Roger le Bigod1

M, #7651

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Roger le Bigod was born.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 7 Oct 2012

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p11648.htm#i116472

Robert de Tosny Lord of Belvoir1,2

M, #7652, b. circa 1039, d. 1088

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Adeliza Fitzosulf le Freyne du Plessis b. c 1140

  • Last Edited: 16 Dec 2016

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p2373.htm#i23721
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_de_Stafford
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p2374.htm#i23739
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p46696.htm#i466953

Hugh de Crepi Comte de Vermandois et de Valois1

M, #7653, b. 1057, d. 18 October 1102

Hugh I of Vermandois

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Hugh de Crepi Comte de Vermandois et de Valois was born in 1057 in France.3
  • Marriage*: He married Aelis de Vermandois Comtesse de Vermandois, daughter of Heribert V (?) Count of Vermandois & of Valois and Adele de Crepi, circa 1080 in France.4
  • Death*: Hugh de Crepi Comte de Vermandois et de Valois died on 18 October 1102 in Tarsus.2
  • Biography*: He was a member of the House of Capet. Hugh de Crépi, Comte de Vermandois et de Valois also went by the nick-name of Hugh 'le Grand'. He gained the title of Comte de Vermandois. He gained the title of Comte de Valois.

    Hugh I of Vermandois (1057 – October 18, 1101), called Magnus or the Great, was a younger son of Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev and younger brother of Philip I. He was in effect Count of Vermandois, but an ineffectual leader and soldier, great only in his boasting. Indeed, Steven Runciman is certain that his nickname Magnus (greater or elder), applied to him by William of Tyre, is a copyist's error, and should be Minus (younger), referring to Hugh as younger brother of the King of France.

    In early 1096 Hugh and Philip began discussing the First Crusade after news of the Council of Clermont reached them in Paris. Although Philip could not participate, as he had been excommunicated, Hugh was said to have been influenced to join the Crusade after an eclipse of the moon on February 11, 1096.

    That summer Hugh's army left France for Italy, where they would cross the Adriatic Sea into territory of the Byzantine Empire, unlike the other Crusader armies who were travelling by land. On the way, many of the soldiers led by fellow Crusader Emicho joined Hugh's army after Emicho was defeated by the Hungarians, whose land he had been pillaging. Hugh crossed the Adriatic from Bari in Southern Italy, but many of his ships were destroyed in a storm off the Byzantine port of Dyrrhachium.

    Hugh and most of his army were rescued and escorted to Constantinople, where they arrived in November 1096. Prior to his arrival, Hugh allegedly sent an arrogant, insulting letter to Eastern Roman Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. According to the Emperor's biography written by his daughter Anna Comnena (the Alexiad), he demanded that Alexius meet with him:
    "Know, O King, that I am King of Kings, and superior to all, who are under the sky. You are now permitted to greet me, on my arrival, and to receive me with magnificence, as befits my nobility."

    Alexius was already wary of the armies about to arrive, after the unruly mob led by Peter the Hermit had passed through earlier in the year. Alexius kept Hugh in custody in a monastery until Hugh swore an oath of vassalage to him.

    After the Crusaders had successfully made their way across Seljuk territory and, in 1098, captured Antioch, Hugh was sent back to Constantinople to appeal for reinforcements from Alexius. Alexius was uninterested, however, and Hugh, instead of returning to Antioch to help plan the siege of Jerusalem, went back to France. There he was scorned for not having fulfilled his vow as a Crusader to complete a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and Pope Paschal II threatened to excommunicate him. He joined the minor Crusade of 1101, but was wounded in battle with the Turks in September, and died of his wounds in October in Tarsus.

    Family and children
    He married Adelaide of Vermandois, the daughter of Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois and Alice, Countess of Valois. They had nine children:
    Mathilde, married Raoul I of Beaugency
    Elizabeth of Vermandois, Countess of Leicester (d. 1131)
    Beatrice (living 1144), married Hugh III of Gournay
    Ralph I (d. 1152)
    Constance (date of death unknown), married Godfrey de la Ferté-Gaucher
    Agnes (living 1125), married Boniface del Vasto
    Henry (d 1130), seigneur of Chaumont en Vexin
    Simon (d 1148)
    William (d.c. 1096.)2,5

Family: Aelis de Vermandois Comtesse de Vermandois b. c 1065, d. bt 1121 - 1123

  • Last Edited: 18 Nov 2014

Aelis de Vermandois Comtesse de Vermandois1

F, #7654, b. circa 1065, d. between 1121 and 1123

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Hugh de Crepi Comte de Vermandois et de Valois b. 1057, d. 18 Oct 1102

  • Last Edited: 22 Nov 2014

Henri I (?) King of the Franks1

M, #7655, b. April 1008, d. 4 August 1060

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Henri I (?) King of the Franks was born in April 1008 in France.3
  • Marriage*: He married Anne (?) of Kiev, Queen Consort of France, daughter of Yaroslav I, the Wise (?) Grand Prince of Rus' and Ingegarde Olafsdotter of Sweden, on 29 January 1044.3
  • Death*: Henri I (?) King of the Franks died on 4 August 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie, France, at age 52.2
  • Burial*: He was buried after 4 August 1060 in Saint-Denis, Ile-de-France, France.2
  • Biography*: He was a member of the House of Capet. He succeeded to the title of Roi Henri I de France in 1031.

    Henry I (4 May 1008 – 4 August 1060) was the King of the Franks from 1031 to his death. The royal demesne of France reached its smallest size during his reign, and for this reason he is often seen as emblematic of the weakness of the early Capetians. This is not entirely agreed upon, however, as other historians regard him as a strong but realistic king, who was forced to conduct a policy mindful of the limitations of the French monarchy.

    Reign
    A member of the House of Capet, Henry was born in Reims, the son of King Robert II (972–1031) and Constance of Arles (986–1034). He was crowned King of France at the Cathedral in Reims on 14 May 1027, in the Capetian tradition, while his father still lived. He had little influence and power until he became sole ruler on his father's death.

    The reign of Henry I, like those of his predecessors, was marked by territorial struggles. Initially, he joined his brother Robert, with the support of their mother, in a revolt against his father (1025). His mother, however, supported Robert as heir to the old king, on whose death Henry was left to deal with his rebel sibling. In 1032, he placated his brother by giving him the duchy of Burgundy which his father had given him in 1016.
    In an early strategic move, Henry came to the rescue of his very young nephew-in-law, the newly appointed Duke William of Normandy (who would go on to become William the Conqueror), to suppress a revolt by William's vassals. In 1047, Henry secured the dukedom for William in their decisive victory over the vassals at the Battle of Val-ès-Dunes near Caen.

    A few years later, when William married Matilda, the daughter of the count of Flanders, Henry feared William's potential power. In 1054, and again in 1057, Henry went to war to try to conquer Normandy from William, but on both occasions he was defeated. Despite his efforts, Henry I's twenty-nine-year reign saw feudal power in France reach its pinnacle.

    Henry had three meetings with Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor—all at Ivois. In early 1043, he met him to discuss the marriage of the emperor with Agnes of Poitou, the daughter of Henry's vassal. In October 1048, the two Henries met again, but the subject of this meeting eludes us. The final meeting took place in May 1056. It concerned disputes over Lorraine. The debate over the duchy became so heated that the king of France challenged his German counterpart to single combat. The emperor, however, was not so much a warrior and he fled in the night; despite this, Henry did not get Lorraine.

    King Henry I died on 4 August 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie, France, and was interred in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son, Philip I of France, who was 7 at the time of his death; for six years Henry I's Queen, Anne of Kiev, ruled as regent.

    He was also Duke of Burgundy from 1016 to 1032, when he abdicated the duchy to his brother Robert Capet.

    Marriages and family
    Henry I was betrothed to Matilda, the daughter of the Emperor Conrad II (990–1039), but she died prematurely in 1034. Henry I then married Matilda, daughter of Liudolf, Margrave of Frisia, but she died in 1044, following a Caesarean section. Casting further afield in search of a third wife, Henry I married Anne of Kiev on 19 May 1051. They had four children:
    Philip I (23 May 1052 – 30 July 1108)
    Emma (born 1054, date of death unknown)
    Robert (c. 1055 – c. 1060)
    Hugh the Great (1057–1102.)2,4

Family: Anne (?) of Kiev, Queen Consort of France b. c 1024, d. c 1075

  • Last Edited: 14 Oct 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10318.htm#i103173
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10310.htm#i103097
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10318.htm#i103173
    http://thepeerage.com/p10310.htm#i103097
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_I_of_France
  5. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10310.htm#i103094

Anne (?) of Kiev, Queen Consort of France1

F, #7656, b. circa 1024, d. circa 1075

Anne of Kiev
Queen of France

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Anne (?) of Kiev, Queen Consort of France was born circa 1024 in Kiev, Ukraine*.3
  • Marriage*: She married Henri I (?) King of the Franks, son of Robert II (?) King of the Franks and Constance d'Arles, on 29 January 1044.4
  • Death*: Anne (?) of Kiev, Queen Consort of France died circa 1075 in France.2,5
  • Biography*: Anne of Kiev (or Anna Yaroslavna) (between 1024 and 1032–1075) was the queen consort of France as the wife of Henry I, and regent for her son Philip I.

    Her parents were Yaroslav I the Wise and princess Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden.


    Marriage and children

    After the death of his first wife, Matilda of Frisia, King Henry searched the courts of Europe for a suitable bride, but could not locate a princess who was not related to him within legal degrees of kinship. At last he sent an embassy to distant Kiev, which returned with Anne (also called Agnes). Anne and Henry were married at the cathedral of Reims on 19 May 1051.

    The new queen consort was not instantly attracted to her new realm. She wrote to her father that Francia was "a barbarous country where the houses are gloomy, the churches ugly and the customs revolting."

    Anne is credited with bringing the name Philip to Western Europe. She imported this Greek name (Philippos, from philos and hippos, meaning "loves horses") from her Eastern Orthodox culture.

    Regency
    For six years after Henry's death in 1060, she served as regent for Philip, who was only eight at the time. She was the first queen of France to serve as regent. Her co-regent was Count Baldwin V of Flanders. Anne was a literate woman, rare for the time, but there was some opposition to her as regent on the grounds that her mastery of French was less than fluent.

