himself given responsibilities which largely exceeded his talent. Thus it was he who directed in 1311 the royal embassy to the conferences of Tournai with the Flemish; he quarreled there with his brother's chamberlain Enguerrand de Marigny, who openly flouted him. Charles did not pardon the affront and would continue the vendetta against Marigny after the king's death.

    He was doggedly opposed to the torture of Jacques de Molay, grand master of the Templars, in 1314.

    The premature death of Louis X in 1316 gave Charles hopes for a political role, but he could not prevent his nephew Philip, from taking the regency while awaiting the birth of Louis X's posthumous son. When that son (John I of France) died after a few days, Philip took the throne as Philip V.

    In 1324, he commanded with success the army of his nephew Charles IV (who succeeded Philip V in 1322) to take Guyenne and Flanders from King Edward II of England. He contributed, by the capture of several cities, to accelerate the peace, which was concluded between the king of France and his niece, Isabella, queen-consort of England.
    The Count of Valois died 16 December 1325 at Nogent-le-Roi, leaving a son who would take the throne of France under the name of Philip VI and commence the branch of the Valois: a posthumous revenge for the man of whom it was said, "Son of a king, brother of a king, uncle of three kings, father of a king, but never king himself."

    Marriages and children
    Charles was married three times.
    His first marriage, in 1290, was to Margaret, Countess of Anjou, (1274–1299), daughter of King Charles II of Naples. They had the following children:
    Isabelle (1292–1309). Married John III, Duke of Brittany.
    Philip VI, first King of the Valois Dynasty.
    Joan of Valois (1294–1342). Married William I, Count of Hainaut, and had issue.
    Margaret of Valois (1295–1342). Married Guy I of Blois-Châtillon, Count of Blois, and had issue.
    Charles II, Count of Alençon (1297 – 26 August 1346 at the Battle of Crécy). Married first Jeanne de Joigny and second Marie de la Cerda and had issue from the second marriage.
    Catherine of Valois (b. 1299, died young).
    In 1302 he remarried to Catherine I of Courtenay (1274–1307), titular Empress of Constantinople. They had four children:
    John, Count of Chartres (1302–1308).
    Catherine II of Valois, Princess of Achaea, titular Empress of Constantinople (1303–1346). She married Philip I d'Anjou, Prince of Taranto, and had issue.
    Joan of Valois (1304–1363). Married Count Robert III of Artois and had issue.
    Elisabeth of Valois (1305–11 November 1349), Abbess of Fontevrault.
    Finally, in 1308, he married Mahaut of Châtillon (1293–1358), daughter of Guy III of Châtillon, Count of Saint Pol. They had also four children:
    Louis, Count of Chartres (1309–1328)
    Marie of Valois (1309–1332). Married Charles, Duke of Calabria, and had issue.
    Isabella of Valois (1313 – 26 July 1383). She married Peter I, Duke of Bourbon.
    Blanche of Valois (1317–1348). She married Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. Sometimes called "Marguerite".

    Charles de Valois was also known to have one natural child by an unknown mother. This child was placed in a nunnery, and yet was also treated as a legitimate heir to estates, being granted title to lands in Avignon upon her majority:
    Theresa of Avignon, Countess of Avignon (1335–1387.)3

Family: Marguerite d'Anjou b. bt 1270 - 1280, d. 31 Dec 1299

  • Last Edited: 19 Nov 2014

Agnes d'Evereux Countess of Evreux1,2

F, #8483, b. 1050

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Simon I de Montfort Sire de Montfort L'Aumari b. c 1025, d. 1087

  • Last Edited: 21 Nov 2014

(?) d'Evreux1

M, #8484, b. 1040

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 21 Mar 2013

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p389.htm#i3889

Amaury I de Montfort1

M, #8485, b. 1000, d. 1031

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Last Edited: 21 Mar 2013

Bertrande de Gometz1

F, #8486, b. circa 1000

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Amaury I de Montfort b. 1000, d. 1031