    A year after the king's death, Anne, acting as regent, took a passionate fancy for Count Ralph III of Valois, a man whose political ambition encouraged him to repudiate his wife to marry Anne in 1062. Accused of adultery, Ralph's wife appealed to Pope Alexander II, who excommunicated the couple. The young king Philip forgave his mother, which was just as well, since he was to find himself in a very similar predicament in the 1090s. Ralph died in September 1074, at which time Anne returned to the French court. She died in 1075, was buried at Villiers Abbey, La Ferte-Alais, Essonne and her obits were celebrated on 5 September.

    Children
    With Henry I of France:
    Philip (23 May 1052 – 30 July 1108) - Anne is credited with bringing the name Philip to Western Europe. She imported this Greek name (Philippos, from philos (love) and hippos (horse), meaning "the one that love horses") from her Eastern Orthodox culture.
    Hugh (1057 – 18 October 1102) - called the Great or Magnus, later Count of Crépi, who married Adelaide, the heiress of Vermandois and died on crusade in Tarsus, Cilicia.
    Robert (c. 1055 – c. 1060)
    Emma.5

Family: Henri I (?) King of the Franks b. Apr 1008, d. 4 Aug 1060

  • Last Edited: 9 Oct 2017

Robert II (?) King of the Franks1

M, #7657, b. 27 March 972, d. 20 July 1031

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name Variation: Robert II (?) King of the Franks was also known as Robert II (?) Roi de France.3
  • Birth*: He was born on 27 March 972 in Orleans, Orleanais, France.4
  • Marriage*: He married Constance d'Arles, daughter of William I (?) Count of Provence and Adelaide d'Anjou, circa 1000.5
  • Death*: Robert II (?) King of the Franks died on 20 July 1031 in France at age 59.2
  • Biography*: Robert II, Roi de France also went by the nick-name of Robert 'the Pious'. He was a member of the House of Capet. He gained the title of Roi Robert II de France in 996.

    Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious (French: le Pieux) or the Wise (French: le Sage), was King of the Franks from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

    Co-rule with father
    Immediately after his own coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. "The essential means by which the early Capetians were seen to have kept the throne in their family was through the association of the eldest surviving son in the royalty during the father's lifetime," Andrew W. Lewis has observed, in tracing the phenomenon in this line of kings who lacked dynastic legitimacy. Hugh's claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated a co-king, should he die while on expedition. Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility. Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the claims of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain. Robert was eventually crowned on 25 December 987. A measure of Hugh's success is that when Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute, but during his long reign actual royal power dissipated into the hands of the great territorial magnates.

    Robert had begun to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV, with whom Hugh was then in disagreement.

    Marital problems
    As early as 989, having been rebuffed in his search for a Byzantine princess, Hugh Capet arranged for Robert to marry the recently widowed daughter of Berengar II of Italy, Rozala, who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen. She was many years his senior. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she had children, the oldest of whom was of age to assume the offices of count of Flanders. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was also Robert's cousin. For reasons of consanguinity, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage, and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled.

    Finally, in 1001, Robert entered into his final and longest-lasting marriage to Constance of Arles, the daughter of William I of Provence. Her southern customs and entourage were regarded with suspicion at court. After his companion Hugh of Beauvais urged the king to repudiate her as well, knights of her kinsman Fulk Nerra had Beauvais murdered. The king and Bertha then went to Rome to ask Pope Sergius IV for an annulment so they could remarry.[9] After this was refused, he went back to Constance and fathered several children by her. Her ambition alienated the chroniclers of her day, who blamed her for several of the king's decisions. However, they remained married until his death in 1031.

    Piety
    Robert, however, despite his marital problems, was a very devout Catholic, hence his sobriquet "the Pious." He was musically inclined, being a composer, chorister, and poet, and making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. However, to contemporaries, Robert's "piety" also resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics: he harshly punished them. Indeed, he is credited with advocating forced conversions of local Jewry, as well as mob violence against Jews who refused. Furthermore, Robert reinstated the Roman imperial custom of burning heretics at the stake.

    Military career
    The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any feudal lands which became vacant, which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of the Duchy of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as Duke of Burgundy.

    The pious Robert made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons: Hugh Magnus, Henry, and Robert. They turned against their father in a civil war over power and property. Hugh died in revolt in 1025. In a conflict with Henry and the younger Robert, King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris, his capital. He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun. He was interred with Constance in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Henry, in both France and Burgundy.

    Children
    Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:
    Hedwig (or Advisa), Countess of Auxerre (c. 1003 – after 1063), married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issue.
    Hugh Magnus, co-king (1007 – 17 September 1025)
    Henry I, successor (4 May 1008 – 4 August 1060)
    Adela, Countess of Contenance (1009 – 5 June 1063), married (1) Richard III of Normandy and (2) Count Baldwin V of Flanders.
    Robert (1011 – 21 March 1076)
    Odo or Eudes (1013–c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy
    Constance (born 1014, date of death unknown), married Manassès de Dammartin
    Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges.2,1

Family: Constance d'Arles b. c 973, d. 25 Jul 1032

  • Last Edited: 11 Jan 2016

Constance d'Arles1

F, #7658, b. circa 973, d. 25 July 1032

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Constance d'Arles was born circa 973 in Provence, France.4
  • Marriage*: She married Robert II (?) King of the Franks, son of Hugh Capet King of the Franks and Adelaide de Poitou, circa 1000.4
  • Death*: Constance d'Arles died on 25 July 1032 in France.2
  • Biography*: She was also known as Constance de Taillefer.

    Constance of Arles (986 – 25 July 1034), also known as Constance of Provence, was the third wife and queen of King Robert II of France. She was the daughter of William I, count of Provence and Adelaide-Blanche of Anjou, daughter of Fulk II of Anjou. She was the half-sister of Count William II of Provence.

    Biography
    In 1001, she was married to King Robert, after his divorce from his second wife, Bertha of Burgundy. The marriage was stormy; Bertha's family opposed her, and Constance was despised for importing her Provençal kinfolk and customs. Robert's friend, Hugh of Beauvais, tried to convince the king to repudiate her in 1007. The knights of her kinsman, Fulk Nerra, then murdered Beauvais, perhaps at her order.

    In 1010 Robert went to Rome, accompanied by his former wife Bertha, to seek permission to divorce Constance and remarry Bertha. Constance encouraged her sons to revolt against their father, and then favored her younger son, Robert, over her elder son, Henri.

    During the famous trial of Herefast de Crepon (who was alleged to be involved with a heretical sect of canons, nuns, and clergy in 1022), the crowd outside the church in Orleans became so unruly that, according to Moore:
    At the king's command, Queen Constance stood before the doors of the Church, to prevent the common people from killing them inside the Church, and they were expelled from the bosom of the Church. As they were being driven out, the queen struck out the eye of Stephen, who had once been her confessor, with the staff which she carried in her hand.

    The symbolism, or reality, of putting an eye out is used often in medieval accounts to show the ultimate sin of breaking of one's oath, whether it be heresy, or treason to ones lordship, or in this case both. Stephen's eye was put out by the hand of a Queen wielding a staff (royal scepters were usually tipped with a cross) thus symbolically providing justice for the treasoned lord on earth and in heaven.

    At Constance's urging, her eldest son Hugh Magnus was crowned co-king alongside his father in 1017. Hugh Magnus demanded his parents share power with him, and rebelled against his father in 1025. He died suddenly later that year, an exile and a fugitive. Robert and Constance quarrelled over which of their surviving sons should inherit the throne; Robert favored their second son Henri, while Constance favored their third son, Robert. Despite his mother's protests, Henry was crowned in 1027. Fulbert, bishop of Chartres wrote a letter claiming that he was "frightened away" from the consecration of Henry "by the savagery of his mother, who is quite trustworthy when she promises evil."

    Constance encouraged her sons to rebel, and Henri and Robert began attacking and pillaging the towns and castles belonging to their father. Robert attacked Burgundy, the duchy he had been promised but had never received, and Henry seized Dreux. At last King Robert agreed to their demands and peace was made which lasted until the king's death.

    King Robert died in 1031, and soon Constance was at odds with both her elder son Henri and her younger son Robert. Constance seized her dower lands and refused to surrender them. Henri fled to Normandy, where he received aid, weapons and soldiers from his brother Robert. He returned to besiege his mother at Poissy but Constance escaped to Pontoise. She only surrendered when Henri began the siege of Le Puiset and swore to slaughter all the inhabitants.

    Constance died in 1034, and was buried beside her husband Robert at Saint-Denis Basilica.

    Children
    Constance and Robert had seven children:
    Advisa, Countess of Auxerre (c. 1003 – after 1063), married Count Renaud I of Nevers
    Hugh Magnus, co-king (1007 – 17 September 1025)
    Henri (4 May 1008 – 4 August 1060)
    Adela, Countess of Contenance (1009 – 5 June 1063), married (1) Duke Richard III of Normandy (2) Count Baldwin V of Flanders
    Robert I, Duke of Burgundy (1011 – 21 March 1076)
    Eudes (1013–1056)
    Constance (born 1014, date of death unknown), married Manasses de Dammartin.2,5

Family: Robert II (?) King of the Franks b. 27 Mar 972, d. 20 Jul 1031

  • Last Edited: 12 Mar 2015

Hugh Capet King of the Franks1

M, #7659, b. circa 938, d. 24 October 996

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name Variation: Hugh Capet King of the Franks was also known as Hugues de Paris Roi de France.3
  • Birth*: He was born circa 938 in France.4
  • Marriage*: He married Adelaide de Poitou, daughter of Guillaume III (?) Duuke of Aquitaine and Adele de Normandie, circa 969.4
  • Death*: Hugh Capet King of the Franks died on 24 October 996 in France.2
  • Burial*: He was buried after 24 October 996 in Saint-Denis, Ile-de-France, France.2
  • Biography*: He was a member of the House of Capet. He gained the title of Roi Hugues de France in 987.

    Hugh Capet (c. 939 – 24 October 996), called in contemporary sources "Hugh the Great" (Latin: Hugo Magnus), was the first "King of the Franks" of the eponymous Capetian dynasty from his election to succeed the Carolingian Louis V in 987 until his death.

    Descent and inheritance
    The son of Hugh the Great, Duke of France, and Hedwige of Saxony, daughter of the German king Henry the Fowler, Hugh was born in 939. His paternal family, the Robertians, were powerful landowners in the Île-de-France. His grandfather had been King Robert I. His grandmother Beatrice was a Carolingian, a daughter of Herbert I of Vermandois. This makes him the great-great-great-great-great grandson of Charlemagne through Pepin of Italy. King Odo was his grand-uncle and King Rudolph the son-in-law of his grandfather, King Robert I. Hugh was born into a well-connected and powerful family with many ties to the reigning nobility of Europe. But for all this, Hugh's father was never king. When Rudolph died in 936, Hugh the Great organised the return of Louis d'Outremer, son of Charles the Simple, from his exile at the court of Athelstan of England. Hugh's motives are unknown, but it is presumed that he acted to forestall Rudolph's brother and successor as Duke of Burgundy, Hugh the Black, from taking the French throne, or to prevent it from falling into the grasping hands of Herbert II of Vermandois or Richard the Fearless, Duke of Normandy.

    In 956, Hugh inherited his father's estates and became one of the most powerful nobles in the much-reduced West Frankish kingdom. However, as he was not yet an adult, his uncle Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne, acted as regent. Young Hugh's neighbours made the most of the opportunity. Theobald I of Blois, a former vassal of Hugh the Great, took the counties of Chartres and Châteaudun. Further south, on the border of the kingdom, Fulk II of Anjou, another former client of Hugh the Great, carved out a principality at Hugh's expense and that of the Bretons.

    The realm in which Hugh grew up, and of which he would one day be king, bore no resemblance to modern France. Hugh's predecessors did not call themselves rois de France ("Kings of France"), and that title was not used until the time of his distant descendant Philip II Augustus. Kings ruled as rex Francorum ("King of the Franks") and the lands over which they ruled comprised only a very small part of the former Carolingian Empire. The eastern Frankish lands, the Holy Roman Empire, were ruled by the Ottonian dynasty, represented by Hugh's first cousin Otto II and then by Otto's son, Otto III. The lands south of the river Loire had largely ceased to be part of the West Frankish kingdom in the years after Charles the Simple was deposed in 922. The Duchy of Normandy and the Duchy of Burgundy were largely independent, and Brittany entirely so, although from 956 Burgundy was ruled by Hugh's brothers Odo and Henry.

    Election and extent of power
    From 977 to 986, Hugh Capet allied himself with the German emperors Otto II and Otto III and with Archbishop Adalberon of Reims to dominate the Carolingian king, Lothair. By 986, he was king in all but name. After Lothair's son Louis died in May 987, Adalberon and Gerbert of Aurillac convened an assembly of nobles to elect Hugh Capet as their king. In front of an electoral assembly at Senlis, Adalberon gave a stirring oration and pleaded to the nobles:

    Crown the Duke. He is most illustrious by his exploits, his nobility, his forces. The throne is not acquired by hereditary right; no one should be raised to it unless distinguished not only for nobility of birth, but for the goodness of his soul.

    He was elected and crowned rex Francorum at Noyon in Picardy on 3 July 987, by the prelate of Reims, the first of the Capetian house. Immediately after his coronation, Hugh began to push for the coronation of his son Robert. Hugh's own claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated two kings should he die while on expedition.[8] Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility. Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the pretension of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain. Robert was eventually crowned on 25 December that same year.2,1

Family: Adelaide de Poitou b. c 945, d. bt 1004 - 1005

  • Last Edited: 14 Oct 2015

Adelaide de Poitou1

F, #7660, b. circa 945, d. between 1004 and 1005

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Married Name: Her married name was de Paris.1
  • Birth*: Adelaide de Poitou was born circa 945 in France.3
  • Marriage*: She married Hugh Capet King of the Franks, son of Hugues de Neustra Comte de Paris and Hedwig von Sachsen, circa 969.4
  • Death*: Adelaide de Poitou died between 1004 and 1005 in France.2
  • Biography*: Adbelahide or Adele or Adelaide of Aquitaine (or Adelaide of Poitiers) (c. 945 or 952 – 1004) was the daughter of William III, Duke of Aquitaine and Adele of Normandy, daughter of Rollo of Normandy.

    Her father used her as security for a truce with Hugh Capet, whom she married in 969.[2] In 987, after the death of Louis V, the last Carolingian king of France, Hugh was elected the new king with Adelaide as queen. They were proclaimed at Senlis and blessed at Noyon. They were the founders of the Capetian dynasty of France.

    Children
    Adeleide and Hugh's children were:
    Hedwig, Countess of Mons (or Hadevide, or Avoise) (c. 969–after 1013), wife of Reginar IV, Count of Mons
    Robert II (972–1031), the future king of France. Crowned co-king 987 in order to consolidate the new dynasty
    Gisèle, Countess of Ponthieu (c. 970–1002), wife of Hugh I, Count of Ponthieu
    A number of other daughters are less reliably attested.5

Family: Hugh Capet King of the Franks b. c 938, d. 24 Oct 996

  • Last Edited: 6 May 2013

Hugues de Neustra Comte de Paris1

M, #7661, b. circa 895, d. 9 June 956

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Hugues de Neustra Comte de Paris was born circa 895 in France.3
  • Marriage*: He married Hedwig von Sachsen, daughter of Heinrich I von Sachsen Holy Roman Emperor and Mathilda von Ringelheim, before 14 September 938.1,3
  • Death*: Hugues de Neustra Comte de Paris died on 9 June 956.2
  • Biography*: Hugues of Neustria, Comte de Paris also went by the nick-name of Hugues 'the Great'. He gained the title of Comte de Paris. He gained the title of Duc de France.

    Hugh the Great or Hugues le Grand (898 – 16 June 956) was duke of the Franks and count of Paris,

    Life
    He was the son of King Robert I of France and Béatrice of Vermandois, daughter of Herbert I, Count of Vermandois. He was born in Paris, Île-de-France, France. His eldest son was Hugh Capet who became King of France in 987. His family is known as the Robertians.

    In 922 The barons of western Francia, after revolting against the Carolingian king Charles the Simple who fled his kingdom, elected Robert I, Hugh's father, as King of Western Francia. At the death of Robert I, in battle at Soissons in 923, Hugh refused the crown and it went to his brother-in-law, Rudolph of France. Charles, however, sought help in regaining his crown from his cousin Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, who instead of helping the king imprisoned him. Herbert then used his prisoner as an advantage in pressing his own ambitions, using the threat of releasing the king up until Charles' death in 929. From then on Herbert II of Vermandois struggled with king Rudolph and his vassal Hugh the Great. Finally Rudolph and Herbert II came to an agreement in 935.

    At the death of Rudolph, King of Western Francia, in 936, Hugh was in possession of nearly all of the region between the Loire and the Seine, corresponding to the ancient Neustria, with the exceptions of Anjou and of the territory ceded to the Normans in 911. He took a very active part in bringing Louis IV (d'Outremer) from the Kingdom of England in 936. In 937 Hugh married Hedwige of Saxony, a daughter of Henry the Fowler of Germany and Matilda of Ringelheim, and soon quarrelled with Louis.

    In 938 King Louis IV began attacking fortresses and lands formerly held by members of his family, some held by Herbert II of Vermandois. In 939 king Louis attacked Hugh the Great and William I, Duke of Normandy, after which a truce was concluded lasting until June. That same year Hugh, along with Herbert II of Vermandois, Arnulf I, Count of Flanders and Duke William Longsword paid homage to the Emperor Otto the Great, and supported him in his struggle against Louis. When Louis fell into the hands of the Normans in 945, he was handed over to Hugh in exchange for their young duke Richard. Hugh released Louis IV in 946 on condition that he should surrender the fortress of Laon. In 948 at a church council at Ingelheim the bishops, all but two being from Germany, condemned and excommunicated Hugh in absentia, and returned Archbishop Artauld to his see at Reims. Hugh's response was to attack Soissons and Reims while the excommunication was repeated by a council at Trier. Hugh finally relented and made peace with Louis IV, the church and his brother-in-law Otto the Great.

    On the death of Louis IV, Hugh was one of the first to recognize Lothair as his successor, and, at the intervention of Queen Gerberga, was instrumental in having him crowned. In recognition of this service Hugh was invested by the new king with the duchies of Burgundy and Aquitaine. In the same year, however, Giselbert, duke of Burgundy, acknowledged himself his vassal and betrothed his daughter to Hugh's son Otto-Henry. On 16 June 956 Hugh the Great died in Dourdan.

    Family
    Hugh married first, in 922, Judith, daughter of Roger Comte du Maine & his wife Rothilde. She died childless in 925.
    Hugh's second wife was Eadhild, daughter of Edward the Elder, king of England, and sister of King Athelstan. They married in 926 and she died in 938, childless.
    Hugh's third wife was Hedwig of Saxony, daughter of Henry the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim She and Hugh had:
    Beatrice married Frederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine.
    Hugh Capet.
    Emma.(c.?943-aft. 968).
    Otto-Henry, Duke of Burgundy (d. 1002).
    Odo, a minor in 956.2,4

Family: Hedwig von Sachsen b. b 922, d. a 965

  • Last Edited: 21 Nov 2014

Hedwig von Sachsen1

F, #7662, b. before 922, d. after 965

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name Variation: Hedwig von Sachsen was also known as She was also known as Hatwide.2
  • Birth*: She was born before 922 in Germany.3
  • Marriage*: She married Hugues de Neustra Comte de Paris, son of Robert I (?) King of the Franks, before 14 September 938.1,4
  • Death*: Hedwig von Sachsen died after 965.2
  • Biography*: Hedwige of Saxony (c. 910 – May 10, 965) was a daughter of Henry I the Fowler, and his wife Matilda of Ringelheim.

    She was a sister of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor; Henry I, Duke of Bavaria; Gerberga of Saxony; and Bruno I, Archbishop of Cologne.