  • Last Edited: 21 Mar 2013

Fulk III d'Anjou 5th Comte d'Anjou1

M, #8487, b. circa 970, d. 22 May 1040

Seal of Foulque III
Count of Anjou

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  • Name Variation: Fulk III d'Anjou 5th Comte d'Anjou was also known as Fulk 'The Black' d'Anjou.2
  • Birth*: He was born circa 970 in Anjou, France*.1,3
  • Marriage*: He married Hildegarde (?) circa 1010.1
  • Death*: Fulk III d'Anjou 5th Comte d'Anjou died on 22 May 1040 in France*.1,3
  • Biography*: Fulk III of Anjou (French: Foulques), called Fulk Nerra ("the black"), early medieval Count of Anjou, was the first great builder of castles. He lived from 970 to 1040, constructed an estimated 100 castles and abbeys across the Loire Valley in today’s France, fought successive wars with neighbors in Brittany, Blois, Poitou and Aquitaine counties and traveled four times to Jerusalem on pilgrimage during the course of his life. He had two wives and three children.

    He was a natural horseman and a fearsome warrior, with a keen sense of military strategy that saw him get the better of most of his opponents. With his county seat at Angers, Fulk’s bitter enemy was Odo II, Count of Blois, his neighbor 128 km east along the Loire River, at Tours. The two men traded towns, followers and insults throughout their lives.

    Fulk built his first castle at Langeais, 104 km east of Angers, on the banks of the Loire, in 992. Like many of his constructions, it began as a wooden tower, and was eventually replaced with a stone structure, fortified with exterior walls, and equipped with a thick-walled tower called a donjon in French (source of the English dungeon, which however implies a cellar, rather than a tower). He built it in the territory of Odo_I_of_Blois, and they fought a battle over it in 994. But Odo I died of a sudden illness, and his son and successor, [Odo II,_Count_of_Blois|Odo_II], did not manage to evict him.

    Fulk continued building more towers in a slow encirclement of Tours: Montbazon, Montrésor, Mirebeau, Montrichard, Loches, and even the tower of Montboyau, erected just across the Loire from Tours in 1016. He also fortified the castles at Angers, Amboise, Chateau-Gontier, Chinon, Mayenne and Semblançay, among many others. “The construction of castles for the purpose of extending a ruler’s power was part of Fulk Nerra’s strategy,” wrote Peter Fraser Purton, in A History of Medieval Siege, c. 450-1220.
    Foulque was also a devout Christian, and built, enlarged or endowed several abbeys and monasteries, such as the Abbey of Beaulieu-les-Loches, Saint-Florent-le-Vieil, Saint-Aubin, and a convent, Notre Dame de la Charité at Ronceray in Angers. Although he never learned to write, he endowed a school with revenue to provide poor students with an education. He also undertook four pilgrimages to Jerusalem, seeking forgiveness for his (many) sins.

    Family
    He was the son of Geoffroy Grisegonelle and Adélaide of Vermandois. He had three older sisters: Hermengarde (b. 960), who married Conan of Brittany; Gerberge (b. 964), who married Guillaume II, duke of Aquitaine; and Adélaide (b. 968), who married Guillaume III, count of Provence. A half-brother, Maurice, was born in 980. Foulque married Elisabeth de Vendôme (~979-999) and they had a daughter, Adèle. Dates of birth are uncertain for Elisabeth and Adele, but Elisabeth’s death was recounted in the Chronicles of Saint-Florent: She suffered a fall from a great height, and then was burnt at stake for adultery. Foulque married Hildegarde de Sundgau, daughter of the duke of Upper Lorraine, in 1005. They had a son, Geoffroy, in 1006, and a daughter, Ermengarde-Blanche, around 1018. Geoffroy, who became known as Geoffroy II d'Anjou, succeeded Foulque as count of Anjou in 1040.

    Combat
    Fulk Nerra’s first victory was in June 992 at Battle of Conquereuil, where he managed to defeat Conan, duke of Brittany. Conan’s territorial ambitions had been quashed by Geoffroy Grisgonelle in 980, and seven years later, he planned an ambush on Angers while Foulque was at the crowning of Robert the Pious. Fulk and his men foiled the ambush, killing Conan’s son, Alain, in the process. In 992 Fulk laid siege to Conan’s castle at Nantes, but he slipped away to Conquereuil. Conan was killed in the battle, and Fulk set up as governor a regent, as the succeeding count was a child.