    After her brother Otto I came to power, an alliance and marriage was arranged with Hugh the Great in 936. Her son, Hugh Capet, was crowned King of France in 987.5

Family: Hugues de Neustra Comte de Paris b. c 895, d. 9 Jun 956

  • Last Edited: 6 May 2013

Robert I (?) King of the Franks1

M, #7663, b. 15 August 866, d. circa 15 June 923

Robert I Roi de France

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name Variation: Robert I (?) King of the Franks was also known as Robert I (?) Roi de France.3
  • Birth*: He was born on 15 August 866 in France.3
  • Marriage*: He married Beatrice (?) of Vermandois, daughter of Herbert I (?) Count de Vermandois, Soissons & Meaux, circa 890 in France.4
  • Death*: Robert I (?) King of the Franks died circa 15 June 923; Killed in action.2
  • Biography*: He gained the title of Roi Robert I de France circa 29 June 922.

    Robert I (15 August 866 – 15 June 923), King of Western Francia (922–923), was the younger son of Robert the Strong, count of Anjou, and the brother of Odo, who became king of the Western Franks in 888. West Francia evolved over time into France; under Odo, the capital was fixed on Paris, a large step in that direction. His family is known as the Robertians.

    He was present at the Siege of Paris in 885. Appointed by Odo ruler of several counties, including the county of Paris, and abbot in commendam of many abbeys, Robert also secured the office of Dux Francorum, a military dignity of high importance. He did not claim the crown of West Francia when his brother died in 898; but recognising the supremacy of the Carolingian king, Charles the Simple, he was confirmed in his offices and possessions, after which he continued to defend northern Francia from the attacks of the Norsemen.

    The peace between the king and his powerful vassal was not seriously disturbed until about 921. The rule of Charles, and especially his partiality for a certain Hagano, had aroused some irritation; and, supported by many of the clergy and by some of the most powerful of the Frankish nobles, Robert took up arms, drove Charles into Lorraine, and was himself crowned king of the Franks (rex Francorum) at Rheims on 29 June 922. Collecting an army, Charles marched against the usurper and, on 15 June 923, in a stubborn and sanguinary battle near Soissons, Robert was killed, according to one tradition in single combat with his rival. His army nonetheless won the battle, and Charles was captured.

    Robert was married twice. Through his first wife, Aelis, he had two daughters. Each married powerful lay vassals of their father: Emma of France (894–935) to Rudolph, Duke of Burgundy, and Hildebranda (895–931) to Herbert II of Vermandois. Through his second wife, Béatrice of Vermandois, daughter of Herbert I of Vermandois, he had his only son, Hugh the Great, who was later dux Francorum and father of King Hugh Capet, and a daughter Richilda. He may have had other daughters.5,1

Family 1: Beatrice (?) of Vermandois b. c 880, d. a 26 Mar 931

Family 2:

  • Last Edited: 14 Oct 2015

Robert (?) of Nuestra , Duke of Nuestra1

M, #7664, b. circa 825, d. circa 866

Map of early Frankland, showing Austrasia, where Robert the Strong originated, and Neustria, between the Seine and Loire, where he held the most power.

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Robert (?) of Nuestra , Duke of Nuestra was born circa 825 in France.1
  • Death*: He died circa 866; Killed.2
  • Biography*: Robert of Neustria, Duke of Neustria also went by the nick-name of Robert 'the Strong'.

    Robert IV the Strong (820 – July 2, 86), also known as Rutpert, was Margrave in Neustria. His family is named after him and called Robertians. He was first nominated by Charles the Bald missus dominicus in 853. Robert was the father of the kings Odo and Robert I of France. Robert was the great-grandfather of Hugh Capet and thus the ancestor of all the Capetians. His father was Robert III of Worms.

    Origins and rise to power
    While very little is known about the beginnings of the Robertian family, historians have been able to adduce evidence that the family of nobles had its origins in Hesbaye or had perhaps descended from the family of Chrodegang of Metz or that Robert was the son of Robert III of Worms. During the reign of Louis the German, the Robertian family moved from East Francia to West Francia. After Robert's arrival in West Francia, Charles the Bald showed favor toward the family defecting from his enemy Louis by assigning him to the lay abbacy of Marmoutier in 852. In 853 the position of missus dominicus in the provinces of Maine, Anjou, and Touraine was given to him and he had de facto control of the ancient ducatus Cenomannicus, a vast duchy centred on Le Mans and corresponding to the regnum Neustriae. Robert's rise came at the expense of the established family of the Rorigonids and was designed to curb their regional power and to defend Neustria from Viking and Breton raids.

    Revolt
    Despite the fact that he was a favoured noble of Charles, Robert joined a rebellion against the king in 858. He led the Frankish nobles of Neustria with the Bretons under Salomon in inviting Louis the German to invade West Francia and receive their homage. The revolt had been sparked by the marriage alliance between Charles and Erispoe, Duke of Brittany, and by the investment of Louis the Stammerer with the regnum Neustriae (856). These actions significantly curtailed the influence both of Salomon and Robert. Charles compensated Robert for the losses suffered in this civil war by giving him the counties of Autun and Nevers in Burgundy, which greatly enlarged his landholdings. In 856 he had to defend Autun from Louis the German following the death of Lothair I. But following Erispoe's assassination in November 857, both he and Salomon rebelled.
    Louis the German reached Orléans in September 858 and received delegations from the Breton and Neustrian leaders, as well as from Pepin II. The Neustrian rebels had chased Louis the Stammerer from Le Mans, his capital, earlier that year. In 861, Charles made peace with Robert and appointed him Count of Anjou, even though he had been involved in the revolt.

    War with Bretons and Vikings
    While count of Anjou, Robert was able to successfully defend the northern coast against the threat of a Viking invasion. In 862 Charles granted Louis the Stammerer, his son, the lay abbacy of Saint Martin of Tours, a small benefice in comparison with the kingdom he had received in 856 (and lost in 858). The young Louis rebelled and was quickly joined by Salomon, who supplied him with troops for a war against Robert.

    In 862 two groups of Vikings—one the larger of two fleets recently forced out of the Seine by Charles the Bald, the other a fleet returning from a Mediterranean expedition—converged on Brittany, where one (the Mediterranean) was hired by the Breton duke Salomon to ravage the Loire valley. Robert captured twelve of their ships, killing all on board save a few who fled. He then opened negotiations with the former Seine Vikings, and hired them against Salomon for 6,000 pounds of silver. The purpose of this was doubtless to prevent them from entering the service of Salomon. Probably Robert had to collect a large amount in taxes to finance what was effectively a non-tributary Danegeld designed to keep the Vikings out of Neustria. The treaty between the Franks and the Vikings did not last more than a year: in 863 Salomon made peace and the Vikings, deprived of an enemy, ravaged Neustria.

    He was made Lay abbot of the influential abbey St. Martin at Tours.

    Robert made war on Pepin II in his later years. In 863 he had to defend Autun again from Louis the German, this time after the death of Charles of Provence. Robert was in Neustria during 865 and 866, with Bretons and Vikings ravaging the environs of Le Mans.

    Death and legacy
    In 866, Robert was killed at the Battle of Brissarthe while, unsurprisingly, defending Francia against a joint Breton-Viking raiding party, led by Salomon, Duke of Brittany, and the Viking chieftain Hastein. During the battle, Robert had entrapped the Viking commander in a nearby church. Thinking he was not endangered, Robert took off his armour and began to besiege the church. Once Robert was unarmoured, the trapped Vikings launched a surprise attack and killed him before he had time to re-arm. His success against the Vikings led to his heroic characterisation as "a second Maccabaeus" in the Annales Fuldenses.

    The name of Robert's wife is not attested in primary sources. According to some modern scholars she was Adelaide of Tours or Adalais, a daughter of Hugh of Tours (and thus an Etichonid) and the widow of Conrad I of Auxerre (died 862), a Welf. Since Robert already had children by 862, Adelaide would have to have been his second wife. French genealogist Christian Settipani has identified the source of this identification as the unreliable twelfth-century Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne de Dijon, which was interpolated into the chronicle of Alberic of Trois-Fontaines. The Europäische Stammtafeln has identified Robert's first wife as a certain Agane. Whatever the facts, two of Robert's sons became kings of France: Odo and Robert.2,3

Family:

  • Last Edited: 7 Mar 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10519.htm#i105187
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://thepeerage.com/p10519.htm#i105188
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_the_Strong

Lambert II de Boulogne Comte de Lens1

M, #7665, b. circa 1015, d. 1054

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Lambert II de Boulogne Comte de Lens was born circa 1015 in Boulogne, France.1,3
  • Marriage*: He married Adeliza (?) Countess of Aumale, daughter of Robert I (?) Duke of Normandy and Herleva de Falaise, circa 1053 in France.4
  • Death*: Lambert II de Boulogne Comte de Lens died in 1054; Died of wounds received in action.2
  • Biography*: He gained the title of Comte de Lens, in Artois.

    Lambert II, Count of Lens (died 1054) was a French nobleman.

    He was the son of Eustace I, Count of Bologne and of Maud de Leuven (daughter of Lambert I of Leuven). c.?1053 he married Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale, daughter of Robert I, Duke of Normandy and sister of William the Conqueror.[2] Adelaide was the widow of Enguerrand II, Count of Ponthieu who died in 1053. c.?1054 Lambert and Adelaide had a daughter, Judith of Lens, although Lambert would scarcely have seen her; he was killed at the battle of Lille in 1054. Lambert was supporting Baldwin V, Count of Flanders against Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor when he was killed in battle. His widow, Adelaide, married thirdly, Odo, Count of Champagne.2,5

Family: Adeliza (?) Countess of Aumale b. 1029, d. bt 1087 - 1090

  • Last Edited: 16 Nov 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10483.htm#i104824
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10483.htm#i104823
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eustace_I,_Count_of_Boulogne.
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10483.htm#i104824
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p10483.htm#i104823
  5. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lambert_II,_Count_of_Lens.

Adeliza (?) Countess of Aumale1

F, #7666, b. 1029, d. between 1087 and 1090

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Adeliza (?) Countess of Aumale was born in 1029 in France; born illegitimately.3
  • Marriage*: She married Lambert II de Boulogne Comte de Lens, son of Eustace I (?) Count of Boulogne & Lens and Maud de Louvain, circa 1053 in France.4
  • Married Name: As of circa 1053,her married name was de Boulogne.1
  • Death*: Adeliza (?) Countess of Aumale died between 1087 and 1090 in France.2
  • Biography*: She was also known as Adelaide. She was styled as Countess of Aumale in 1082.

    Adelaide of Normandy (or Adeliza) (c. 1030 – bef. 1090) was the sister of William the Conqueror and was Countess of Aumale in her own right.

    Life
    She was a natural daughter of Robert the Magnificent, Duke of Normandy and born c.1030 Elisabeth Van Houts, in her article Les femmes dans l’histoire du duché de Normandie (or Women in the history of ducal Normandy) mentions Countess Adelaide as one of those notable Norman women who were known to have exerted a strong influence on their children especially with regard to passing on their own family history.

    Adelaide's first marriage to Enguerrand II, Count of Ponthieu potentially gave then Duke William a powerful ally in upper Normandy. But at the Council of Reims in 1049, when the marriage of Duke William with Matilda of Flanders was prohibited based on consanguinity, so were those of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne and Enguerrand of Ponthieu, who was already married to Adelaide. Adelaide's marriage was apparently annulled c.1049/50 and another marriage was arranged for her, this time to Lambert II, Count of Lens, younger son of Eustace I, Count of Boulogne forming a new marital alliance between Normandy and Boulogne. Lambert was killed in 1054 at Lille, aiding Baldwin V, Count of Flanders against Emperor Henry III. Now widowed, Adelaide resided at Aumale, probably part of her dower from her first husband, Engurerand, or part of a settlement after the capture of Guy of Ponthieu, her brother-in-law. As a dowager Adelaide began a semi-religious retirement and became involved with the church at Auchy presenting them with a number of gifts. In 1060 she was called upon again to form another marital alliance, this time to a younger man Odo, Count of Champagne. Odo seems to have been somewhat of a disappointment as he appears on only one of the Conqueror's charters and received no land in England; his wife being a tenant-in-chief in her own right.

    In 1082 King William and Queen Matilda gave to the abbey of the Holy Trinity in Caen the town of Le Homme in the Cotentin with a provision to the Countess of Albamarla (Aumale), his sister, for a life tenancy. In 1086, as Comitissa de Albatnarla, as she was listed in the Domesday Book, was shown as having numerous holdings in both Suffolk and Essex, one of the very few Norman noblewomen to have held lands in England at Domesday as a tenant-in-chief. She was also given the lordship of Holderness which was held after her death by her 3rd husband, Odo, the by then disinherited Count of Champagne; the lordship then passed to their son, Stephen. Adelaide died before 1090.

    Family
    Adelaide married three times; first to Enguerrand II, Count of Ponthieu (died 1053) by whom she had issue:
    Adelaide II, Countess of Aumale, m. William de Bréteuil, Lord of Bréteuil, son of William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford.
    She married secondly Lambert II, Count of Lens (died 1054), they had a daughter:
    Judith of Lens, m. Waltheof Earl of Huntingdon and Northumbria.
    Adelaide married thirdly in 1060 Odo II, Count of Champagne (d. aft. 1096), by whom she had a son:
    Stephen, Count of Aumale.2,5

Family: Lambert II de Boulogne Comte de Lens b. c 1015, d. 1054

  • Last Edited: 1 Oct 2014

Eustace I (?) Count of Boulogne & Lens1

M, #7667, b. circa 995, d. circa 1049

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name Variation: Eustace I (?) Count of Boulogne & Lens was also known as Eustace I (?) Comte de Boulogne.3
  • Birth*: He was born circa 995 in Boulogne, France.3,1
  • Marriage*: He married Maud de Louvain, daughter of Lambert I (?) Count of Louvain and Gerberge de Basse-Lorraine, circa 1015.3,1
  • Death*: Eustace I (?) Count of Boulogne & Lens died circa 1049 in Boulogne, France.2,1
  • Biography*: Eustace I, Count of Boulogne, was a nobleman and founding member of the House of Boulogne. He held the county from 1042 until his death in 1049.

    Life
    He was the elder son of Count Baldwin II of Boulogne and Adelina of Holland. Eustace succeeded his father as count of Boulogne in 1042. Eustace I was also the count of Lens. In 1028 Eustace I confirmed the foundation of a college of canons in his castle at Lens and despite accounts of Lens passing to Baldwin V of Flanders circa 1036 it was still held by Eustace I and was passed to his son Lambert at his death.

    During the minority of Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders, Eustace's grandfather, Arnulf III, Count of Boulogne had broken free of Flanders and operated as an independent prince, as did Eustace's father and Eustace himself. In 995, having attained his majority, Baldwin IV attempted to recover several of the independently held castles and to expand the Flemish borders. This had caused considerable animosity between Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders and Eustace's father, but when Baldwin IV's son Baldwin V succeeded him in 1035 Eustace I and Baldwin V of Flanders cooperated on several ventures including several charters and in limiting the powers of the Castellan-advocates of several abbeys including the Abbey of Saint Bertin in Flanders.

    Eustace I was allied to the ducal house of Normandy by the marriage of his son Eustace II to Goda, niece of Richard II. This had far reaching alliances to other branches of these families including that of Edward the Confessor, King of England. Under Eustace I the counts of Boulogne rose to great prominence in Northern France. Eustace I died in 1049.

    He was apparently a patron of Samer Abbey near Calais and he is said to have been buried there.

    Family and children
    He was married to Matilda of Leuven, daughter of Lambert I, Count of Leuven and Gerberga of Lower Lorraine and had four children:
    Eustace II of Boulogne.
    Godfrey, Bishop of Paris (1061–1095).
    Lambert II, Count of Lens.
    Gerberga, married Frederick, Duke of Lower Lorraine.
    Eustace is a direct patrilineal ancestor of Anne Boleyn, 2nd wife of King Henry VIII, and mother of Queen Elizabeth I.1
  • Last Edited: 16 Dec 2016

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eustace_I,_Count_of_Boulogne.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p391.htm#i3901
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10483.htm#i104823

Maud de Louvain1

F, #7668

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Eustace I (?) Count of Boulogne & Lens b. c 995, d. c 1049

  • Last Edited: 10 Oct 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10483.htm#i104823
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p391.htm#i3902
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eustace_I,_Count_of_Boulogne.

Baldwin II (?) Count of Boulogne1

M, #7669, b. circa 970, d. circa 1033

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Name Variation: Baldwin II (?) Count of Boulogne was also known as Baudouin II (?) Comte de Boulogne.2
  • Marriage*: He married Adeline de Hollande, daughter of Arnulf (?) Count of Holland and Lutgard (?) of Luxemburg.2
  • Birth*: Baldwin II (?) Count of Boulogne was born circa 970 in Boulogne, France*.2,1
  • Death*: He died circa 1033 in France*.3
  • Biography*: Baldwin II of Boulogne († c.?1027) was a son of Arnulf III, Count of Boulogne, who he succeeded as count of Boulogne.

    Life
    Baldwin II was the son of Arnulf III, Count of Boulogne and succeeded his father as count circa 990. Both Arnulf III and his father Arnulf II had freed themselves of Flemish rule during the minority of Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders. In 1022 both Baldwin and his son Eustace, along with the counts of Normandy, Valois, and Flanders, met with Robert II, King of France and formed an alliance against Odo II, Count of Blois who was challenging the king's authority. But when Emperor Henry II died in July 1024 the alliance quickly fell apart as King Robert reconciled with count Odo II.[2] In the wake of these changing alliances and for reasons that remain unclear, Baldwin was killed in battle c. 1027 warring with Enguerrand I, Count of Ponthieu, who then wed Baldwin's widow.

    Family and issue
    He married Adelina of Holland daughter of Arnulf, Count of Holland and Lutgardis of Luxemburg. and was the father of:
    Eustace I of Boulogne, who succeeded him.
    After Baldwin's death Adelina married secondly, Enguerrand I, Count of Ponthieu.1

Family: Adeline de Hollande b. b 993

  • Last Edited: 26 Apr 2015

Citations

  1. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_II,_Count_of_Boulogne.
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p391.htm#i3901
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p391.htm#i3901
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p391.htm#i3903

Adeline de Hollande1

F, #7670, b. before 993

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Baldwin II (?) Count of Boulogne b. c 970, d. c 1033

  • Last Edited: 29 Sep 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p391.htm#i3901
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p391.htm#i3904
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnulf,_Count_of_Holland.

Conrad II (?) Holy Roman Emperor1

M, #7671, b. circa 990, d. 1039

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Conrad II (?) Holy Roman Emperor was born circa 990 in Germany*.1,3
  • Marriage*: He married Gisela (?) of Swerbia in 1027.2
  • Death*: Conrad II (?) Holy Roman Emperor died in 1039.4
  • Biography*: He gained the title of Conrad II Deutscher Kaiser. He was a member of the House of Salian. He succeeded to the title of Emperor Conrad II of the Holy Roman Empire in 1024. He was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1027.

    Conrad II (Konrad) (c. 990 – 4 June 1039) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1027 until his death.

    The son of a mid-level nobleman in Franconia, Count Henry of Speyer and Adelaide of Alsace, he inherited the titles of count of Speyer and of Worms as an infant when Henry died at age twenty. As he matured he came to be well known beyond his power base in Worms and Speyer, so when the Saxon line died off and the elected monarchy for the German realm stood vacant, he was elected King in 1024 at the respectably old age of thirty-four years and crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire on 26 March 1027, becoming the first of four kings and emperors of the Salian Dynasty.

    During his reign, he proved that the German monarchy had become a viable institution. Survival of the monarchy was no longer dependent on contracts between sovereign and territorial nobles.

    The father of Conrad II, Henry of Speyer was a grandson of Liutgarde, a daughter of the great Emperor Otto I who had married the Salian Duke Conrad the Red of Lorraine.

    Despite his bloodline in that age when people died young and younger, the orphaned Conrad grew up poor by the standards of the nobility and was raised by Burchard, Bishop of Worms.

    He was reputed to be prudent and firm out of consciousness of deprivation. In 1016, he married Gisela of Swabia, a widowed duchess. Both parties claimed descent from Charles the Great (Charlemagne) and were thus distantly related. A daughter named Matilda became the first wife of Henry I of France, King of Franks.