    While Fulk and Odo II fought many skirmishes over territory and alliances, their biggest battle occurred in July 1016 at Battle of Pontlevoy. Odo was marching a large troop of 10,000 men southward toward Fulk’s tower at Montboyau when Fulk and much smaller group attacked him from behind. Fulk’s men were routed, and retreated, and Odo, thinking the battle won, went for a swim in the Cher River. Reinforcements arrived to help Fulk, and they returned and slaughtered Odo’s men, who were then at rest. Several thousand were reported killed.

    Pilgrimages
    Christian nobles regularly made the journey to Jerusalem, often in penance. After the Muslim conquest in 637, an agreement was reached between leaders of the Eastern Orthodox Church and succeeding caliphates to continue the visits. Fulk Nerra traveled to Jerusalem for the first time in 1003, a few years after Elisabeth’s death but at a moment of calm in the county. The route was across the Alps at the Grand Bernard Pass in today’s Switzerland, over land to Bari in the southern Italian peninsula (a stop in Rome was usually made), by ship and land to Constantinople, and then to the Holy Land. The travel alone took about six months, through deeply dangerous territory.

    Fulk made a second pilgrimage in 1008, obliged to do so by the king after he ordered the murder of an enemy. His third trip was in 1036, with Robert duke of Normandy, and then a fourth pilgrimage was made in 1038. He died in Metz in 1040 on his return from that trip, and was buried in the chapel of his monastery at Beaulieu.

    Succession
    Adèle, his daughter by his first wife, married Bodon, son of Landry, count of Nevers. Their eldest son, Bouchard, inherited Vendôme. Geoffroy Martel was count of Anjou from 1040 to 1060, but had no children from either of two marriages. The Anjou title went to his nephews, the two sons of his sister Ermengarde-Blanche (m. Geoffroy V of Château-Landon). Geoffroy III Le Barbu (the Beard) was count of Anjou from 1060 to 1098; Foulques IV Le Réchin (the Mouth) was count from 1098 to 1109. Le Réchin's grandson, Geoffrey Plantagenet, married Matilda, heir to the English throne, and began the House of Plantagenet line of English kings.3

Family: Hildegarde (?) b. c 990

  • Last Edited: 14 Nov 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11358.htm#i113580
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11358.htm#i113581
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulk_III,_Count_of_Anjou.

Hildegarde (?)1

F, #8488, b. circa 990

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Fulk III d'Anjou 5th Comte d'Anjou b. c 970, d. 22 May 1040

  • Last Edited: 22 Mar 2013

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11358.htm#i113580

Geoffrey I d'Anjou 4th Comte d'Anjou1

M, #8489, b. circa 938, d. 21 July 987

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Geoffrey I d'Anjou 4th Comte d'Anjou was born circa 938 in Anjou, France*.1,3
  • Marriage*: He married Adelais de Vermandois, daughter of Robert de Vermandois Count of Meaux & Troyes and Adelaide (?) of Burgundy, circa 970 in France.1
  • Death*: Geoffrey I d'Anjou 4th Comte d'Anjou died on 21 July 987 in while besieging the fortress of Marcon, France; while besieging the fortress of Marcon.3
  • Biography*: Geoffrey I of Anjou (c.?938/940 – July 21, 987), known as Grisegonelle ("Greymantle"), was count of Anjou from 960 to 987.


    Life
    Geoffrey was the eldest son of Fulk II, Count of Anjou and his first wife Gerberga. He succeeded his father as Count of Anjou about 960. He married Adele of Meaux (934–982), daughter of Robert of Vermandois and Adelais de Vergy. On her mother's side she was a granddaughter of king Robert I of France and on her father's side a direct descendant of Charlemagne. Through this marriage the Angevins joined the highest ranks of western French nobility.