    Strict canonists took exception to the marriage, and Emperor Henry II used this to force Conrad into temporary exile.

    They became reconciled, and upon Henry's death in 1024, Conrad appeared as a candidate before the electoral assembly of princes at Kamba, an historical name for an area on the East banks of the river Rhine and opposite to the German town Oppenheim (Today the position of Kamba is marked by a small monument, which displays Conrad on a horse). He was elected by the majority and was crowned king in Mainz on 8 September 1024, arguably in the prime of life. It was equally obvious that the Saxon line of Emperors was at an end, and all of Europe speculated and maneuvered to influence the Prince-electors in unseemly disrespect for the aging Henry II. That same year, Conrad commissioned the construction of the Speyer Cathedral in Speyer which was started in 1030.

    The Italian bishops paid homage at Conrad's court at Konstanz in June 1025, but lay princes sought to elect William V of Aquitaine, as king instead. However early in 1026 Conrad went to Milan, where Ariberto, archbishop of Milan, crowned him king of Italy. After overcoming some opposition of the towns Conrad reached Rome, where Pope John XIX crowned him emperor on Easter, 1027.

    Politics

    He formally confirmed the popular legal traditions of Saxony and issued new constitutions for Lombardy. In 1028 at Aachen he had his son Henry elected and anointed king of Germany. Henry married Gunhilda of Denmark, daughter of King Canute the Great of England, Denmark and Norway by Emma of Normandy. This was an arrangement that Conrad had made many years prior, when he gave Canute the Great parts of northern Germany to administer[citation needed]. Henry, the later Emperor Henry III, became chief counselor of his father.

    Conrad campaigned unsuccessfully against Poland in 1028–1030, but in 1031 in a combined action with the Kievan Rus' forced King Mieszko II, son and heir of Boleslaw I, to make peace and return the land that Boleslaw had conquered from the Empire during Henry II's reign. Mieszko II was compelled to give up his royal title and for the remainder of his troubled rule became the Duke of Poland and Conrad's vassal.
    In 1029 some Bavarian border conflicts undermined the good relations with Stephen I of Hungary. One year later Conrad launched a campaign against Hungary. The Hungarians successfully used the scorched earth tactics and the emperor had to withdraw with his army. Finally the Hungarian army forced him to surrender at Vienna. After his defeat Conrad was obliged to cede some border territory to Hungary.

    When Rudolph III, King of Burgundy died on 2 February 1032, Conrad claimed the Kingship on the basis of an inheritance Emperor Henry II extorted from the former in 1006, after having invaded Burgundy to enforce his claim after Rudolph attempted to renounce it in 1016. Despite some opposition, the Burgundian and Provençal nobles paid homage to Conrad in Zürich in 1034. This Kingdom of Burgundy, which under Conrad's successors would become known as the Kingdom of Arles, corresponded to most of the southeastern quarter of modern France and included western Switzerland, the Franche-Comté and Dauphiné. It did not include the smaller Duchy of Burgundy to the north, ruled by a cadet branch of the Capetian King of France. (Piecemeal over the next centuries most of the former Kingdom of Arles was incorporated into France – but King of Arles remained one of the Holy Roman Emperor's subsidiary titles until the dissolution of the Empire in 1806.)

    Conrad upheld the rights of the valvassores (knights and burghers of the cities) of Italy against Archbishop Aribert of Milan and the local nobles. The nobles as vassal lords and the bishop had conspired to rescind rights from the burghers. With skillful diplomacy and luck Conrad restored order.

    Last years

    In 1038, Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno requested his adjudication in a dispute over Capua with its Prince Pandulf, whom Conrad had released from imprisonment in 1024, immediately after his coronation. Hearing that Michael IV the Paphlagonian of the Byzantine Empire had received the same request, Conrad went to Southern Italy, to Salerno and Aversa.

    He appointed Richer, from Germany, as abbot of Monte Cassino, the abbot Theobald being imprisoned by Pandulf. At Troia, he ordered Pandulf to restore stolen property to Monte Cassino. Pandulf sent his wife and son to ask for peace, giving 300 lb of gold and a son and daughter as hostages. The Emperor accepted Pandulf's offer, but the hostage escaped and Pandulf holed up in his outlying castle of Sant'Agata de' Goti. Conrad besieged and took Capua and gave it to Guaimar with the title of Prince. He also recognised Aversa as a county of Salerno under Ranulf Drengot, the Norman adventurer. Pandulf, meanwhile, fled to Constantinople. Conrad thus left the Mezzogiorno firmly in Guaimar's hands and loyal, for once, to the Holy Roman Empire.

    During the return trip to Germany an epidemic broke out among the troops. Conrad's daughter-in-law and stepson died. Conrad himself returned safely and held several important courts in Solothurn, Strasbourg and in Goslar. His son Henry was invested with the kingdom of Burgundy.

    A year later in 1039 Conrad fell ill and died of gout in Utrecht. His heart and bowels are buried at the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht. His body was transferred to Speyer via Cologne, Mainz and Worms, where the funeral procession made stops. His body is buried at Speyer Cathedral, which was still under construction at this time. During a major excavation in 1900 his sarcophagus was relocated from his original resting place in front of the altar to the crypt, where it is still visible today along with those of seven of his successors.

    A biography of Conrad II in chronicle form, Gesta Chuonradi II imperatoris, was written by his chaplain Wipo of Burgundy, and presented to Henry III in 1046, not long after the latter was crowned.2,5

Family: Gisela (?) of Swerbia

  • Last Edited: 9 Oct 2017

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102188
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p884.htm#i8832
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_of_Speyer
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102188
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p884.htm#i8832
  5. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor.
  6. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10258.htm#i102571

Henry (?) Count of Speyer1

M, #7672, b. circa 965, d. 995

Henry of Speyer

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Henry (?) Count of Speyer was born circa 965 in Germany*.1,2
  • Marriage*: He married Adelaide (?) of Alsace circa 990.3
  • Death*: Henry (?) Count of Speyer died in 995 in Germany*.1
  • Biography*: Henry of Speyer, Count in the Wormsgau (German: Heinrich von Speyer; c.?965/970 – 989/992) was the father of the Emperor Conrad II.

    He was the oldest son of Otto von Worms and married Adelaide of Alsace, the sister of the Count of Alsace. She outlived him by many years and died in 1046. Little is known of his life, since he died at around the age of 20.

    He was buried in Worms Cathedral along with his daughter Judith.

    His son was Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor.2

Family 1: Adelaide (?) of Alsace b. c 965

Family 2:

  • Last Edited: 20 Apr 2017

Otto I of Worms Duke of Carinthia1,2

M, #7673, b. circa 948, d. 4 November 1004

Otto of Worms

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Otto I of Worms Duke of Carinthia was born circa 948 in Lorraine, Germany*.1,2
  • Death*: He died on 4 November 1004 in Germany*.5
  • Biography*: Otto (c. 948 – 4 November 1004), called Otto of Worms, was Duke of Carinthia from 978 to 985 and again from 1002 until his death.

    Life
    A scion of the Salian dynasty from Rhenish Franconia, Otto was the only son of Count Conrad the Red, Duke of Lotharingia from 944, and Liutgarde of Saxony, daughter of Emperor Otto I. He is first documented as a count in the Nahegau about 956, he also held the Speyergau and Wormsgau, as well as several other counties in the area.
    In 978 Emperor Otto II appointed Count Otto Carinthian duke and Margrave of Verona, after his Luitpolding predecessor Henry the Younger had unsuccessfully rebelled against the Imperial authority during the War of the Three Henries and was deposed. In 985 however, Emperor Otto's widow Theophanu, in order to gain support for the succession of her minor son Otto III, restored Carinthia to the Luitpoldings, and Otto again lost his duchy. He could at least retain the ducal title as "Duke of Worms", received the Kaiserpfalz of Lautern and seized large estates of Wissembourg (Weißenburg) Abbey in compensation.

    Upon the death of Duke Henry II of Bavaria in 995, Otto at first received the March of Verona back, while Carinthia passed to Henry's son Duke Henry IV of Bavaria. When Emperor Otto III had died in 1002, Otto of Worms and Henry IV of Bavaria were candidates for the election as King of the Romans; Otto withdrew and received the Duchy of Carinthia from the newly elected king Henry (then Henry II of Germany) in return. Nevertheless he was forced to cede his Rhenish possessions to his long-time rival Bishop Burchard of Worms.

    Otto died two years later, he was succeeded as Carinthian duke by his son, Conrad.

    Family
    Otto married Judith (died 991), probably a granddaughter of Duke Arnulf the Bad of Bavaria. They had the following known children:
    Henry of Speyer (died before 1000), Count in the Wormsgau
    Brun (died 999), ruled as Pope Gregory V from 996
    Conrad I, Duke of Carinthia (1004–1011)
    William, Bishop of Strasbourg (1028–1047.)5

Family:

  • Last Edited: 7 Dec 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p884.htm#i8832
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad,_Duke_of_Lorraine.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p884.htm#i8832
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p13299.htm#i132990
  4. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p13299.htm#i132990
  5. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_I,_Duke_of_Carinthia.

Conrad de Lorraine Duc de Lorraine1

M, #7674, b. circa 922

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Conrad de Lorraine Duc de Lorraine was born circa 922 in Germany*.1,2
  • Marriage*: He married Liutgarde Von Sachsen, daughter of Otto I Von Sachsen Holy Roman Emperor and Eadgyth (?) of England, in 947 in Germany*.3,2
  • Biography*: Conrad the Red (German: Konrad der Rote) (c. 922 – 10 August 955) was a Duke of Lorraine from the Salian dynasty.

    He was the son of Werner V, Count of the Nahegau, Speyergau, and Wormsgau. His mother Hicha of Swabia, was a daughter of Burchard II, Duke of Swabia and Regelinda of Zürich. In 941, he succeeded his father in his counties and obtained an additional territory, the Niddagau. In 944 or 945, he was also invested with Lorraine by King Otto I.
    In 947, he married Liutgarde, daughter of Otto and Edith, daughter of Edward the Elder, King of England. He and Liutgard had one son, Otto of Worms, later duke of Swabia and Carinthia.

    In 953, Conrad joined his brother-in-law, Liudolf, Duke of Swabia, in rebellion against Otto, who bitterly complained about Conrad's ingratitude. The rebellion was quashed and Conrad was deprived of Lorraine, which was instead granted to Otto's brother, Bruno I, Archbishop of Cologne. Eventually Conrad and Otto were reconciled.

    In 954 Conrad participated in a successful campaign against the Ukrani of the Uckerland. In 955, Conrad was killed in the Battle of Lechfeld while fighting alongside Otto against the Magyars. According to the chronicler Widukind of Corvey:
    Duke Conrad, the foremost of all in combat, suffering from battle fatigue caused by an unusually hot sun, loosened the straps of his armor to catch his breath when an arrow pierced his throat and killed him instantly.

    Conrad's body was carried in state to Worms, where he was given a lavish funeral and buried at Worms Cathedral by his son Otto. Conrad was the great-grandfather of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor.2

Family: Liutgarde Von Sachsen b. 932, d. 953

  • Last Edited: 12 Mar 2015

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p884.htm#i8832
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p13299.htm#i132990
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad,_Duke_of_Lorraine.
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p13299.htm#i132990

Liutgarde Von Sachsen1

F, #7675, b. 932, d. 953

Liutgarde

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Liutgarde Von Sachsen was born in 932 in Germany*.1,3
  • Marriage*: She married Conrad de Lorraine Duc de Lorraine in 947 in Germany*.1,4
  • Death*: Liutgarde Von Sachsen died in 953.3
  • Biography*: Liutgarde (932–953), also Liutgarda, was the daughter of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Eadgyth.

    In 947 she married Conrad, Duke of Lorraine, also known as Conrad the Red, and gave birth to Otto of Worms. Otto the Great's Empire did not pass to Liutgarde's brother, Liudolf, Duke of Swabia, but instead passed through his second wife Adelaide of Italy and to their son Otto II, and then his son Otto III. Otto III was succeeded by a second-cousin (a grandson of one of Otto I's brothers), Henry II. After Henry's death, Liutgarde's great-grandson Conrad II would become Emperor, beginning the Salian Dynasty.5
  • Last Edited: 10 Dec 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p13299.htm#i132990
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10663.htm#i106621
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor.
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad,_Duke_of_Lorraine.
  5. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liutgarde

Thored of Northumbria Ealdorman of York1

M, #7676, b. circa 950, d. circa 992

The area shaded under "Jorvik" (York), probably corresponds very roughly with Thored's territory of southern Northumbria.

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Thored of Northumbria Ealdorman of York was born circa 950 in England*.1,3
  • Marriage*: He married Hilda (?) circa 960 in England*.1,3
  • Death*: Thored of Northumbria Ealdorman of York died circa 992 in England*.3
  • Biography*: Thored (Old English: Ðoreð or Þoreð; fl. 979–992) was a 10th-century ealdorman of York, ruler of the southern half of the old Kingdom of Northumbria on behalf of the king of England. He was the son of either Gunnar or Oslac, northern ealdormen. If he was the former, he may have attained adulthood by the 960s, when a man of his name raided Westmorland. Other potential appearances in the records are likewise uncertain until 979, the point from which Thored's period as ealdorman can be accurately dated.

    Although historians differ in their opinions about his relationship, if any, to Kings Edgar the Peaceable and Edward the Martyr, it is generally thought that he enjoyed a good relationship with King Æthelred II. His daughter Ælfgifu married Æthelred. Thored was ealdorman in Northumbria for much of his reign, disappearing from the sources in 992 after being appointed by Æthelred to lead an expedition against the Vikings.

    Origins
    Thored appears to have been of at least partially Scandinavian origin, suggested by the title applied to him in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 992. Here, the ealdorman of Hampshire is called by the English title "ealdorman", while Thored himself is styled by the Scandinavian word eorl (i.e. Earl).

    Two accounts of Thored's origins have been offered by modern historians. The first is that he was a son of Oslac, ealdorman of York from 966 until his exile in 975. This argument is partly based on the assertion by the Historia Eliensis, that Oslac had a son named Thorth (i.e. "Thored"). The other suggestion, favoured by most historians, is that he was the son of a man named Gunnar. This Gunnar is known to have held land in the East and North Ridings of Yorkshire.

    If the latter suggestion is correct, then Thored's first appearance in history is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recension D (EF)'s entry for 966, which recorded the accession of Oslac to the ealdormanry of southern Northumbria:
    In this year, Thored, Gunnar's son, harried Westmoringa land, and, in this same year, Oslac succeeded to the office of ealdorman.

    The Anglo-Saxon scholar Frank Stenton believed that this was an act of regional faction-fighting, rather than, as had been suggested by others, Thored carrying out the orders of King Edgar the Peaceable. This entry is, incidentally, the first mention of Westmoringa land, that is, Westmorland. Gunnar seems to have been ealdorman earlier in the decade, for in one charter (surviving only in a later cartulary) dated to 963 and three Abingdon charters dated to 965, an ealdorman (dux) called Gunnar is mentioned.

    Thored may be the Thored who appears for the first time in charter attestations during the reign of King Edgar (959–75), his earliest possible appearance being in 964, witnessing a grant of land in Kent by King Edgar to St Peter's, Ghent. This is uncertain because the authenticity of this particular charter is unclear. A charter issued by Edgar in 966, granting land in Oxfordshire to a woman named Ælfgifu, has an illegible ealdorman witness signature beginning with Þ, which may be Thored.

    Ealdorman
    Thored's governorship as ealdorman, based on charter attestations, cannot be securely dated before 979. He did attest royal charters during the reign of Æthelred II, the first in 979, six in 983, one in 984, three in 985, one in 988, appearing in such attestations for the last time in 989. It is possible that such appearances represent more than one Thored, though that is not a generally accepted theory. His definite predecessor, Oslac, was expelled from England in 975. The historian Richard Fletcher thought that Oslac's downfall may have been the result of opposing the succession of Edward the Martyr, enemy and brother of Æthelred II. What is known about Thored's time as ealdorman is that he did not have a good relationship with Oswald, Archbishop of York (971–92). In a memorandum written by Oswald, a group of estates belonging to the archdiocese of York was listed, and Oswald noted that "I held them all until Thored came to power; then was St Peter [to whom York was dedicated] robbed". One of the estates allegedly lost was Newbald, an estate given by King Edgar to a man named Gunnar, suggesting to historian Dorothy Whitelock that Thored may just have been reclaiming land "wrongly alienated from his family".

    His relationship with King Edgar is unclear, particularly given the uncertainty of Thored's paternity, Oslac being banished from England in 975, the year of Edgar's death. Richard Fletcher, who thought Thored was the son of Gunnar, argued that Thored's raid on Westmorland was caused by resentment derived from losing out on the ealdormanry to Oslac, and that Edgar thereafter confiscated various territories as punishment. The evidence for this is that Newbald, granted by Edgar to Gunnar circa 963, was bought by Archbishop Osketel from the king sometime before 971, implying that the king had seized the land.

    Thored's relationship with the English monarchy under Æthelred II seems to have been good. Ælfgifu, the first wife of King Æthelred II, was probably Thored's daughter. Evidence for this is that in the 1150s Ailred of Rievaulx in his De genealogia regum Anglorum wrote that the wife of Æthelred II was the daughter of an ealdorman (comes) called Thored (Thorth). Historian Pauline Stafford argued that this marriage was evidence that Thored had been a local rather than royal appointment to the ealdormanry of York, and that Æthelred II's marriage was an attempt to woo Thored. Stafford was supported in this argument by Richard Fletcher.

    Death
    The date of Thored's death is uncertain, but his last historical appearance came in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, recension C (D, E), under the year 992, which reported the death of Archbishop Oswald and an expedition against a marauding Scandinavian fleet:
    In this year the holy Archbishop Oswald left this life and attained the heavenly life, and Ealdorman Æthelwine [of East Anglia] died in the same year. Then the king and all his counsellors decreed that all the ships that were any use should be assembled at London. And the king then entrusted the expedition to the leadership of Ealdorman Ælfric (of Hampshire), Earl Thored and Bishop Ælfstan [.of London or of Rochester.] and Bishop Æscwig [of Dorchester], and they were to try if they could entrap the Danish army anywhere at sea. Then Ealdorman Ælfric sent someone to warn the enemy, and then in the night before the day on which they were to have joined battle, he absconded by night from the army, to his own disgrace, and then the enemy escaped, except that the crew of one ship was slain. And then the Danish army encountered the ships from East Anglia and from London, and they made a great slaughter there and captured the ship, all armed and equipped, on which the ealdorman was.

    Scandinavians led by Óláfr Tryggvason had been raiding England's coast since the previous year, when they killed Ealdorman Brihtnoth of Essex at the Battle of Maldon.
    Historians think that Thored was either killed fighting these Scandinavians, or else survived, but became disgraced through defeat or treachery. Fletcher speculated that Thored was removed from office and replaced by the Mercian Ælfhelm as a result of his failure against the Scandinavians. Another historian, William Kapelle, believed Thored was removed because of his Scandinavian descent, an argument based on the Worcester Chronicle's claim, added to the text borrowed from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, that Fræna, Godwine and Frythegyst fled a battle against the Danes in the following year because "they were Danish on their father's side".

    A man named Æthelstan who died at the Battle of Ringmere in 1010, "the king's aþum", was probably Thored's son. The term aþum means either "son-in-law" or "brother-in-law", so this Æthelstan could also have been Thored's grandson by an unknown intermediary. Thored's immediate successor was Ælfhelm, who appears witnessing charters as ealdorman from 994.3

Family: Hilda (?)

  • Last Edited: 7 Dec 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102184
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10210.htm#i102094
  3. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thored

Hilda (?)1

F, #7677

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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Family: Thored of Northumbria Ealdorman of York b. c 950, d. c 992

  • Last Edited: 7 Dec 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102184
  2. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thored

Gunnor (?)1

M, #7678

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Gunnor (?) was born.1

Family:

  • Last Edited: 7 Oct 2012

Robert de Caen 1st Earl of Gloucester1

M, #7679, b. circa 1090, d. 31 October 1147

Robert of Caen
Earl of Gloucester

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Robert de Caen 1st Earl of Gloucester was born circa 1090 in Caen, Normandy, France.3
  • Marriage*: He married Mabel (?), daughter of Robert Fitz Hamon Earl of Gloucester and Sybil de Montgomery, in 1122.3
  • Death*: Robert de Caen 1st Earl of Gloucester died on 31 October 1147 in Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.2
  • Burial*: He was buried after 31 October 1147 in Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.2
  • Biography*: He gained the title of 1st Earl of Gloucester [England] between June 1122 and September 1122.