    Geoffrey started by making his power-base the citadel of Angers strategically placing his fideles in key areas surrounding the city to protect his territories. The lands of the abbeys of Saint-Aubin and Saint-Serge in Angers provided the beneficium for his most faithful adherents. On this subject which became this family's theme, Geoffrey advised both his sons, Fulk and Maurice: "No house is weak that has many friends. Therefore I admonish you to hold dear those fideles who have been friends." Although one of the principal methods of Angevin expansion was by the creation of family connections Geoffrey exerted his control through various methods. His father had controlled Nantes through his second marriage to the widowed countess and Geoffrey continued this by making Count Guerech accept him as overlord. With an eye towards Maine, Geoffrey took advantage of the rift that developed between the Counts of Maine and the viscounts and Bishops of Le Mans. About 971 Geoffrey secured the see of Le Mans for his ally Bishop Seinfroy. In 973 Geoffrey had married his daughter Ermengarde-Gerberga to Conan I of Rennes but Conan began to oppose Geoffrey and in 982 the two met at the first battle of Conquereuil with Geoffrey defeating Conan.

    Geoffrey had influence in Aquitaine by way of his sister Adelaide-Blanche's first marriage to the powerful baron Stephen, Count of Gevaudan and Forez who after his death the lands were ruled by Adelaide. His nephews Pons and Bertrand succeeded as counts there and his niece Adalmode married Adelbert, Count of Marche and Périgord. In 975 Geoffrey had his brother Guy appointed Count and Bishop of Le Puy. In 982 Geoffrey married his now widowed sister Adelaide-Blanche to the fifteen-year-old Louis V of France, the two being crowned King and Queen of Aquitaine. But the marriage to a woman thirty years his senior failed as did Geoffrey's plans to control Aquitaine through his young son-in-law. After the death of his first wife Adele, Geoffrey married secondly Adelaise de Châlon and for nearly a decade exerted control over the county of Châlons. Through the marriage of his son, Fulk III, to Elisabeth the heiress of Vendôme Geoffrey brought that county into the Angevin sphere of influence. Fortunately it was at this same time Geoffrey made his son Fulk Nerra his co-ruler since he died shortly thereafter while besieging the fortress of Marcon on 21 July 987.

    Family
    He married Adele of Meaux (934–982), daughter of Robert of Vermandois and Adelais de Vergy. Their children were:
    Ermengarde-Gerberga of Anjou (b. 956), married Conan I of Rennes. She secondly married William II of Angoulême.
    Fulk III of Anjou (970-1040), he succeeded his father as Count of Anjou.
    Geoffrey of Anjou (971-977), died young.
    He married, secondly, to Adelaise de Châlons and had one child:
    Maurice of Anjou, Count of Châlons.3

Family: Adelais de Vermandois b. c 934, d. a 975

  • Last Edited: 16 Nov 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11358.htm#i113581
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11358.htm#i113582
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_I,_Count_of_Anjou.
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p289.htm#i2881

Adelais de Vermandois1

F, #8490, b. circa 934, d. after 975

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Adelais de Vermandois was born circa 934 in Vermandois, France*.4
  • Marriage*: She married Geoffrey I d'Anjou 4th Comte d'Anjou, son of Fulk II d'Anjou Comte d'Anjou and Gerberge de Tours, circa 970 in France.1
  • Married Name: As of circa 970,her married name was d'Anjou.1
  • Biography*: Adele of Meaux (c.934–c.982), (a.k.a. "Adele of Vermandois") was a French noblewoman. She was Countess of Chalon and later Countess of Anjou.

    Adele was a daughter of Robert of Vermandois, Count of Meaux and Troyes, and Adelaide de Chalon. Adele died in 974.

    Family
    She married c.?970 Lambert, Count of Chalon († 22 February 978). Their children were:
    Hugh I of Autun, Bishop of Auxerre and Count of Chalon. († 1039).
    Mahaut of Autun, Dame de Donzy († bef. 1019).[3]
    Aelis of Chalon, who married c.?991 Guy I, Count of Macon.2
  • Death*: Adelais de Vermandois died after 975 in France.5,2

Family: Geoffrey I d'Anjou 4th Comte d'Anjou b. c 938, d. 21 Jul 987

  • Last Edited: 12 Mar 2015