    Robert Fitzroy, 1st Earl of Gloucester (before 1100 – 31 October 114]) (alias Robert Rufus, Robert de Caen, Robert Consul) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England. He was the half-brother of the Empress Matilda, and her chief military supporter during the civil war known as The Anarchy, in which she vied with Stephen of Blois for the throne of England.

    Early life
    Robert was probably the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children. He was born before his father's accession to the English throne, either during the reign of his grandfather William the Conqueror or his uncle William Rufus. He is sometimes and erroneously designated as a son of Nest, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, last king of Deheubarth, although his mother has been identified as a member of "the Gay or Gayt family of north Oxfordshire", possibly a daughter of Rainald Gay (fl. 1086) of Hampton Gay and Northbrook Gay in Oxfordshire. Rainald had known issue Robert Gaay of Hampton (died c. 1138) and Stephen Gay of Northbrook (died after 1154). A number of Oxfordshire women feature as the mothers of Robert's siblings.

    He may have been a native of Caen or he may have been only Constable and Governor of that city, jure uxoris.

    His father had contracted him in marriage to Mabel FitzHamon, daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon, but the marriage was not solemnized until June 1119 at Lisieux. His wife brought him the substantial honours of Gloucester in England and Glamorgan in Wales, and the honours of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and Évrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully. After the White Ship disaster late in 1120, and probably because of this marriage, in 1121 or 1122 his father created him Earl of Gloucester.

    Family
    Robert of Caen and his wife Mabel FitzHamon had seven children:
    William FitzRobert (1116–1183): succeeded his father as 2nd Earl of Gloucester
    Roger FitzRobert (died 1179): Bishop of Worcester
    Hamon FitzRobert (died 1159): killed at the siege of Toulouse.
    Philip FitzRobert (died after 1147): lord of Cricklade
    Matilda FitzRobert (died 1190): married in 1141 Ranulf de Gernon, 4th Earl of Chester.
    Mabel FitzRobert: married Aubrey de Vere
    Richard FitzRobert (1120/35-1175): succeeded his mother as Sire de Creully.
    Robert of Caen had four illegitimate children:
    Richard FitzRobert (died 1142): Bishop of Bayeux [mother: Isabel de Douvres, sister of Richard de Douvres, bishop of Bayeux (1107–1133)]
    Robert FitzRobert (died 1170): Castellan of Gloucester, married in 1147 Hawise de Reviers (daughter of Baldwin de Reviers, 1st Earl of Devon and his first wife Adelisa), had daughter Mabel FitzRobert (married firstly Jordan de Chambernon and secondly William de Soliers)
    Mabel FitzRobert: married Gruffud, Lord of Senghenydd, son of Ifor Bach. This couple were ancestors of Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the U.S.A.
    Father of Thomas

    Relationship with King Stephen
    There is evidence in the contemporary source, the Gesta Stephani, that Robert was proposed by some as a candidate for the throne, but his illegitimacy ruled him out:
    "Among others came Robert, Earl of Gloucester, son of King Henry, but a bastard, a man of proved talent and admirable wisdom. When he was advised, as the story went, to claim the throne on his father's death, deterred by sounder advice he by no means assented, saying it was fairer to yield it to his sister's son (the future Henry II of England), than presumptuously to arrogate it to himself."

    This suggestion cannot have led to any idea that he and Stephen were rivals for the Crown, as Geoffrey of Monmouth in 1136 referred to Robert as one of the 'pillars' of the new King's rule.

    The capture of King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln on 2 February 1141 gave the Empress Matilda the upper hand in her battle for the throne, but by alienating the citizens of London she failed to be crowned Queen. Her forces were defeated at the Rout of Winchester on 14 September 1141, and Robert of Gloucester was captured nearby at Stockbridge.

    The two prisoners, King Stephen and Robert of Gloucester, were then exchanged, but by freeing Stephen, the Empress Matilda had given up her best chance of becoming queen. She later returned to France, where she died in 1167, though her son succeeded Stephen as King Henry II in 1154.

    Robert of Gloucester died in 1147 at Bristol Castle, where he had previously imprisoned King Stephen, and was buried at St James' Priory, Bristol, which he had founded.

    In popular culture
    Robert of Gloucester is a figure in many of the novels by Ellis Peters in the Cadfael Chronicles. The series of twenty novels is set in the years of the competition between King Stephen and Empress Maud, also called the Anarchy. He is seen in the novels as a strong moderating force to his half-sister, and crucial to building support for her in England to begin her quest for the crown in earnest (see Saint Peter's Fair). His efforts to gain the crown for his sister by capturing King Stephen and her own actions in London are part of the plot in The Pilgrim of Hate. His capture by Stephen's wife Queen Mathilda is in the background of the plot of An Excellent Mystery. The exchange of the imprisoned Robert for the imprisoned Stephen is in the background of the plot of The Raven in the Foregate. Robert's travels to persuade his brother-in-law to aid his wife Empress Maud militarily in England is in the background of the novel The Rose Rent. His return to England when Empress Maud is trapped in Oxford Castle figures in The Hermit of Eyton Forest. Robert's return to England with his young nephew Henry, years later the king succeeding Stephen, is in the background of the plot of The Confession of Brother Haluin, as the battles begin anew with Robert's military guidance. Robert's success in the Battle of Wilton (1143) leads to the death of a fictional character, part of the plot of The Potter's Field. The In the last novel, he is a father who can disagree with then forgive his son Philip (see the last novel, Brother Cadfael's Penance). In that last novel, Brother Cadfael, the Welsh monk who fought under English lords and ends his life in a Benedictine monastery in England, speculates on the possibly different path for England if the first son of old King Henry, the illegitimate Robert of Gloucester, had been recognised and accepted. In Wales of that era, a son was not illegitimate if recognized by his father, and to many in the novels, Robert of Gloucester seemed the best of the contenders to succeed his father. Instead, he used his strength to fight for his half-sister.2,4

Family: Mabel (?) b. 1085, d. 1157

  • Last Edited: 17 Nov 2014

Citations

  1. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10472.htm#i104718
  2. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10204.htm#i102035
  3. [S742] The Peerage, online thepeerage.com, http://www.thepeerage.com/p10472.htm#i104718
    http://www.thepeerage.com/p10204.htm#i102035
  4. [S746] Wikipedia, online http://Wikipedia.com, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert,_1st_Earl_of_Gloucester.

Mabel (?)1

F, #7680, b. 1085, d. 1157

The ancestry chart of Archibald MacFarlane (ID # 34) is presented because he unites the ancestry of both his parents. If an individual appears more than once in Archibald's chart this indicates descent from the individual in more than one line. By clicking on the each instance (i.e. Ancestry of Archibald MacFarlane (#5)) each line of descent will be shown.

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  • Birth*: Mabel (?) was born in 1085 in England.3
  • Marriage*: She married Robert de Caen 1st Earl of Gloucester, son of Henry I "Beauclerc" (?) King of England and Sybilla Corbet, in 1122.4
  • Death*: Mabel (?) died in 1157 in England.2
  • Biography*: She was also known as Sybil FitzHamon.

    Mabel FitzHamon of Gloucester, Countess of Gloucester (1090 – 29 September 1157) was an Anglo-Norman noblewoman, and a wealthy heiress who brought the lordship of Gloucester, among other prestigious honours to her husband, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester upon their marriage. He was the illegitimate son of King Henry I of England.

    Her father was Robert Fitzhamon, Lord of Gloucester and Glamorgan. As she was the eldest daughter of four, and her younger sisters had become nuns, Mabel inherited all of his honours and properties upon his death in 1107.

    As Countess of Gloucester, Mabel was significant politically and she exercised an important administrative role in the lordship.

    Family
    Mabel was born in Gloucestershire, England in 1090, the eldest of the four daughters of Robert FitzHamon, Lord of Gloucester and Glamorgan, and his wife, Sybil de Montgomery. Her three younger sisters, Hawise, Cecile and Amice all became nuns, making Mabel the sole heiress to her father's lordships and vast estates in England, Wales, and Normandy.

    Her paternal grandfather was Hamon, Sheriff of Kent, and her maternal grandparents were Roger de Montgomery, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Mabel Talvas of Belleme.

    In March 1107, her father died in Normandy, leaving his lordships and estates to Mabel. Her mother married secondly Jean, Sire de Raimes.

    Marriage
    In 1107, Mabel married Robert of Caen, an illegitimate son of King Henry I by his mistress Sybil Corbet. Their marriage is recorded by Orderic Vitalis who also names her parents. He would later become an important figure during the turbulent period in English history known as The Anarchy which occurred in the reign of King Stephen of England. Throughout the civil war, he was a loyal supporter of his half-sister Empress Matilda who would make him the chief commander of her army. He had originally sworn fealty to King Stephen, but after quarrelling with him in 1137, his English and Welsh possessions were forfeited, and thus he joined forces with Matilda.

    Countess of Gloucester
    Mabel brought to her husband, the honours of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales, Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe, Evrecy and Creully in Normandy. By right of his wife, he became the 2nd Lord of Glamorgan, and gained possession of her father's castle of Cardiff in Wales. In August 1122, he was created 1st Earl of Gloucester; henceforth, Mabel was styled as Countess of Gloucester.

    As countess, Mabel exercised a prominent administrative role in the Gloucester lordship. Her political importance was evident when she was made responsible for seeing that her husband upheld his side of the agreement in the treaty he made with Miles de Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford. She also witnessed four of Robert's charters; as well as giving her personal consent for his foundation of the Abbey of Margam, whose endowment came from her own lands. Later, after Robert's death, Mabel assumed control of the honour of Gloucester's Norman lands on behalf of her eldest son William.2,5

Family: Robert de Caen 1st Earl of Gloucester b. c 1090, d. 31 Oct 1147

  • Last Edited: 13 Nov 2016